HACCP is a systematic and documented approach to the identification, assessment and control. This system offers rational approach to control of microbiological hazards to food and focuses on the factors that affect microbiological safety of food. Thus, eliminating the wasteful use of resources.
This concept was developed in 1970s by Pillsbury Company of USA in association with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) for US army to apply zero defects philosophy to food product for astronauts.
HACCP is a preventative system of hazard control. The system when properly applied can be used to control any area or point in the food systems that could contribute to hazardous situation, whether it be from contaminants, pathogenic microorganisms, physical objects, chemicals, raw materials, a process, user directions from the consumer or storage conditions.
Hazard analysis is defined as the identification of sensitive ingredients, sensitive areas, equipments or people, etc. in processing of food from which we can identify the potential critical points that must be monitored to ensure safety of the product.
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Critical point is any point or procedure in a scientific food system where loss of control may result into an unacceptable health risk.
Hazard maybe a biological, chemical or physical property that may cause an unacceptable consumer health risk.
Risk is the likely occurrence of hazard or danger.
The hazard analysis portion of HACCP involves a systematic study of the ingredients, the food product, and the conditions of processing, handling, storage, packaging, distribution and consumer use.
This analysis allowed the identification in the process flow of sensitive areas that might contribute to a hazard. From this information, the Critical Control Points (CCP) in the system that has to be monitored can be determined.
PRINCIPLES OF HACCP
Assess the hazards and risks associated with the growing, harvesting, raw materials, ingredients, processing, manufacturing, distribution, marketing, preparation and consumption of food.
Determine the CCPs required controlling the identified hazards.
Establish the critical limits that must be met at each identified CCP.
Establish procedures to monitor the CCPs.
Establish corrective actions to be taken when there is a deviation identified by monitoring a given CCP.
Establish procedures for verification that the HACCP system is working correctly.
Establish effective record keeping systems that document the whole HACCP plan.
These principles have been given by joint FAO and WHO Codex Commission 1993.
PRODUCTION OF CORNISH PASTIES FROM RAW BEEF AND VEGETABLES
HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH THE RAW MATERIAL AND THE FINISHED PRODUCTS
A number of hazards are associated and responsible for the deterioration in the quality of food or spoilage of the raw materials and finished food product.
Growth and activity of enzymes of the microorganisms.
Insects, pests and rodents.
Action of the enzymes of the plant or animal food.
Some chemical reactions which are not catalyzed by enzymes of the tissues or of the microorganisms.
Physical changes such as those catalyzed by temperature, moisture, oxygen, light, time, freezing, drying, pressure, etc.
Unhygienic physical conditions like polluted irrigation water, etc.
These factors are not isolated in nature. At any one point, many forms of deterioration may take place depending on the food and environmental conditions.
Microorganisms can attack our food resources, as a consequence, leading to alterations in colour, appearance, texture or flavour. Formation of slime, pockets of gases or swelling, soft or mushy texture and development of flavours and odours not associated with the appropriate foods are some common evidences of microbial activity leading to spoilage.
Sometimes the food may not get spoiled and may contain the microorganisms in dormant form providing it all the mediums to survive.
For there growth and activity, microbes require certain optimum conditions of temperature, moisture, ph, food and light.
Food can get spoiled during growth period, after harvesting, during handling, processing and storage by bacteria, yeast, and molds, etc.
These multiply on or in food and are the major cause of food deterioration. They are found everywhere to invade the flesh of animals and plants when there is a break in their skin, etc.
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Various microorganisms which can prove to be hazardous are:-
The human pathogen Escherichia coli O157 which is found on
farms3 and associated with ruminants demonstrates the problems of an organism
that has a highly variable prevalence but is able to maintain itself in the herd, yet
has a transient nature of shedding which appears to be influenced by feeding,
transport and weather.
PRODUCTION FLOW DIAGRAM
GROWING VEGETABLES AND RAISING CATLES ON THE FARM
HARVESTING AND PRE-PROCESSING
TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE TO THE SLAUGHTER HOUSE
TRANSPORTATION TO FACTORIES FOR PROCESSING
SKIN REMOVAL / PEELING
USED FOR MANUFACTURING THE FOOD PRODUCT (CORNISH PASTIES)
PACKAGING AND LABELLING
RESTRAINING / STUNNING
HOOF REMOVAL / SKINNING
TRIMMING AND WASHING
FURTHER MANUFACTURE OF FOOD PRODUCTS FROM RAW BEEF (CORNISH PASTIES)
PREPARED AND DISTRIBUTED
MAJOR CONTROL POINTS AND CONTROL MEASURES APPLYING HACCP PRINCIPLE
HACCP is a team approach and need contribution from many people like food scientist, technologist, production manager, etc.
Food products can get contaminated by biological, chemical or physical contaminants at any point of manufacturing, i.e., during growing, rearing, transportation, storage, processing, packaging, etc.
Raw materials are the major source of contamination as they are exposed to severe conditions during the whole process. But the finished products can also get contaminated if mal-handled or kept in unhygienic conditions with unsuitable environment.
Hence, it is very important to follow the HACCP principles and identify the critical points in the production process and control them in order to make the food safe for consumption.
Therefore, the major critical control points with control measures are:-
During growing vegetables and harvesting them. And also while rearing cattle on the farm.
The soil in which the crops are grown should not be contaminated.
No presence of bacterial pathogens, parasites, viruses or environmental contaminants like pollutants in irrigation water or presence of E.coli in irrigation water.
Inappropriate use of pesticides and other chemicals and in wrong concentrations causing chemical contamination of crops should not be done.
Rodents and pests kept away from the crops.
Appropriate and unsuitable conditions during harvesting of crops like temperature, etc should be maintained.
Providing livestock with hygienic food and water.
The conditions were cattle is kept should be clean.
Keeping diseased animal with healthy animal can cause cross contamination.
Vaccination provided to the animals.
People handling the crops and livestock should be well trained and hygienic.
Enough space to keep the livestock and vegetables.
During transportation and reception of the vegetables and the livestock.
While transportation, the appropriate conditions like optimum temperature, composition of air, space, etc. should be present
The vehicle or the container in which the food and animal is being transported should be disinfected before and after any product has been in there and hygiene should be maintained. The container should not be broken or in contact with any contaminant.
The people who will receive the raw material should be trained enough to check if the raw material is intact and meets the standards set for it quality.
At the slaughter houses and vegetables storage houses.
Hygiene to be maintained near the animals and vegetables to save them from getting infected.
Diseased vegetables and animals should be sorted as soon as possible and kept away from the healthy items.
No lethal treatment should be given to the vegetables or the livestock physical, chemical, biological or microbiological.
Equipments used in storage, washing, peeling, sorting, etc of vegetables and bleeding, skinning, trimming, evisceration, etc of animals should be clean and disinfected.
Different equipments, containers, machines and utensils should be used for different products like different for vegetables and meat, different for treated and untreated food product, etc.
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Blood, fecal matter and other waste products should be removed simultaneously and continuously to maintain cleanliness.
Raw material should not be stressed, adequate water, food and space should be provided to the animals which should be clean and safe to stop any kind of hazard and improve animal welfare.
Staff should be properly trained and involved in the process.
Timely and in-depth supervision is very important.
HACCP should be followed.
During the processing of the Cornish Pasties using the Raw Beef and vegetables. And its storage and packaging.
Meat should be tested for microbial level before and after processing.
There should be continuous flow of products and waste in opposite directions to avoid cross contamination.
Temperature control and the atmospheric condition required to maintain the quality of the food should be maintained.
Raw and processed food should be kept separate.
There should be frequent visual checks on the manufacturing and the working of the staff and the machines by trained professionals like a food technologist and an environmental health officer.
Storage condition for the Cornish pasties should be appropriate so the microorganisms do not grow in it.
The packaging material used should not react with the food product or encourage microbial or chemical hazard.
Labeling and distribution of the food product.
The food label should give all the information about the product which a consumer.
Consumer should be educated about the use and storage of the product like- consumption before use by dates and temperature control while storage, etc.