Now with analysis and technology deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the cases become more difficult to unfold easily revealed and solved. As we know, the DNA is the basic building material throughout one's genetic characteristics. DNA exists in every human cell, and all cells have the same DNA with each other. For example, DNA that exist in the skin cells together with the DNA found in blood cells and DNA in hair cells and so forth. In addition, DNA is unique, ie every person's DNA is different from the DNA of another person. Because this is the nature of DNA can be used as a marker of individual identity, lineage, and ethnicity. DNA found in blood, skin cells, muscle, brain cells, bones, teeth, hair, saliva, heart, mucous, urine, and in all human cells.
Human DNA analysis aims to knows character a person's DNA to identify the composition of its DNA. DNA evidence can be derived from biological evidence, either intact or not intact anymore. This is different from the fingerprint analysis which can easily be damaged or lost and the accuracy is highly dependent on their integrity. DNA testing can be done only with the evidence that small amounts of DNA. This is because the use of a technique called Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) or polymerase chain reaction.
How DNA Can Identify a Person
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Every cell in our body contains DNA, a genetic material that programming the performance and activity of cells. Approximately 99.9% of the DNA of each person has some similarities, meaning that only 0.1% of DNA in our bodies that is unique. Each human cell contains three billion base pairs of DNA. The unique DNA of our bodies means that totaled about 0.3 billion. This amount is calculated accurately enough to prove one's identity. In a criminal event, the DNA can be found everywhere. DNA can be found in the blood, hair, skin, saliva or semen of someone. Scientists can then analyze the DNA samples matched with the DNA of the perpetrator or victim.
A DNA molecule contains two strands of chains containing a large number of chemical compounds known as nucleotides are linked to each other with each other to form a double helix. Each nucleotide contains a deoxyribose sugar molecule, phosphate group and nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T) and cytosine (C).
DNA molecules carry the information necessary for protein synthesis and replication. Protein synthesis is a process of production of proteins needed by the cell or virus to the activity and development. Replication is a process to reproduce themselves. In most cellular organisms, including humans, the DNA contained in the chromosomes contained in the cell nucleus.
DNA identification method that is by comparing the DNA fragments with one another is known as DNA fingerprinting or DNA typing. A DNA fingerprint is obtained by extract a DNA sample from body tissue or fluids such as hair, blood or saliva. To reproduce the DNA fragments used method of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). PCR proceeds in a cycle that can produce approximately one billion DNA multiplication of single DNA fragments in just a few hours. Samples were then segmented using enzymes and each segment arranged by size with electrophoresis techniques. Electrophoresis is a method of separation of DNA through the provision of electric currents on the two electrodes so that the DNA will move toward the opposite charges in accordance with their size. Each segment then marked or labeled with a tracer, which will be read on X-ray film The results will be obtained a characteristic black pattern for each DNA. If two different samples give a similar fingerprint pattern it is most likely the two samples come from the same person.
DNA fingerprinting was first developed as a means of identification in 1985. First it was to detect the presence of genetic disease. Gradually, this method was developed in the criminal investigation and forensic science. Punishment against perpetrators of crimes based on evidence of DNA analysis was first performed in the United States in 1988. In a criminal investigation DNA samples obtained from crime scene fingerprint, then the DNA was compared with the DNA of the perpetrator. If it is, then that person is the culprit. DNA analysis in addition to having the advantages it also has several shortcomings, among others: the accuracy of results, costs, and techniques of abuse. The accuracy of DNA fingerprinting can be no doubt remember the DNA fingerprint is not always unique. Recent research confirms that the results of DNA analysis in the laboratory may be different from one lab to another lab. In some places the analysis used does not comply with the uniform testing standards and quality control. Besides, it could have been a mistake in interpreting the data. It is more based on human error. In America alone the FBI has compiled a national database of genetic information, known as the national DNA index system. Data base in this system contains DNA from criminals and evidence found at the scene.
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This technique was invented by a molecular biologist named Kary Mullis that aims to reproduce or amplify DNA, in order to have sufficient amount of DNA to dikomparasi or compared in a test.
The use of DNA in solving a case is done by comparing the DNA of suspects with DNA evidence obtained from crime scenes. The comparison may help find who the actual perpetrators, both in cases of crime and in terms of determining the suicide bombers accurately.
Now, there are several other techniques in DNA testing, including analysis of mitochondrial DNA. This technique has been developed by the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) United States since 2002, after attacks on the twin towers and the Pentagon building. That they develop a database of DNA profiles of various tribes or ethnic groups in the world of forensic data and public data.
The uniqueness of human mitochondrial DNA is that every child has the same mitochondrial DNA with her mother's mitochondrial DNA. Hence, mitochondrial DNA analysis is generally performed to identify the offspring of maternal lineage (maternally linkage), and are often used in tracking missing persons.
It is very important in solving cases with DNA evidence is evidence handling appropriately and in accordance with standard procedures. This is important because identifying, collecting, and storing so as not to be contaminated so it can be avoided mixture of DNA suspect / perpetrator with other DNA.
To avoid contamination of evidence that contains DNA, take a few precautionary principle should be done by people who handle it. Among them wearing gloves, wearing different equipment each handle different evidence, avoid talking, sneezing and coughing in close of evidence, avoid touching your face, nose, and mouth when taking a sample of the evidence, and keep the evidence in order not to damp.
Given the evidence in the form of DNA, can be achieved the goal of solving a case such as proving a crime, which is proving a suspect for the crimes he has done, freeing innocent people from prosecution, to prove the validity of relationships or family ties of a person, identify the person did not recognized as victims of war, studying human populations, and study the hereditary disease.
In addition to the FBI's data as mentioned above, now the police in Britain have used the online database, in which there have been nearly 500,000 genetic profiles that can be compared with evidence found at crime scenes, making it easier for further investigation.
Genetic profiles that contain DNA randomly from British citizens and citizens of other migrants, especially those who have become criminals and their families. DNA evidence not only reveals a criminal case, but also to prove the validity of relationships or family ties.
With the rapidly changing life today, as well as forms and an increasingly diverse criminal motives. Evidence in the form of DNA could be one potential thing that used by law enforcement in solving cases. Developed countries like the United States and the UK with varying levels of criminal threats, including one of them is the threat of terrorism, trying to maximize DNA technology to solve criminal cases, while protecting innocent people against the alleged perpetrators of crimes.
Our country with law enforcement challenge of the higher, also using DNA technology to obtain an assurance of accurate, such as in ensuring the suspected perpetrators of suicide bombing at the JW Marriott and The Ritz-Carlton, namely Dwi Dani Permana and Nana Ichwan Maulana. Team Forensic Laboratory (Labfor) Police Headquarters will still need to take blood samples from the perpetrator parent families to be matching (homologous) DNA, to obtain a scientific certainty. Looking ahead, it is necessary to build a database containing DNA profiles of people of Indonesia from various tribes to facilitate the police in cases of crime and suicide bombers.
Law enforcement is now aided by DNA technology. With the linkage of two things, there have been changes in the definition of criminal responsibility tangggung and many more areas of law that is affected by the presence of this technology. Law enforcement (law enforcement) and justice that is intended to serve and protect society now become a multidisciplinary area, such as molecular biology, biochemistry, medicine, pharmacy, computing technology, police, population, military and so forth.
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The ability of forensic experts in sniff traces of the crime through DNA fingerprint analysis method is a step forward in the process of disclosure of crime in Indonesia. The accuracy of the result that almost reached 100% made of DNA fingerprinting methods a step further than the biometric process (identification using fingerprints, retinal eye, tooth arrangement, the form of a skull and other body parts) which has long used the police for identification. Despite the advantages, the application of DNA fingerprinting is still limited in Indonesia because the funds needed are very expensive and the lack of forensic resources, so that police officials often implement the priority standards for this analysis, priority usually involves the analysis of national cases such as the bombing incident or to pieces of the victim's body has been destroyed, which can not be identified anymore with biometric process.