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Plankton Population Seasonal Changes

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Phytoplanktons Diversity in a Irrigation Cum Fish Culture Reservoir

  • PRAVEEN OJHA

 

Abstract

Sixty-one genera of phytoplankton’s were recorded out of which; twenty-nine genera of Chlorophyceae, twenty-one genera of Basillariophyceae, nine genera of Cyanophyceae and two genera of Dinophyceae are found at Barnoo reservoir. The present paper deals with the study of the seasonal changes in phytoplankton population. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytoplanktons were carried out during the year 2001-2003.

Key words: Barnoo reservoir, phytoplankton’s, qualitative and quantitative.

Introduction

Phytoplanktons are universally distributed free floating minute natural inhabitants of aquatic ecosystem. They are the primary producers and constitute the very base of string of the food chain in all aquatic environments. The factors, which account for the seasonal variation of phytoplanktons are sunshine, water temperature, pH etc. Year to year fluctuation in phytoplankton quality is a general phenomenon in freshwater impoundment. Many workers such as Rao (1976), Singh et al. (1980), Ramkrishniah et al. (1982), Methew (1985), Adoni et al. (1985), Zafar (1986), Khatri (1987a), Sugunan (1998, 1991) Pulle and Khan (2003), have published their work on variation of phytoplantkons in reservoir. The present investigation has been undertaken to study the seasonal changes in phytoplanktons diversity in Barnoo reservoir during the year 2001-2003.

Material and Methods

Barnoo: a small irrigation reservoir of 75.6 ha water area is constructed on Barni river. It is situated at Sihora Tehsil of Jablapur district (M.P.). Location of the reservoir is at the longitude 80o7’ 0”E and latitude 23o20’50”N. It was completed in the year 1966 – 67 with a view to irrigate 2137 ha land of 15 villages of Sihora block. As far as concern with the fisheries point of view it is controlled by a co-operative fisheries society. The water sample for seasonal qualitative and quantitative evaluation of phytoplanktons was collected from the reservoir for two consecutive years from 2001-2002 and 2002-2003. 50 lit. of water sample were passed out from plankton nets and filtered collected in the graduated tube of 25 ml of concentrated samples and kept in 5% formaline for further analysis. The genera of phytoplankton were identified through Needham and Needham (1962), Ward and Whipple (1956) and APHA(1998). Phytoplankton was counted by drop count method and the results were converted to organism l-1 of water.

Results and discussion

Seasonal diversity in total number and percentage of phytoplanktons were represented in table -1 and 2. In table -3 represent phytoplanktons diversity in different seasons while in table -4 showed dominance group of phytoplanktons abundance in different seasons at Barnoo reservoir.

The reservoirs in India exhibit moderate to very rich abundance of plankton, regulated largely by the seasonal variation in biotic factors (Jha, 2003). In the present communication in Barnoo reservoir among phytoplanktons Basillariophyceae (diatoms) (ranges 38.75 – 71.08%) was the dominant group during the year 2001-2002 followed by Chlorophyceae (16.06 – 45.77%), Cyanophyceae (12.59 – 12.86%) and Dinophyceae (0.53 – 2.89%) (Table-1& 2). In the year 2002-2003, Basillariophyceae dominated in summer and monsoon season while Chlorophyceae dominated in winter season (Table-4). Thus the study conform that the overall performance of Basillariophyceae (Diatoms) represented the most dominant phytoplanktons group in the Barnoo reservoir followed by Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Dinophyceae.

In the present study phytoplanktons occupies an important place in the production dynamics of an aquatic ecosystem. Its fluctuation and abundance is a function of interaction between physical, chemical and biological factors. In fisheries point of views, forms the basis of aquatic productivity being one of the vital components of the fish grazing chain.

Carter (1960) opined that in the tropics the amount of rainfall play a significant role in regulating the various seasonal biological rhythms. Sugunan (1980), have observed that the plankton density fluctuated with the change in inflow and out flow of the reservoir. Natarajan (1976) has been reported a direct relationship in Rihand reservoir between monsoon inflow and plankton density. Arnemo (1965) suggested that fluctuation in plankton’s might be due to the seasonal influence on the food of plankton’s. In Gularia reservoir the proliferation of plankton has been attributed to increase in winter temperature and photoperiodicity (Wishard and Mehrotra, 1988). Sreenivasan (1964) also reported that the production and fluctuation in phytoplanktons population were regulated by temperature, pH, alkalinity, carbon di-oxide and nutrients.

Plankton is an important link in the food chain and seasonal changes in its qualitative and quantitative composition are reflected is the growth of fish. Plankton population on which the whole aquatic life depends directly or indirectly is governed by the interacting of a number of physical, chemical and biological processes. In tropical waters, where the seasonal check to plankton growth is negligible when compared to the peak during winters in the temperate regions the productivity of waters is limited mainly to the availability of nutrients (Beauchamp, 1952).

The factors, which account for the seasonal variation of plankton, are sunshine, water temperature, pH, Nitrate and phosphates. Year to year’s fluctuation in plankton quality is a general phenomenon in fresh water impoundment. During the present investigation qualitatively observed phytoplankton’s were represented in table - 3.

REFERENCES

  1. Adoni, A.D. and A.K. Vaishya, 1985. Phytoplankton productivity seasonal, diel and vertical periodicity in a central Indian reservoir. Proc. Nat, Symp. Pure and Appl. Limnology, (ed) Adoni Sagar, 219-229.
  1. Arnemo. R., 1965. Limnological studies in hyttodamman. 3. Zooplankton. Institute of fresh water research, Drottinghotm, Rep. 46.
  1. Beauchamp, R.S.A., 1952. Introduction In. East. Afr. Fish. Res. Ann. Rep.Part I.
  1. Carter, G.S., 1960. Tropicalclimates and biology. Nature, lond, 127-843.
  1. Jha, B.C., 2003. Fish diversity in small reservoir – issues, threats and conservation needs. Proceedings of NATP Workshop-“Fisheries management in the lentic water system, : Stocking of reservoir with fish seed”. CIFRI, Barackpore (W.B.). 19-20. Feb. 149-158.
  1. Khatri, T.C., 1987a. Seasonal distribution of phytoplankton in Idukki reservoir of Kerala, India. Environ, and Ecol., 5(1) : 71-74.
  1. Methew, P.M., 1985. Seasonal trends in the fluctuations of plankton and pysico chemical factors in a tropical lake (Govindgrash lake M.P.) and their interrelationship. J. Inland fish. Soc. India, 17 (1&2): 1-24.
  1. Natrajan, A.V., 1976. Fish farming in man made lakes. Indian fmg. 26 (6):24-33.
  1. Pulle, J.S. and A.M. Khan,, 2003. Phytoplanktonic study of Isapur Dam water. Eco. Env. & Cons. 9 (3): 403-406.
  1. Rao, K. Madhusudhan,, 1976. Plankton ecology of a fish pond fed by reservoir water at Hyderabad, A.P. J. Inland fish. Soc. India, 8 : 160-162.
  1. Singh, R.K., N.P. Shrivastava and V.R. Desai, ,1980,.Seasonal and diurnal variations in physico-chemical conditions of water and plankton in lotic sector of Rehand reservoir (U.P.).J. Inland fish, Soc. India,12(1):100-111.
  1. Sreenivasan, A., 1964. Hydrobiological study of a tropical impoundment, Bhavanisagar reservoir, Madras state, India for the year 1856-61, Hydrobiologia, 24 (4): 514-539.
  1. Sugunan, V.V.,, 1991. Changes in the phytoplankton species diversity indices due to artificial impoundment in river krishna at Nagarjunasagar. J. Inland fish Soc. India, 23 (1): 64-74.
  1. Sugunan, V.V., 1980, Seasonal fluctuations of plankton of Nagarjunasagar reservoir, A.P., India. J. Inland fish. Soc. India, 12 (1) : 79-91.
  1. Wished, S.K. and S.N. Mehrotra,, 1988. Periodicity and abundance of plankton in Gularia reservoir in relation to certain physico-chemical conditions. J. Inland fish. Soc. India 20 (1): 42-49.
  1. Zafar, A.R.,, 1986. Seasonality of phytoplankton in some South Indian Lakes. Hydrobiologia, 138: 177-188.

Table 1: Seasonal variation of phytoplanktons No. l-1 and percentage (yr. 2001-02)

2001-2002

Summer

Monsoon

Winter

Phytoplanktons group

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Chlorophyceae

1205

37.05

306

16.06

854

45.77

Basillariophyceae

2030

62.42

1354

71.08

723

38.75

Cyanophyceae

-

-

245

12.86

235

12.59

Dinophyceae

17

0.53

-

-

54

2.89

Total

3252

-

1905

-

1866

-

Table 2: Seasonal variation of phytoplanktons No. l-1 and percentage (yr. 2002-03)

2002-2003

Summer

Monsoon

Winter

Phytoplanktons group

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Chlorophyceae

1319

41.67

219

11.83

890

46.9

Basillariophyceae

1751

55.33

1331

71.91

615

32.4

Cyanophyceae

76

2.4

262

14.15

303

15.96

Dinophyceae

19

0.6

39

2.11

90

4.74

Total

3165

-

1851

-

1898

-

Table 3 :Seasonal phytoplanktons diversity in Barnoo reservoir (yr. 2001-02 to 2002-03)

 

Summer

Monsson

Winter

 

Summer

Monsson

Winter

Chlorophyceae

01-02

02-03

01-02

02-03

01-02

02-03

Basillariophyceae

01-02

02-03

01-02

02-03

01-02

02-03

1.

Uronema

-

+

+

+

+

+

1

Cyclotella

+

+

+

+

+

+

2.

Microspora

+

+

+

+

+

+

2

Gyrosigma

+

+

+

+

+

+

3.

Scendesmus

+

+

+

+

+

+

3

Diatoma

-

-

-

-

+

+

4.

Mougeotia

-

+

-

-

+

+

4

Frustulia

-

-

+

+

+

+

5.

Pachycladon

-

-

-

-

+

+

5

Nevicula

+

+

+

+

+

+

6.

Characium

-

-

-

-

+

+

6

Nitzschia

+

+

+

+

+

+

7.

Volvox

-

+

+

+

+

+

7

Synedra

+

+

+

+

+

+

8.

Pediastrum

+

+

+

+

+

+

8

Achnenthes

+

+

+

+

+

+

9.

Treubaria

-

+

-

-

+

+

9

Tabellaria

+

+

-

-

+

+

10.

Oedogonium

+

+

+

+

+

+

10

Gomphonema

+

+

+

+

+

+

11.

Closterium

+

+

+

-

+

+

11

Amphora sps.

+

+

+

-

+

+

12.

Coelospharium

+

+

-

-

-

-

12

Cymbella

+

+

+

+

+

+

13.

Mesotaenium

+

+

-

-

-

-

13

Fragilaria

-

-

-

-

+

+

14.

Staurastrum

+

+

-

-

+

+

14

Asterionella

+

+

+

+

+

+

15.

Stauroneis

+

+

-

-

-

-

15

Pinnularia

+

+

+

+

+

+

16.

Clamydomonas

+

+

+

+

+

+

16

Meridian

+

+

+

+

+

+

17.

Netrium

+

+

+

-

-

-

17

Centronella

-

+

-

-

+

+

18.

Ulothrix

-

+

+

+

-

+

18

Camphyllodiscus

-

-

+

-

+

+

19.

Ankistrodesmus

+

+

+

+

+

+

19

Bacillariaperadoxa

-

+

+

+

+

+

20.

Gonatozygon

+

+

+

+

+

+

20

Diatomella

+

+

-

-

+

+

21.

Gonayaulax

-

+

-

-

+

-

21

Gomphoneis sp.

+

+

+

+

-

-

22.

Tetraspora

-

-

-

-

+

 

Cyanophyceae

           

23.

Protococcus

-

+

-

+

+

+

1

Oscillateria

-

+

+

+

+

+

24.

Phacus

+

+

-

-

-

-

2

Spirulina

-

-

+

-

+

+

25.

Selenastrum

+

+

+

+

+

+

3

Nostoc

-

+

+

-

+

+

26.

Sphaerocystis

+

+

+

+

+

+

4

Gloeocapsa

-

+

+

-

+

+

27.

Sphaeroplea

+

+

+

-

-

-

5

Phormidium

-

-

+

+

+

+

28.

Enteromorpha

+

+

+

+

-

-

6

Synechocystis

-

-

+

-

+

+

29.

Coelastrum

+

+

+

+

+

+

7

Gleotricha

-

+

+

+

+

+

               

8

Anabaena

-

+

+

+

+

+

               

9

Microcystis

-

+

+

+

+

+

               

Dinophyceae

           
               

1

Peridinium

+

+

-

+

+

+

               

2

Glenodinium

+

+

-

+

+

+

Table 4:Seasonal dominating groups of phytoplanktons in the order of abundance in the yr. 2001-2002 to 2002-2003

2001-2002

Chlorophyceae

Bacillariophyceae

Cyanophyceae

Dinophyceae

Summer

2

1

-

3

Monsoon

2

1

3

-

Winter

2

1

3

4

2002-2003

Summer

2

1

3

4

Monsoon

3

1

2

4

Winter

1

2

3

4


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