Raw Material And Its Uniqueness Biology Essay


The durian has been acknowledged and obsessive in south-eastern Asia since ancient period, However, the Western world only know about around 600 years. The initial identified European indication on the durian is Longobardi Conti's record, who go to the southeast south-eastern Asia in 15th century.Garcia de Orta described durians in India available in 1563. In 1741, Herbarium Amboinense by the German botanist Georg Bernhard Rumphius was published, given that the most comprehensive and truthful report of durians over a century. The type Durio has a complex categorization that has seen the generalization and accumulation of much variety since it was formed by Rumphius. During the early period of taxonomical study, there has some confusion between soursop and durian (Annona muricata), for these type had spiky green fruit. It is attractive to note down the Malay forename for the soursop was durian Belanda, significance Dutch durian. In 18th century, Weizmann measured the durian to feel right to Castaneda as its fruit was similar to horse chestnut.

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D. zibethinus introduced into Ceylon by Portuguese in the 16th had reintroduced many times. It has been plant in Americas but restricted to botanical gardens. The first seedlings had sent from England (Kew Botanic Gardens) to St. Aromen of Dominica in 1884. The durian has been civilized for centuries at the village level, possibly from the belatedly 18th century, the commercial in south-east though the mid-20th century.

In year of 1949, the British botanist (E. J. H. Corner) published Origin of the Modern Tree and the Durian Theory. His idea is endozoochory (the inducement of animals to transport seeds by their tummy) arise before some other technique of seed spreading, and that ancient antecedent of Durio sort were the initial practitioners of that approach, specially the red durian fruit demonstrate the ancient fruit of blossoming plants.

From the early 1990s, the require for durian in domestic and international organization of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) region has enlarged radically, partly due to the increasing prosperity in Asia.


Durian trees are quite huge, it can rising up to 25-50 metres (80-165 ft) in tallness, depending on variety. The leaves are opposite, evergreen, elliptic of rectangle and 10-18 centimetres (4-7 in) lengthy. The flowers are formed in three to thirty bunch jointly on large brushwood and the chest, each flower having a calyx (sepals) and 5 petals. Durian trees have one to two flowering and fruiting periods per year, while the time of these vary depending on cultivars, region and variety. A characteristic durian tree can allow fruit after four to five years. The durian fruit can hang up from the limb, mature in around three months after pollination. Among the thirty identified type of Durio, so far nine type have been recognized to manufacture fit to be eaten fruits: D. zibethinus, D. graveolens, D. grandiflorus, D. dulcis (red fresed durian), D. kutejensis, D. testudinarum, D. oxleyanus, D. macrantha and D. lowianus. on the other hand, there are many species has never been collected or examine and other species with suitable for eating fruit may exist.

D. zibethinus is the only species commercially sophisticated on a large range and available outside of its local area. Since the species is open-pollinated, it shows substantial variety in aroma and colour, size of flesh and seed, and tree phonology. the variety name, zibethinus refers to the Indian civet. There is incongruity concerning whether this name, present by Linnaeus, refers to civets being so affectionate of the durian that it was use as tease to deceive them, or the smelling of durian like the civet.

Durian flowers are large and soft with numerous nectar, and exude a heavy, sour and indigestible odour. These features are distinctive of flowers which are pollinated by certain variety of bat as they eat nectar and pollen.. According to the research which carry out in Malaysia during 1970s, durians were pollinated nearly completely by cave fruit bats (Eonycteris spelaea). Nevertheless, a more current investigate finished in 1996 indicate that two variety, D. oblongus and D. grandiflorus, were pollinated by spider hunters (Nectariniidae) and the other variety, D. kutejensis, were pollinated through honey bees , birds and bats.ats.


Numerous cultivars (cultivars (clones) of durian fruit have arise in south-eastern Asia in excess of the centuries. They used to grown from seeds with better quality, but are now propagate by layering, marketing, or more commonly, by graft, including flower, coating, lodge, belt or U-grafting on seedling of arbitrary rootstocks. Different cultivars can be well-known to some level by variation in the fruit shape, just like the shape of the spine. Durian customers state preference for precise cultivars, which obtain higher prices in the market.

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There are so many varieties of durian in Malaysia. Sometimes the names are in Chinese, sometimes in Malay, sometimes in code, and sometimes it is from the place that it was grown plus the grade that grow there.

The various variety of durian in Malaysia:

Durian Raja Kunyit - sweet-smelling Durian with sticky soft flesh and special savor

Durian Tawa - syrupy and bitter flavor with soft flesh and yummy

Durian Tracka - scented Durian and good flavor with syrupy and bitter flavor of high value

Durian Hor-Lor - sugary and strong flavor with bulky and dry flesh of high value

Durian Dato Nina - sweet-smelling Durian with muggy chunky flesh and small pit of high class

Durian Udang Merah - syrupy and taste excellent with silky flesh of high value

Durian Mas Selangor - sweet-smelling Durian and good quality savor with chunky and soft flesh and sweetie sweet

Durian Jiuji - syrupy with small pit, syrupy and silky of high feature

Durian Mas Johor - syrupy and excellent aroma with soft flesh and red flesh

Durian No. D-24 - Strong aroma and excellent savor with syrupy and bitter savor with soft flesh

Durian No. D-88 - syrupy and bitter savor with strong aroma and chunky flesh and tasty

Durian No. D-96 - syrupy and excellent aroma with soft flesh and red, bulky flesh

Flavour and odour

The unusual odour has driven a lot of people look for an accurate explanation. Comparisons have been made with the civet, mess fusty vomit and skunk spray. The wide range of descriptions for the smell of durian may have a great covenant to do with the wide inconsistency of durian smell itself. Durians from different species will have appreciably different smell; for example, red durian has a deep caramel flavour with a turpentine smell, though red-fleshed durians emit a smell of roasted almonds. The degree of maturity has enormous result on the flavour as well.

The taste of red flesh durian (sukang) is about similar with other durians just it as sweetish sour compare to others. Others who have tasted sukang describe it having a carrot-like flavour. The odour of this durian is far weaker than other durians.

Ripeness and selection

The durian is prepared to consume when its shell begins to crack. However, the best stage of maturity to be like varies from state to state in Southeast Asia and also by variety. Some species grow very tall, thus only be composed once upon a time they have fall to the land, while most cultivars of D. zibethinus are nearly always scratch from the tree and let it from the tree and allowed to mature while waiting to be sold. Some people prefer their durians reasonably immature, when the clusters within the shell are still crispy in surface and soft in flavour. The favourite for the durian is spongy and heady in smell as probable. In Singapore and Malaysia, most clients prefer the durian to be relatively quite matured and may even hazard allowing the fruit to mature after its shell has broken unwrap on its own. In these circumstances, the flesh become abundantly creamy, slightly alcoholic, the smell well-defined and the flavour highly multifarious.

The different preferences about the maturity among different clients make it tough to subject the general statements about choosing a "good quality" fruit. Durians that fall off the tree continue to mature for around two to four days, but following five or six days would consider it over mature and unpleasant. The common suggestion for a durian consumer in choosing a entire fruit in the market is to look at the quality of the stalk or stalk, which loses wetness as it ages: a big, hard stalk is a symbol of freshness. Dishonest merchants wrap, coat, or remove the stalk altogether. Another frequent suggestion is to shake the fruit and listen for the seeds moving sound, representing that the durian is very mature, and the crush has dried out somewhat.

Selection and storage

The durian fruit is native to Southeast Asia. It is sold in markets all over the Asian world and is also imported in the United States and Europe. People have differences in preferences regarding ripeness, while some like slightly ripened, tart flavoured durians while others might like to cherish over ripened. Usually, ripe fruit that falls off the tree is collected and put to sale. 

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In the store, choose a durian fruit with firm stalk. It is one of the expensive fruit; some of its varieties like D24 (Sultan) is in high demand and commands higher price. The fruit can also be stored in the refrigerator for few days.



Durian is prized for its pulp and is either eaten as a raw fruit or as an ingredient in cakes and ice cream or preserved in a sugar solution and mixer with spices as a relish.(The theory and practice of workplace learning in the adoption of in targeted pest management by tropical fruit growers in Thailand, Barry Elsey and Kittipong Sirichoti.2003) Durian fruit usually used to flavour wide variety of syrupy food just like rose biscuits, ice kachang, traditional Malay candy, dodol, or ice cream, milkshakes, moon cakes, and cappuccino. Pulut Durian is kind of sticky rice cook with coconut milk and served with mature durian. In the Sabah, red durian is served as a side dish as it's fried with onions and chilli. Red-fleshed durian is customarily supplementary to sajur, as kind of Indonesian soup which made from fresh water fish. Tempoyak refers to fermented durian, usually made from lower value durian that is unsuitable for direct consumption. Tempoyak can be eat by cooked or rare, its normally consume with rice, and also be used for cook the curry. Sambal Tempoyak as Sumatran dish prepared by the coconut milk, fermented durian fruit , and a compilation of spicy ingredient known as sambal.

Malaysians make both sweet and salty jam from durian. When durian is mix with onions, vinegar and salt, it is called boder. The durian seeds, that the size almost similar to chestnuts, can be eaten after they are boiled, roasted or fried, with a quality that is similar to yam, but stickier. In Java, the seeds served as confectionery which sliced thin and cooked with sugar.. Shoots and young leaves of the durian are frequently cooked as greens. Sometimes the powder of the burned coat is added to special cakes. The durian flowers' petals are eaten in the Batak state at Indonesia.

Preparation and serving methods

Outer surface of the Durian fruit is fully covered with sharp thorn like spikes, capable of causing cuts; it is therefore, one should be careful while handling it. Cut open the fruit longitudinally the same way you do in Jackfruits to expose underlying creamy yellow pulp. Slice the pulp to remove seeds.

Here are some serving tips:

Durian fruit is used as a flavour base in a wide diversity of sweet provisions such as rose biscuits, ice kachang, traditional Malay candy, dodol and etc.

It is also used in the preparation of ice cream, milkshakes, Yule logs and cappuccino.

Red-fleshed durian is traditionally added to sayu(Indonesian soup cook by fresh water fish).

Ikan brengkes, a a fish cooked in a durian-based sauce, customary in Sumatran islands in Indonesia.

Unripe durians may be cooked as a vegetable in variety of dishes.

Durian seeds which taste similar to jack fruit seeds or yam can be eaten boiled or roasted.

Nutritional and medicinal

DURIAN's Nutrient /Nutrition Facts Summary



Amount per Serving

1 cup, chopped or diced

Daily Recommended Intake


357 Kcal

(Based on a 2000 Calorie Intake; for Adults and Children 4 or More Years of Age)


13  g

20 % of 65g


0  g

0 % of 20g


0  g



0  g



  0  mg

0 % of 300mg 


5  mg

0 % of 2400mg  


  66  g

22 % of 300g 


  9  g

36 % of 25g  


  0  g



4  g 

8 % of 50g Source


  0  µg


Vitamin C

  48  mg

Excellent Source of Vitamin C80 % of 60mg  


15  mg 

  2 % of 1000mg 


1  mg 

Source of Iron6 % of 18mg  

Vitamin E

0  µg 


Vitamin K

0  µg 

  0 % of 80µg  


1  mg  

Excellent Source of Thiamin66.67 % of 1.5mg  


0  mg 

  0 % of 1.7mg 


3  mg  

  15 % of 20mg 

Vitamin B12

  0  µg 

  0 % of 6µg 


1  mg  

  Source of Pantothenate10 % of 10mg 


1059  mg 

Excellent Source of Potassium53 % of 2000mg 


95  mg 

Source of Phosphorus10 % of 1000mg  


73  mg 

  Good Source of Magnesium18 % of 400mg 


1  mg 

% of 15mg 

Vitamin B6

1  mg 

  Excellent Source 50 % of 2mg 

Folic Acid

  0  µg 


"Source of...", "Contains..." At least 5% of the recommended daily intake. 5% 

"Good source...", "High in..." At least 15% 30% 

"Excellent source...", "Very high in...", "Rich in..." At least 25% 50% 

Nutritional Analysis

Good Nutrition

No saturated fat

No cholesterol

Very low in sodium

High in dietary fiber

High in thiamin

High in vitamin B6

Very high in vitamin C

Health Benefits:

Durian fruit contains a high total of sugar, vitamin C, potassium, and the serotoninergic amino acid tryptophan, and is a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat. It is suggested as a excellent resource of raw fats by numerous raw food advocate, while others classify it as a high-glycemic or high-fat food, recommending minimising its consumption.

Cleanses blood, it is found that durian has a filtering characteristic that can separate urine waste from the blood.

Builds muscles Durian contains high level of soft protein which makes it a good muscle builder.

Durian contains high levels of the amino acid tryptophan, known to alleviate anxiety, depression, and insomnia, and create feelings of happiness, by raising levels of serotonin in the brain.

Aphrodisiac durian is found to be a very powerful aphrodisiac for our sexual life.

Fiber that aids in digestion, and washes away impurities accompanied by unhealthy foods.

Magnesium that helps our body absorb calcium, and strengthens bones, and in keeping our heart healthy, and muscle relaxation.

Rich in vitamin B, C and with high iron content. Eating durian is alleged to restore the health of ailing humans and animals. Iron is important for the production of RBC that is important in our immune system and helps in blood oxygenation. Vitamin C for our immunity.

Vitamin B-Complex vitamins are essential for maintaining the nervous system, healthy skin, eyes, hair, mouth, liver, muscle tone in the gastrointestinal tract, supporting immune function, producing energy, and assisting in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Assists in the release of energy from foods.

Carbohydrates for energy. Sulphur, yes even the thing that makes it smell bad has a benefit, it's actually an amino acid in order for the collagen a protein responsible for the protection of our bones in order for them not to have friction and a very excruciating pain.

potassium as we all know potassium is an electrolyte, it is one of the electrolytes responsible for normal acid base balance and normal functions of muscles, nerves and brain and one of the most important component in the conversion of glycogen from bld. sugar.

Has antioxidant that helps to prevent disease.

Durians medicinal and negative effect of consume durian

In Malaysia, a use of the leaves and roots as an antipyretic. The leaf juice applied on the fever patient's head. The most comprehensive explanation of the therapeutic use of durian as medicine for fever as Malay treatment, collected by Burkill and Haniff in 1930. Decoctions of the leaves and fruits are applied to swellings and skin diseases.

Durian Fruit Products, Inc., at New York City produced a product named "Dur-India" as a healthiness food complement, the tablets contained durian and a species of the type of Alliums from India and vitamin E. The corporation promote the complement saying that they offer "further intense healthy energy in groceries structure than any other product the world afford ".

It is beliefs, by Asian communities that the durian fruit to have warming heat that can cause excessive sweating. The customary technique to offset this is to pour water into the fruit's empty shell after the flesh has been eaten and drink it. Another way to cool off the heartiness when eating durian is with mangos teen that is considered having cooling sensation.

It is advisable by the older generation that People who high blood pressure or pregnant women are usually advise not to eat durian.

It heats the body or increases blood pressure; too much intake will make it a precipitating factor for people with hypertension for a worst case scenario. It's also said that intake of durian together with alcohol can result to stroke. (1981, J. R. Croft write in his Bombacaceae: In the handbook of the Flora of Papua New Guinea.)

This goes to show too much of everything is bad, even if durian has many healthful benefits it can still put you in harm's way when you take it too much, everything has a price both good and bad, for durian it's the same story.

Durian fruit is highly nutritious it is not advisable to eat this fruit in excess. Pregnant women or people with high blood pressure are usually advice not to eat durian. The seeds are believed to possess a toxic property that causes shortness of breath.

Because durian contain the fat and of its association with a variety of diseases, coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes, and obesity just to name a few; it is important to recognize that although it is an basic element of a healthy diet, it should be consumed in moderation.

But this also as the compulsory and excellent sources for the people who live at cold weather places because they need more fat to keep their body warm.

Unique red Fleshed durian


Very pretty, orange-red colours durian, with many spines. Flesh is bright red, mildly sweet, and without much odour.

Description: Very large tree growing to 150ft. 

Propagation: By seed.

Native Range: Native to Borneo and parts of peninsular Malaysia.

Known among the Kadazan dusun district as sukang or tabelak, the fruit as well called 'durian hutan'(its scientific name is Durio gravolens), as it is primarily found growing uncultivated in the jungle of Sabah.

Its flesh is thinner and drier compare with sophisticated fruit which is of thicker and creamier quality. The flavour is nearly similar with other durians just it as sweetish sour compare to others. The people who have taste sukang illustrate it having a carrot-like flavour.

The sukang's main desirability is its red-coloured flesh. That's the main thing to makes it be obvious, beside that red-coloured flesh durian also fetch a lower price compare to common fruit. The small-sized fruits, some about the size of a sepak takraw ball, are sold for RM2 to RM3 when they are in season. (Straits Times newspaper, Monday (28/9/2009

Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Environment Datuk Masidi Manjum Sabah)