Response of synthetic and hybrid maize

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Maize (Zea mays L.) belongs to family Poaceae which is the top most ranking cereal in terms of higher grain yield and holds third position in respect of total production following wheat and rice in the world. A pot experiment was laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) with factorial arrangements having four replications. The maize genotypes YH-1850 (Hybrid) and Sahiwal-2002 (Synthetic) were sown under different levels of phosphorous (0, 4, 6, and 8 g SSP pot­-1) or (0, 50, 75, 100 kg P2O5 ha-1). All other recommended practices were kept constant and uniform for all the treatments. Soil analysis was done before sowing of the crop. Data collection was started 15 days after sowing. Growth and yield parameters of crop were recorded by using standard procedures. Maximum leaf area (139.63 cm2), plant height (107.24 cm), No. of grain cob-1 (344.34), 100 grain weight (30.76 g) and grain yield (104.03 g), were recorded in hybrid maize as a result of application of 4 g P2O5 pot-1. However the other levels of phosphorous were also shows maximum results as compare to control.

Maize (Zea mays L.) belongs to family Poaceae which is the top most ranking cereal in terms of higher grain yield and holds third position in respect of total production following wheat and rice in the world. A pot experiment was laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) with factorial arrangements having four replications. The maize genotypes YH-1850 (Hybrid) and Sahiwal-2002 (Synthetic) were sown under different levels of phosphorous (0, 4, 6, and 8 g SSP pot­-1) or (0, 50, 75, 100 kg P2O5 ha-1). All other recommended practices were kept constant and uniform for all the treatments. Soil analysis was done before sowing of the crop. Data collection was started 15 days after sowing. Growth and yield parameters of crop were recorded by using standard procedures. Maximum leaf area (139.63 cm2), plant height (107.24 cm), No. of grain cob-1 (344.34), 100 grain weight (30.76 g) and grain yield (104.03 g), were recorded in hybrid maize as a result of application of 4 g P2O5 pot-1. However the other levels of phosphorous were also shows maximum results as compare to control.

Maize (Zea mays L.) belongs to family Poaceae. It is believed to be originated in southern Mexico or Northern Guatemala. Maize is the top most ranking cereal in terms of higher grain yield and holds third position in respect of total production following wheat and rice in the world. It is a dominant crop in the farming system because it is a staple food crop for most of the rural population as well as fodder for their animals. It is cultivated both in spring and summer season in Punjab as a dual purpose crop (Chaudhry, 1994). It is nutritionally superior as compare with other cereals, as it contains 9.0% protein, 3.4% fat, 1.1% ash, 1.0% starch fiber, 0.30% thiamine, 0.08% riboflavin and 1.9% niacin (Paliwal, 2000). At world level, it is grown on an area of 9622 thousand hectare with an annual average production and yield of 1665 thousand tones and 1730 kg ha-1 respectively (Anonymous, 2000). Maize had its origin in a semi arid region but it is not a reliable crop for growing under dry land conditions with limited or erratic rainfall (Arnon, 1992). In developing countries maize is a major source of income to many farmers (Tagne et al. 2008). In Pakistan, maize occupies third position after wheat and rice and 98% of the crop is grown in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtoon Khaw. Pakistan grows maize on about 1.11 million hectares with annual production of 4.04 million tones of grain and average yield of 3620 thousand ha-1 (Govt. of Pakistan, 2009).

In Pakistan the potential of crop is not being exploited satisfactorily due to many constraints. Such as non availability of seed of improved varieties in judicious use of plant nutrients and sub optimal or super optimal plant population per hectare. Among these, inappropriate nutrients supply is important one. (Nasir, 2000). Maize was one of the first plant species known to photosynthesize by means of C4 pathway, associated with high photosynthetic rates, low CO2 compensation levels, and rapid photosynthate translocation, good adaptation to high temperatures and solar radiation and high water use efficiency (Hatch and Slack, 1970). Phosphorus is second major essential plant nutrient that plays an important role in energy producing processes called phosphorlylation.

Maize is typically fertilized with animal manure at rates that fully cover the phosphorus (P) requirements. On top of that, mineral P fertilizer is side-banded at sowing to overcome potential P deficiency in the early growth stages (Grant et al., 2001). With frequent maize cropping this practice causes accumulation of P in the soil (Withers et al., 2000) and result in a poor overall utilisation efficiency. The necessity for recycling of P in agriculture is pointed out by Neeteson et al. (2006).

Phosphorus is present in every living cell, both plant and animal. There are no substitutes for this element. Phosphorus is often referred to as "The Energizer" for its role in converting the sun's energy into food, fuel, and fiber. Phosphorus plays a key role in photosynthesis, the metabolism of sugars, energy storage and transfer, cell division, cell enlargement, and transfer of genetic information. A 280 Kg corn crop requires 100 pounds of P2O5. Approximately 30% of the total phosphorus is taken up by the plants in the first 50 days. Unlike potassium, phosphorus is required in larger quantities though maturity. Shortly before pollination, corn plants remove over 3 pounds of P2O5 per acre per day.

Adequate phosphorus is necessary for higher yields and improved grain quality. The amount of phosphate fertilizer required is dependent on existing soil test levels. The critical level of phosphorus in the soil is approximately 20 ppm. Yield losses can be severe as the soil P levels drop below 20 ppm.

Its availability is a problem in calcareous soils due to its fixation and conversion into less available forms. Most of the soils in Pakistan are alkaline in nature, affecting the P availability. Efforts are focused on increasing productivity of this crop by growing high yielding new genotype under the most favorable cultural treatment with high nutrient efficiency especially phosphorous. Phosphorous is considered an essential nutrient for plant growth productivity and also constituent of numerous carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds and it is a part of certain co-enzymes (Mengel and Kirkby 1987). Soil phosphorus (P) availability is critical for early growth and development of maize. Soil P also affects root morphological and physiological characteristics that are important for P uptake (Hajabbasi and Schumacher, 1993).

Root growth and development are critical for early P uptake in maize since P is relatively unavailable and immobile in many soils (Barber, 1984). Phosphate compound acts as an energy currency within plants in addition to this vital metabolic role, P is an important structural component of a wide variety of biochemical including nucleic acids which are the building blocks of genes and chromosomes, the essence of heredity. It is the constituent of the cell nucleus and is essential for cell division and for the development of meristematic tissue (Tisdale et al., 1993). Soil fertility survey indicated that phosphate after nitrogen is the most deficient nutrient in Pakistan soils (Memon, 1985). About 80-90% soils from arid and semiarid regions of the world including Pakistan are deficient in phosphorous (Sandar, 1986 ; Memon et al., 1992). Phosphorous is relatively immobile in soil and moves very little from the site of its application. The results are in complex situation as compared with those for other nutrients (Anchor, 1988). Due to the reason efficiency of utilization of P by plant is very low and its recovery is range from 15-25% (Nisar, 1985). Keeping above facts in view the present study was undertaken with the following specific objectives;

Determination of optimum level of phosphorous for higher yield of synthetic and hybrid maize.

Comparison of synthetic and hybrid genotypes of maize for higher yield under D. G. Khan conditions.

To analyze the importance of phosphorous fertilizer on growth and yield of maize.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The proposed research work was conducted in pots at experimental site, College of Agriculture, D. G. Khan. Soil samples were taken before sowing of crop. The analysis report of the experimental soil is given in Table 3.1. There were four levels of Phosphorous and two genotypes (hybrid and synthetic) of Maize. Experiment was laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) with factorial arrangements having four replications. Two maize genotypes Sahiwal-2002 (Synthetic) and YH-1850 (Hybrid) were sown manually in pots having 28 kg sandy loam soil with different levels of phosphorous viz 4 g, 6 g and 8 g P2O5 per pot alongwith control treatment. Plant protection measures were adopted to keep the crop free from pests and disease. All other inputs and practices were kept constant and uniform as recommended i.e. 3.65g urea pot-1 (120 kg N ha-1), 1.68 g SOP pot-1 (60 kg K2O ha-1) and optimum irrigation. Whole P, K and 1/3rd N was applied at the time of sowing and remaining doses of N were top dressed at the time of 2nd and 3rd irrigation respectively. The source of phosphorous was single super phosphate (SSP). Data recording was done 15 days after sowing (DAS). The crop was harvested on first week of June in 2009.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Phosphorus deficiency is a wide spread nutritional constraint to crop production around the globe. Behavior of Phosphorus in the soil and its availability to plant depend on soil conditions, plant species, climate and agronomic practices. Recovery of Phosphorus is low in alkaline and calcareous soils due to reversion to unavailable form (Chaudhry, 1982; Saleem, 1978).

The results reported are an attempt to elucidate the effect of applied Phosphorus fertilizer levels on growth and yield of Hybrid and Synthetic maize. Data with statistical interpretation are discussed in the following pages:

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

1. Germination Percentage (%)

It is an important component which contributes to the maximum number of plants that ultimately increased the final grain yield of a crop. Different phosphorous levels were significant effect on maize yield. Analysis of variance reveals that varieties had non significant effect on germination percentage but treatments had significant effect on germination percentage. Interaction effect between cultivar and phosphorous level was also non- significant. The maximum germination (97.25%) was counted in those pots where 4 gm P2O5 was applied (T2). However the pots where 6 and 8 gm phosphorous was added gave similar results. The minimum germination (92%) was counted where no phosphorous was applied (T1). Both synthetic and hybrid cultivar showed similar results in case of germination. The variety which shows maximum germination that was lead to the maximum grain yield.

There was no substantial improvement in the germination count with varying phosphorous levels and the differences were not large enough to reach the level of significance. This indicated that during germination seeds did not depends upon external nutrition much and used their own reserved for growth of seedlings. These results are in accordance with those of Akhtar et al. (1996) who reported that addition of phosphorous enhances germination count per unit area.

2. Leaf Area (cm2)

Leaf area is the main physiological determinant of crop yield. Leaf area is a valuable index in identifying maize growth and development. It shows the photosynthetic efficiency of plant canopy. The results related to leaf area of maize as affected by different levels of P2O5 are depicted in table 4.2 which clearly shows that P2O5 has non-significant effect on leaf area of Maize, while Hybrid shows more leaf area as compare with Synthetic cultivar. Interactions between these two factors were also non-significant.

The maximum leaf area (139.63 cm2) was observed in those pots where 4 g P2O5 (T2) was used, However leaf area was also statistical similar with that of pots where 6 g P2O5 per pot 139.59 cm2) and 8 g P2O5 per pot (T4) were applied (137.8 cm2). Minimum leaf area was recorded in case of control treatment (T1).

The data were clearly showed that hybrid gained maximum leaf area over synthetic. This might be due to faster growth rate of hybrid as compare to synthetic. These results are in conformity to Bakhsh (1997) and Nawab et al. (1999) who reported that the leaf area increased in Hybrid maize as a result of phosphorous application.

3. Number of leaves plant-1

Leaf greatly affects photosynthetic capacity, dry matter production and allocation in plants. Death of leaves as a result of limits dry matter production and allocation in plants. More leaves are retained on the plants by delaying senescence, dry matter production may be maintained for a longer period leading to higher grain yield. Analysis of variance reveals that cultivar had non significant effect on number of leaves plant-1 but phosphorous levels had significant effect on number of leaves plant-1. Interaction effect between cultivar and phosphorous levels was also non-significant. The maximum number of leaves per plant (29.375) was observed in those pots where 4 gm P2O5 was applied. However the pots where 6 and 8 gm phosphorous was added gave similar results. Both Synthetic and Hybrid cultivar showed similar results in case of number of leaf area. The minimum number of leaves per plant (23.625) was observed in those pots where no phosphorus was applied.

Maximum number of leaves per plant as a result of phosphorous application might be the availability of more energy for the development of new leaf as compare with control treatment.

4. Plant Height (cm)

Balanced plant nutrition ensures good plant height. Analysis of variance reveals that cultivars and phosphorus levels had significant effect on plant height. While interaction effect between cultivar and phosphorous levels were non-significant.

The maximum plant height (107.24 cm) was recorded in those pots where 4 gm P2O5 was applied. The minimum plant height (78.23 cm) was recorded in those pots where no phosphorous was applied. The results related to plant height of maize as affected by different levels of P2O5 are depicted in Table 4.4 which clearly shows that P2O5 has non-significant effect on plant height of maize while Hybrid shows more plant height as compare with Synthetic.

Increase in plant height as compared to control treatment might have been due to the fact that phosphorus stimulates root development and growth in the seedling stage and thereby helps to establish the seedling quickly. In case of phosphorus deficiency, plant growth and stem remained stunted.

The results are supported by the work of Alam et al. (1999) and Aulakh et al. (2003) who reported that the effect of different phosphorus levels on plant height of maize was significant. Arya and Singh (2001) and Bakhsh (1997) who reported that plant height increased with increased level of phosphorus.

5. Stem Diameter (cm2)

Stem diameter is significantly and positively correlated with cob diameter, 1000 grain weight, number of grain per cob and yield. Analysis of variance reveals that cultivar had significant effect on stem diameter but phosphorous levels had non-significant effect on stem diameter. Interaction effect between cultivars and phosphorous levels was also non-significant.

The maximum stem diameter (6.02 cm2) was observed in those pots where 4 gm P2O5 was applied (T2). However the pots where 6 and 8 gm phosphorous was added gave similar results. The minimum stem diameter (4.87 cm2) was observed in those pots where no phosphorous was applied (T1). The results related to stem diameter of maize as affected by different levels of P2O5 are depicted in Table 4.5 which clearly shows that P2O5 has non-significant effect on stem diameter of maize while Hybrid shows more stem diameter as compare with Synthetic.

6. Cob Length (cm)

Cob length is an important yield component of maize crop. Analysis of variance reveals that cultivar had non significant effect on cob length, but phosphorous levels had significant effect on cob length. Interaction effect between cultivar and phosphorous levels were also non-significant.

The maximum cob length (14.357 cm) was obtained in those pots where 4 gm P2O5 was applied. However the pots where 6 and 8 gm phosphorous was added gave similar results. The minimum cob length (10.4 cm) was obtained in pots where no phosphorous was applied. Both Synthetic (12.28 cm) and Hybrid (12.78 cm) cultivar showed similar results in case of cob length.

These results are in line with Sharma and Adamu (1984) who reported that number of cobs, weight of cobs and grain weight per cob were highest at lowest plant population. These results are also in conformity with Allessi and Power (1974) who reported that cob length increased with optimum level of phosphorous.

7. Grain Rows Cob-1

The maximum grain rows cob-1 that leads to the maximum grain yield of maize crop which ultimately affect the final grain yield. Analysis of variance reveals that cultivar and different phosphorous levels had significant effect on grain rows cob-1. Interaction effect between cultivar and phosphorous levels was non-significant.

The maximum grain rows cob-1 (14.01) was observed in those pots where 4 gm P2O5 (T2) was applied. However the pots where 6 and 8 gm phosphorous was added gave similar results.

The minimum grain rows cob-1 (9.86) was observed in those pots where no phosphorous was applied (T1). The results related to grain rows cob-1 of of Synthetic and Hybrid maize as affected by different levels of P2O5 are depicted in Table 4.7 which clearly shows that grain rows cob-1 of maize in case of Hybrid was more as compare with Synthetic cultivar.

Minimum number of grain rows per cob was recorded in those pots where P2O5 was not applied. This was possibly due to less availability of nutrients and water stress per unit area that results less partitioning of photosynthates to the cob.

Similar results have been reported by Roy and Biswas and Tetio Kargho and Gardner who reported that the number of grains rows was significantly affected by maize hybrids.

8. Number of Grain Cob-1

Analysis of variance reveals that cultivar had non-significant effect on number of grain cob-1, but phosphorous levels had significant effect on number of grain cob-1. Interaction effect between cultivar and different phosphorous levels was non-significant. The maximum number of grain cob-1 (344.34) was observed in those pots where 4 gm P2O5 was applied (T2). However the pots where 6 and 8 gm phosphorous was added gave similar results. The minimum number of grain cob-1 (262.73) was observed in those pots where no phosphorous was applied (T1). Both Synthetic and Hybrid cultivar showed similar results in case of number of grain cob-1.

More number of grains cob-1 in treatment where 4 gm P2O5 was applied could be due to an advantage optimum dose of P2O5 where they were more readily accessed by the crop plants.

Do not agree with Arain et al (1989) who reported that plant height, number of grains cob-1 and yield of all genotypes increased with increase in N and P doses.

9. Grain Weight Cob-1

It is an important parameter that tells the final grain yield of a crop. Analysis of variance reveals that cultivar had significant effect on grain weight but different phosphorous levels had non-significant effect on grain weight. While interaction effect between cultivar and phosphorous levels was also non-significant.

The maximum grain weight cob-1 (104.03 g) was observed in those pots where 4 gm P2O5 was applied (T2). However the pots where 6 and 8 gm P2O5 was added gave similar results. The minimum grain weight cob-1 (65.6 g) was observed in those pots where no phosphorous was applied (T1). Both Synthetic and Hybrid cultivar showed similar results in case of grain weight cob-1.

The maximum grain weight per cob in pots where 4 gm P2O5 was applied might be due to increase in leaf area and more number of leaves per plant. The other reason might be due to the availability of optimum nutrients levels to maize plant.

10. 100-Grain weight (g)

The development of seed is expressed in term of 100 seed weigh. It is influenced by photosynthetic activity of crop plants, the climatic conditions and crop management practices. Weight per 100 grain is a king pin in the formulation of final seed yield of maize.

Analysis of variance reveals that cultivar had non-significant effect on 100 grain weight, but phosphorous levels had significant effect on 100 grain weight. Interaction effect between cultivar and phosphorous levels was non significant.

The maximum 100 grain weight (30.76 gm) was observed in those pots where 6 gm P2O5 was applied (T3). However the pots where 4, 6 and 8 gm phosphorous was added gave similar results. The minimum 100 grain weight (24.98 gm) was observed in those pots where no phosphorous was applied (T1). Both Synthetic and Hybrid cultivar showed similar results in case of 100- grain weight.

Heaviest grain weight produced as a result of 6 gm P2O5 appear to be quite logical as the crop fully utilized the applied fertilizer that provides more energy which is utilized for producing more photosynthates that ultimately increase grain size.

Hassain (1976) who reported that plant height and 1000 grain weight increased significantly with the increased application of nitrogen and phosphorus.

Phosphorus stimulate the flowering, fruit setting, seed formation and development of roots which will result in more nutrient uptake (Das, 2004). Phosphorus is present in seeds and fruits in large quantities and is essential for seed formation (Rashid and Memon, 2001).

11. Economic Yield (g)

Economic yield is a function of the cumulative effect of various yield components like number of plant per pot, number of grain per cob, cob size and 1000 grain weight produced under the influence of particular set of environmental conditional.

Analysis of variance reveals that cultivar had non-significant effect on economic yield, but phosphorous levels had significant effect on economic yield. Interaction effect between cultivar and phosphorous levels was non-significant.

The maximum economic yield (104.204 g) was observed in those pots where 4 gm P2O5 was applied. However the pots where 6 and 8 gm phosphorous was added gave similar results. The minimum economic yield (65.835 g) was observed in those pots where no phosphorous was applied. Both Synthetic and Hybrid cultivar showed similar results in case of economic yield.

12. Biological Yield (g)

Biological yield is the total biomass produces by a crop from a unit area. This is made up of yield components such as number of tillers per unit area, plant height, leaf area number of grains per cob and grain weight (Qadir, 2000).

Analysis of variance reveals that cultivar and phosphorous levels had significant effect on biological yield. Interaction effect between cultivar and phosphorous levels was non-significant.

The maximum biological yield (1946.04 g) was observed in those pots where 6 gm P2O5 was applied. However the pots where 4 and 6 gm phosphorous was added gave similar results The minimum biological yield (1769.77 g) was observed in those pots where no phosphorous was applied. The results related to biological yield of maize as affected by different levels of P2O5 are depicted in Table 4.12 which Hybrid shows more biological yield as compare to Synthetic cultivar.

13. Harvest Index (%)

The physiological efficiency of a crop to convert dry matter into economic yield is determined by the harvest index. Application of different levels of P in maize seed enhances seed germination, vegetative growth, root development and also enhances final grain yield and total biomass production. The increase in the final grain yield and biological yield is attributed to increase in harvest index.

Analysis of variance reveals that cultivar and phosphorous levels had significant effect on harvest index. Interaction effect between cultivar and phosphorous levels were non significant.

The maximum harvest index (5.45 %) was observed in those pots where 4 gm phosphorous was applied. However the pots where 4, 6 and 8 gm phosphorous was added gave similar results. The minimum harvest index (3.78 %) was observed in those pots where no phosphorous was applied. The results related to harvest index of maize as affected by different levels of P2O5 are depicted in Table 4.13 which clearly shows that Synthetic shows more harvest index as compare to Hybrid cultivar.

The maximum harvest index as a result of application of 4 g P2O5 per pot may be due to relatively greater supply of nutrient to maize plant, which encourages the growth of maize plant relatively in more harvest index.

SUMMARY

The present study was conducted at Research Area, College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan during Spring (Zaid Rabi) season 2009. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design having factorial arrangements with four replication. The approved maize genotypes Sahiwal-2002 and YH-1850 were sown on 11th February, 2009. Nitrogen and potash @ 3.65 and 1.68 g per pot respectively were used as Urea (46% N) and Sulphate of Potash (SOP=50% K2O) respectively. The source of phosphorus @ 0, 4, 6, 8 g P2O5 per pot was used. Whole P, K and 1/3rd N was applied at the time of sowing and remaining doses of N were top dressed at the time of 2nd and 3rd irrigation respectively. All other recommended practices were kept constant and uniform for all the treatments. Soil analysis was done before sowing of the crop. Data collection was started 15 days after sowing. Growth and yield parameters of crop were recorded by using standard procedures. The crop was harvested on 7 June, 2009 at full maturity.

Significant differences in germination (%age), plant height (cm), number of leaves plant-1, grain row cob-1, cob length (cm), economic yield (g), 100 grain weight (g) and biological yield (g) were observed as result of different phosphorous levels.

The data of all the parameters were collected with the interval of 15 days after sowing.

Maximum benefits in the form of biological yield and final grain yield were observed when P was applied 4 g SSP per pot or 50 P2O5 Kg ha-1.

Conclusions

It is concluded from the present study that phosphorus application @ 4 g SSP per pot or 50 P2O5 Kg ha-1, the maize seed gave the best grain yield.

Recommendations

It is suggested that phosphorus levels should be applied 4 g SSP per pot or 50 P2O5 Kg ha-1 the seed to get maximum benefit from maize crop under the agro ecological conditions of Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan.

Table 1: Response of synthetic and hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) to different levels of phosphatic fertilizers

Fertilizer levels

Germination %age

Leaf Area (cm)

No. of leaves plant-1

Plant height (cm)

Stem diameter (cm2)

Cob length (cm)

Seed row cob-1

No. of grains cob-1

Grain weight

(g)

100 grain weight

(g)

Economic yield

(g)

Bioogical yield

(g)

Harvest index

(%)

Phosphorus Levels

T1 (Control )

0 Kg P2O5 ha-1

92

c

136.09

b

23.62 c

78.23

d

4.87

c

10.4

c

9.86

c

262.73

c

65.6

c

24.98

b

65.83

c

1769.77

b

3.78

b

T2 (4 g pot-1)

50 Kg P2O5 ha-1

97.25

a

139.63 a

29.37 a

107.24 a

6.02

a

14.35 a

14.01 a

344.34 a

104.03 a

30.23

a

104.2

a

1942.53 a

5.45

a

T3 (6 g pot-1)

75 Kg P2O5 ha-1

95

b

139.59 a

26.75 b

95.5

b

5.52

b

12.91 b

12.25 b

308.75 b

94.92

b

30.76

a

95.03

b

1946.04 a

5

a

T4 (8 g pot-1)

100 Kg P2O5 ha-1

94.5

b

137.08 ab

25.62 b

90.64 c

5.65

b

12.46 b

11.92 b

305.98 b

91.42

b

29.96

a

91.55

b

1784.72 b

5.26

a

Varieties

V1 (YH-1850)

95

a

141.39 a

26.81 a

94.73 a

6.18

a

12.78 a

12.41 a

304.51 a

89.98

a

29.37

a

90.09

a

2116.43 a

4.24

b

V2 (Sahiwal-2002)

94.37

a

134.79 b

25.87 a

91.07 b

4.85

b

12.28 a

11.61 b

306.40 a

88

a

28.59

a

88.22

a

1605.09 b

5.5

a

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