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As we know that nanotechnology is a new emerging field from last decades and its help to explore a wide range of creation and rapid expansion of Nano medicine or new technologies for scientist. On this basis we can say that Nano medicine is one of these fields which help to motivate a researcher and scientist to work specific parameters in Nano medicines. Here we describe the first question its emerges in our brain what is Nano medicine?
"Nano medicine is the convergence of many disciplines like biology, chemistry, physics, engineering and material sciences or another word we can say that manipulating and controlling things of technology on small scale or preventation of any disease or method on that scale is Nano medicine â€¦(Google book)
Nanotechnology is a rapid innovation technology and we say that the study on Nano scale techniques have opened new avenues for diagnosis and treatment as well as preventation of therapeutic and cardiovascular disease.
Nano technology which introduced new method or techniques that has put into light a view towards future and a clear consequence extending itself more in the field.
Nano medicine is a new research that may produce great breakthrough in applications in the field of medicine such as disease diagnosis, drug delivery and molecular imaging that has been already intensively researched.
There are minute limitations in the use of available drug delivery system as pharmacological agents in disease treatment. This topic discusses the need for nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, their advantages, applications and limitations of such drug delivery systems with the help of Nano medicine into the body with the effect of size, shape on the efficiency and major potential of discover new technologies in future.
Use of nanotechnology in medicine:
Nano medicine in its own gives various applications and various ways in nanotechnology that can be used medically. Actually nanotechnology is the application of Nano biotechnologies to medicine and mostly its application is molecular diagnostic, Nano diagnostics, and improvements in the discovery, design and delivery of drugs, including Nano pharmaceuticals. It will improve biological therapies such as vaccination, cell therapy and gene therapy. Nano technology enables us to manipulate their unusual optoelectronic properties in medical technology. Nanomaterial's like Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT), Quantum dots, Nano wires, and Fullerene etc. are already in use. Due to incredible size and shapes of Nano particles enable them to cross some vital biological barrier like Blood Brain Barrier or BBB. This extraordinary advantage can be used in using Nano materials in delivering drugs in the body. The main problem of traditional drug delivery system is they are quite ineffective in delivering drug in remote part of the body like spinal cord and neural interfaces. Hence we can use Nano carriers in delivering part in those delicate areas and effectively target the effected parts.
DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM:
The process of physical ,chemical and biological components and system changes into the body with the help of delivery or specific or controlled amount of therapeutic agents over a prolonged period and it helps to maintain plasma or tissue at a constant level the whole mechanism or system known as drug delivery .
Drug delivery system is a process to use an ensure to get into the body and reached the specific area where it's needed. The use of Nano sized materials changes the way in which drugs are handled by the body and offers
Opportunities to improve drug delivery.
Conventional DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMs:
Drug delivery system is using last twenty years on many form but Nano technology gives a new dimension from last decades and it helps to explore a new arena of delivery system it helps to penetrate the medicine in different format here we describe some patent or traditional methods of drug delivery system.
Actually drug delivery system is interface b/w body of patients and drugs. Drug delivery system produces various routes of administration systems. It helps drug formulation as well devices used to targeted delivery, proteins, peptides, nanoparticles, and pharmacuticals. Genetics, and facilitate the medicine which include commercial aspects and achievements.
Drug delivery routes:
On the above paragraph we describe the traditional delivery system here we focused on these systems with the help of delivery routes.
Such a manners if we notice historically drugs is introduced in the human body through anatomical routes or targeted and it's intended systematic effects to various organs and disease.
Classification of various methods:
Some classification is down below;
Oral drug delivery:
It is one of the easiest methods of drug administration. The preference is obvious because of wide spread acceptance by patients.and it covers majiority of the drugs available in the market . orally administer drug worth nearly 50 billions dollar of the market. A part from this technique is possible to administer to the patients of different ages and the drug which is delivered orally gives staraight route to the digestive tract and easily fing their way and readily absorbed by the abdominal tract.But
Many drugs in insoluble at the low PH level encountered in digestive tract and may be inactivated in the liver on its way to the systematic circulation.in doing so the drug administer for the patient unable to function accordingly and result majiority of the drug administers in this process are wasted .
Parental drug delivery (injection)
This administration of drug is now used commonly practice in medical of invasive method of drug delivery.
It's commonly used as a rapid onset action.
Predictable and almost complete bioavailability.
Its provide a reliable route of drug administration and its helps that patient who is not able to ingest anything orally.
But the main problem of this delivery system is pain involve during delivering drug it makes the process less acceptable by the wide range of patients .
Transdermal drug delivery:
It's an administration of drug which helps considerable interest in the skin as a site of drugs application. Its provide a convenient route of administration through skin to the systematic circulation for a variety of clinical indication.
It helps as;
Local application formulation e.gs transdermal gel
Drug carrier's e.gs liposome and Nano particles
Transdermal electro transport
Methods of transdermal drug delivery e.gs needle free injections.
Implantation drug delivery system:
Implant drug delivery system is safe and have been used for decades, there are some common safety concern associated with surgery, and use of Nano sized materials changes the way in which drugs are handled by the body and offers opportunities to improve drug delivery.
This delivery system need to be filled and then refilled regularly to maintain pain control.
Nano medicine applications and drug delivery system:
Major applications areas of Nano medicine holds or cover imaging and therapeutic disease like cancer therapy. After studied of several researches have been carried out in various areas such as peptides and protiens, gene therapy and vaccination, tissue imaging or production of devices for administration of drugs.
Mostly Nano carriers, including nanoparticles, liposomes and micelles, may be used for drugs allowing their protection from degradation, targeting to desired organs or tissues and the reduction of side effects.
Here we described methods of delivery and its effect with size and shape and efficiency act of Nano medicine.
Nano medicine in cancer therapies:
Nanotechnology is the power to diagnosed radically cancer imaged and treated .now a days lots of research is going on to design a nano devices and its capable of detecting or diagnosed cancer on early stages its easily locate the specific area with in the body and delivering anticancer drug specifically to malignant cells.
At nanoscale device is smaller than nano meters can easily enter most cells and that device readily interface with biomolecule can transit out of blood vessels .
Devices its used in this field its also proved early they can deliver theruputic agents to target cells its capable of holding ten and thousands of small molecule such as contrast drugs.
The major areas in which nanomedicine is being developed in cancer include:
Prevention and control.
Developing nanoscale devices to deliver cancer prevention agents anddesigning multicomponent anticancer vaccines.
Early detection and proteomics.
Developing "smart" collection platforms for simultaneous mass analysis of cancer-associated markers.
Designing targeted contrast agents that improve the resolution of cancer to a single cell.
Creating therapeutic devices that can control the release of cancerfighting drugs and optimally deliver medications.
Enhanced the method of diagnostic:
Nanotechnology give us a new hope with its device which it used at nanoscale to provide a rapid and sensitive detection of cancer related molecules by enabling molecular changes and its allowed earlt detection of cancer and this phenomena or steps improving cancer treatment.
Nanotechnology reduced of screening tool which means that many of test can run on single device.
Its make cancer screening faster and more efficient.
Using nanowires in drug delivery :
Nanowires by nature have incredible properties of selectivity and specificity.
Nanowires can be engineered to sense and pick up molecular markers of cancer cells. By laying down nanowires across a microfluidic channel and allowing cells or particles to flow through it.
The wires can detect the presence of genes and relay the information via electrical connections to doctors and researchers. This technology can help pinpoint the changes in the genetics of cancer.
Nanowires can be coated with a probe such as an antibody that binds to a target protein.
Proteins that bind to the antibody will change the nanowire's electrical conductance and this can be nanowire bears a different antibody or oligonucleotide, a short stretch of DNA that can be used to recognize specific RNA sequences. They have begun testing the chip on proteins secreted by cancer cells.
A part from this nano wires can easily penetrate throw the cell membrane and can effectively target nucleus. We can further modified it to target DNA strain and modify it what so ever .
Nano wires are also proven effective for delivering drug straight into the CNS or central nervous system and it can effectively deliver the drug to the affected area and image the damage part as well.
Using quantum dots for delivering drugs :
in this case magnetic particles are irradiated with an oscillating magnetic field , they absorb energy from the electromagnetic wave and heat up. The temperature enhancement that occurs in a magnetic nanoparticles system under this influence has found application in for e.gs hardening of adhesive, thermosensitive polymers as well as in biomedicine.
In this case temperature enhancement needed for a special application should be obatained with the smallest possible amount of magnetic nano particles therefore this specific loss power measured in watts per gram of magnetic material must be as high as possible.this is particularly important for application where the target concentration is very low as in the case of antibody targeting of tumours.
USING CARBON NANO TUBES FOR DELIVERING DRUGS:
Carbon nano tube resembles graphene sheet resembled up to form cylinder with different charactersistics and peculiraties depending on the number of concentric cylinder and on the rolling up angle.tha main distinction among single , doubled and multiwalled carbon nano tubes SWCNT,MWCNT.DWCNT, respectively is the presence of different rolling curvatures which confer the metallic or semiconductor charecteristics to the tube .the object are almost monodimensional presenting diameter in the order of nano meters and length up the several microns .improvement in CNT production are still under development since till date every methodology has disadvantages mainly represented by the presence of metallic nano particles and carbencious impurities in the production soot.
Efficiency of nano drug delivery :
For an efficient drug delivery system targeting drugs to the specific area is always the primary aim as well as to release the drug in a controllable manner but in traditional delivery system most of the time the administered drug molecules are often released before reaching the targeted area .this type of early released of drug can cause some adverse side effects by causing damage to the healthy cells .In case of ceramic based drug carier the critical pore grain size is very important which eventually give some extra advantage loading and carruing drug along with the conventional drug delivery system.
The size of this type of carrier ranges from several nano meters to the microns and very high porosity of this kind of carrier enable them to carry enough load of the drug in their matrix .
Ceramic based nano drug delivery has already investigated by the researchers and some of delivery system has already introduced along with the traditional one .
From the extensive clinical trial of this kind of delivery system has been proved very effective in treating cancers .
Apart from this they also used for delivering drug to the CNS and brain because ceramic based nano carriers can potentially cross the blood brain barrier (BBB).
Nano ceramics drugs carrier are also by compitable and their bio distribution capability make them unique drug carrier with exceptionally low toxiclogic effect on the body .
Currently there is a big back throw in terms of morphology with tuneable pore size ranging from two to twenty nano meters it makes the carriers more able to increased their drug loading capacity and encapsulate the drugs until reaching the desired destination . it makes ithe delivery system more effective and acqurate on the other hand ,the biodegradable nature of the carriers enable them to be more effective in diverse conditions.mesophorous silica nano particles is one of the innovative drug carrier that has been developed recently.
In twenty first century we have already made some tremendous achivements in developing new drugs and imaging technologies which have change entire biomedical technology . A part from this ,pharmaceutical technology which is one of the fast growing industry has widely benifited from the recent developmental nano technology .
Nano based drug have enough potential to increase effectiveness of treating wide range of diseases and appreciably reduce the cost of treatment. If you are able to resolve the toxicology issues of nano drug carriers.
We have still need more extensive research on this issue and other related effects like ethical issues . as nano carriers potentially able to break the blood brain barrier, we should know what could be effect that of those carrier on the neuron .