The threatened species can recover their population if they are provided suitable habitat and conditions in which they can survive. Most biodiversity losses can be directly attributed to habitat loss, and therefore, providing a suitable habitat goes a long way in restoring a species to its natural levels.
A good case study is provided by the dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius). They thrive in deciduous woodland and overgrown hedgerows. They are arboreal and require networks of interlinking low branches to provide aerial highways to food sources (e.g. hazel nuts and honeysuckle). The practice of cutting trees near to ground level and then allowing them to regenerate numerous shoots provided the ideal conditions for dormice. However, this is little practised these days, with the result that large areas of former habitat have become unsuitable for dormice. Recovery therefore hinges on providing suitable areas for the species. Dormice also suffer from competition with an introduced species, the grey squirrel. Both species compete for the food resource of hazel nuts.
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Genetic engineering has made it possible for humans to alter life on earth in a totally unique way. Genetic material can now be transferred between widely separated taxonomic groups. e. g., genes from a fish has been introduced into tomatoes.Â Entirely new species can intentionally or unintentionally be produced. There is no guarantee that all the results will be beneficial or can even be controlled and therefore, strict ethical and scientific norms are needed to be established for such activities.
Nature needs no interference. In particular, the nature is to be properly protected from experimentation, which is immensely harmful to the very existence of the mankind. The adverse results of human activity should not be dumped on the nature. Some activities although directly not related to damaging the nature, still do terrible harm. For example, pollution due to activities done elsewhere can lead to habitat destruction and degradation over long distances. Similarly, both authorized and unauthorized extraction of resources damage nature. The protection against such measures can be provided through strict legislation and their proper implementation. Many countries have enacted laws for protection of the environment in general and biodiversity in particular. The effectiveness of such measures will depend on the presence of a legal framework, which can be effectively enforced.
Probable Questions and Discussion Points
Why biodiversity is important for people?
Give an appropriate definition of 'biodiversity'.
Explain the meanings of genetic, species and ecosystem diversity.
Write a brief outline of the species present in the Earth.
Discuss a general method of estimating the number of species.
What is the basis of biogeographic classification?
India has 10 biogeographic regions. Describe briefly each of the regions mentioning the unique characteristics.
What do you mean by the 'values' of biodiversity?
Civilization is doomed without biodiversity. Explain.
What are consumptive and productive values of biodiversity?
Discuss the non-consumptive value of biodiversity.
Does biodiversity have also some spiritual and ethical values? Discuss.
Enlist the ecosystem values of biodiversity.
Do you know of some option values of the biodiversity around you? Write your answer with a few examples.
Scientific value of biodiversity
Intrinsic value of biodiversity
Economic value of biodiversity
Social value of biodiversity
How can you estimate the economic values of biodiversity?
Write a brief note on the number of known and estimated species in the world.
"Most of the threatened species are land-based, with more than half occurring in forests". Elucidate with reasons.
Do the trees need to be conserved? Write a brief note on the current conservation status.
What are the principal causes behind loss of biodiversity?
What are the different categories of biodiversity data?
Which are the principal agencies that use the global biodiversity data?
Biogeographic areas of the world have been delineated by comparing the species composition of flora and fauna in different parts of the world. Discuss the different areas according to this classification.
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What are the major initiatives for generating and maintaining biodiversity data and information at the global level?
Name some of the important global biodiversity information centers.
Give a brief outline of the major obstacles in collecting biodiversity data.
Describe the different types of vertebrates found on earth.
Is there a latitudinal trend in the distribution of the vertebrates? Explain with a few examples.
Compare and contrast the biodiversities of Polar, Temperate and Tropical regions.
What are the reasons for biodiversity loss in the Asia-Pacific region?
Describe the resources of India that makes it a 'mega-biodiversity' country.
Give a comparison of the floral and faunal species found in India and the world.
What do you mean by an endemic species? Give a brief description of the endemic species of India.
How many mammal and bird species are endemic to India?
'Endemism in the Indian reptilian and amphibian fauna is high.' Justify.
How many endangered faunal species are found in India?
India is home to a large number of endemic plant species. Discuss.
How do you define a biodiversity hotspot?
How many biodiversity hotspots exist in the world? Give their region-wise classification.
Briefly describe the biodiversity hotspots of North and Central America.
Discuss some of the unique features of California Floristic Province.
Describe some features of the exceptionally diverse ecosystems of Caribbean Islands.
Where do you find the Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands? Why the same are famous?
Where is Mesoamerica located? Discuss the characteristics of its ecosystems briefly.
How many biodiversity hotspots are found in South America? Briefly describe the Atlantic Forest hotspot.
Where is Cerrado hotspot? Described its threatened biodiversity.
Why Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests are famous? Discuss its unique plants and animals.
Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena is a hotspot known for its endemic species. Give a brief outline.
The Tropical Andes region is known as the richest and most diverse region on Earth. Justify.
Name the biodiversity hotspots of Europe and Central Asia.
Where is the Caucasus hotspot? Name a few important species found in this hotspot.
Describe the special features of the Irano-Anatolian Hotspot.
Write a brief note on the unique and threatened species of the Mediterranean Basin hotspot.
The Mountains of Central Asia are known as the "roof of the world". What types of species exist in this hotspot?
Which is the best-recognized plant species of the Cape Floristic Region?
Where is the home of the famous 'African violet'?
Describe the climate in the 'Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa' hotspot. Name the countries across which this hotspot exists.
Which are the main threats to the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot?
Describe the plants found in the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot.
'More than 30 of the nearly 200 mammals found in the Ethiopian Highlands are found nowhere else'. Name the biodiversity hotspot involved and describe the mammalian species found in the same.
Guinean Forests of West Africa spread across several countries of Africa. Name the countries.
The Horn of Africa is one of the most degraded hotspots in the world. Why?
Write a brief note about the endangered and endemic plants or animals of the horn of Africa.
What are the specialties of 'Madagascar and Indian Ocean islands' hotspot?
The Madagascar and the Indian Ocean islands are know for the remarkable endemism of the flora and fauna. Discuss
Where is the hotspot 'Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany' located? What are the special features of this hotspot?
The Succulent Karoo, which consists primarily of winter rainfall desert, is one of only two hotspots that are entirely arid. Which is the other arid hotspot? Why Succulent Karoo is famous?
East Melanesian Islands are now a hotspot, basically due to accelerating levels of habitat loss. Describe the features of this hotspot.
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Draw an outline of the Himalaya Hotspot.
Give the spread of the Himalaya Hotspot.
Write an essay on the unique and endangered species of the Himalaya Hotspot.
Discuss the areas under the Indo-Burma hotspot.
The patterns of biological diversity in the Indo-Burma hotspot have resulted from the interaction of topography, past climate changes, soil characteristics, and the patterns of seasonal rainfall. Discuss.
Name a few endemic species of Japan.
What is special about the Mountains of Southwest China hotspot?
Where is New Caledonia hotspot located? Describe its ecosystem.
What are the major threats to the biodiversity in New Zealand?
The Philippines hotspot is made up of thousands of islands. Elaborate.
Show the approximate location of the Polynesia-Micronesia hotspot.
What types of mammals are most common in Polynesia-Micronesia?
Describe very briefly the hotspot of Southwest Australia.
Where is Sundaland hotspot? Why it is described as the world's biologically richest hotspot?
The flora and fauna of Wallacea hotspot are so varied that every island in this hotspot needs secure protected areas to preserve the region's biodiversity. Explain.
The hotspot of Western Ghats and Sri Lanka is very important from the viewpoint of its varied flora and fauna. Discuss.
State the major threats to biodiversity.
Why habitat loss is recognized as one of the major factors threatening biodiversity?
What are the causes of habitat loss? Give some examples.
Describe how habitat loss is threatening the existence of the corals.
Write how habitat loss influences species diversity.
Discuss how climate change is affecting biodiversity.
Suggest some ways to conserve biodiversity.
What do you mean by 'poaching'? Explain the problem with reference to your state.
Why do some people resort to poaching by killing important species?
Describe the problem of poaching with reference to either the Rhino or the Tiger or the Elephant.
Write a brief note on the 'Project Tiger'. Is it successful?
How does the poachers operate?
Discuss some of the means to prevent poaching.
Why there is a conflict between man and animal?
State some of the reasons, which have led to serious man-animal conflicts.
Give some specific examples of man-animal conflict in India.
Describe some of the endemic and endangered species of India
Give a description of at least two threatened species of India.
Where is the pygmy hogs found? Why it is threatened?
Why Asiatic Cheetah is famous for?
Write a brief note on (i) Clouded Leopard, (ii) Bengal Fox, (iii) Asiatic Lion, (v) Snow Leopard, (vi) Lesser Panda, (vii) Sloth Bear, (viii) Jerdon's Palm Civet, (ix) Irrawaddy Dolphin, (x) Ganges River Dolphin, (xi) Khar
What are in situ methods of conserving biodiversity?
How can you conserve biodiversity by ex situ measures?
What role the zoos play in conserving biodiversity?
What do you know about 'biosphere reserve?
Is it possible to restore land modified by men to its previous state? What effects it has on species diversity?
Is it possible to recover threatened species?
What are introduced species?
What role 'genetic modification' can have on biodiversity?
How does pollution affect species biodiversity?