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Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile plant materials, known as essential oils, and other aromatic compounds for the purpose of altering a persons mood, cognitive function or health. (Aromatherapy)
Since some essential oils have confirmed anti-microbial actions, so that it has been suggested they may be useful for the treatment of infectious diseases. (Aromatherapy)
Essential oils can be used in household as some oils act as a natural insect repellent and pesticide. CHYPERLINK "http://www.aromaweb.com/essentialoilsaf/citronella.asp"itronella candles can be used during summer to keep away mosquitoes. The Chinese were one of the first cultures, which use aromatic plants. Their routine concerned with burning incense to create balance and harmony. (Aromatherapy)
Later, the Egyptians created an elementary distillation machine that permitted for the rough extraction of cedar wood oil. (Aromatherapy)
Oils of clove, cinnamon, cedar wood, nutmeg and myrrh were used by the Egyptians to mummify the dead people. Traces of some herbs were discovered in the body when a tomb in the early 20th century was opened. The scent was still obvious. The Egyptians also used mixed oils and herbal measures for medicinal, fragrant, spiritual and cosmetic use. In addition to that, the Egyptians invented the expression perfume, from the Latin word perfumum. An interesting technique that the men used to scent themselves was to put a solid piece of perfume on their heads. As it would slowly melt and coat them in aroma. (Aromatherapy)
Roman Empire was built on the knowledge of the Egyptians and Greeks. Discorides wrote a book "De Materia Medica that described the characteristics of approximately 500 plants. He also reported that Discorides studied distillation. Refined in this period, however, focused on water pumping fragrant flowers and essential oils
During the earlier part of the 20th century, the name of René-Maurice Gattefossé with the use of essential oils for use in their medical care began during the earlier part of a French chemist. Previously, the use of aromatic essential oils in it, but the focus of an accident after his curiosity growing interest in the medicinal use had increased. When his arm was burned bad. Reflexes, a large container of lavender essential oil to it happened near the liquid, plunged into his arm burns. She quickly recovered and no trace has lived next to. (Aromatherapy)
From the late 20th Century and on their way to 21st Century, there is a growing resurgence use more natural products like essential oils for therapeutic, cosmetic and aromatic benefits.(aromatherapy)
The Benefit of an Aromatherapy in Inhaling Essential Oils:
The essential oils are inhaled into the lungs, and psychological and physical effects when inhaled into the lungs, can cause the natural components of the therapeutic effect.( What is Aromatherapy)
Essential oils commonly used in aromatherapy treatment include:
Roman chamomile an anti-inflammatory and analgesic. Used in treating otitis media, skin conditions, menstrual pains, and depression.
Clary sage used to treat oily hair and skin, regulating the menstrual cycle, improving mood, and monitoring high blood pressure.
Lavender used for the treatment of insect bites, burns, respiratory infections, migraine, stress, depression, and insomnia.
Myrtle is a fungicide, disinfectant, and antibacterial it is used to alleviate the symptoms of whooping cough, bronchitis.
Neroli (Citrus oil) used in the treatment of sore throat, insomnia, stress and anxiety.
Sweet orange is used to treat stomach complaints and relieving stress.
Peppermint it relaxes and soothes the stomach muscles and gastrointestinal tract also it has an anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and antimicrobial action.
Rosemary it is used to treat muscular and rheumatic complaints, low blood pressure, gastrointestinal problems, headaches.
Tea tree has a bactericidal, fungicidal, and anti-inflammatory effect.(Paula Ford-Martin)
Thera are some application that used Aromatherapy such as:
Terpinol, Menthol, Thymol, Pine oil
Camphor, Benzoin oil
Some ative constituents in details:
It is anti-infective agent.
IUPAC name: 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one
Chemical class: :Hydrocarbons, Terpenes, Monoterpenes, Norbornanes,Â Bornanes (Camphor - Compound Summary)Â aromatic bicyclic phenol ether.
By the steam distillation of wood, branches and rootstamps of Cinnamonum Camphora; the oil is fractionally distilled under vacuum and yields 50% of crude camphor and 50% of a camphor oil (which contains light terpenes, safrole, cineole, sesquiterpenes, terpineol and sesquiterpene alcohols.)
The camphor oil is separated into many fractions:
One of them is the Brown Camphor oil (20-22% of the decamphorised oil). The major constituent is safrole, which is used as an initial substance for perfume industry. (safrole)
"Camphor is used with m-cresol mixtures in the creams of antiseptic and anti-itching. The capillary gas chromatographic method using FID detection and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol is used as internal standard on a 30 m x 0.32 mm SupelcowaxÂ®-10 column (0.25 Î¼m film) with carrier gas as helium.
The method permits concurrent quantitation of camphor and m-cresol in the presence of o- and p-cresols, calamine and zinc oxide. Overall percent revival (Â± SD, n = 9) of camphor, o-, p- and m-cresol from spiked placebo creams, at a labeled amount of 10 % (w/w) were 96.9 Â± 0.6, 98.2 Â± 0.6, 99.2 Â± 0.5 and 101.0 Â± 0.9%, respectively, and at a labeled amount of 1% were 96.7 Â± 0.6, 97.8 Â± 0.9, 97.8 Â± 0.6, and 100.3 Â± 1.0%. The recovery studies were carried out at Â± 30% of the labeled amounts. Height ratios were obtained (r > 0.999) for camphor, o-, p- and m-cresol with a concentration range of 10-200% of the labeled amount. Linearity (r > 0.999) was also obtained for m-cresol when the relative concentration of o- and p-cresol was varied from 5 to 100% of the m-cresol concentration. The resolution between the 'critical pair' of p- and m-cresol was â‰¥ 1.1. The limit of quantitation was 23 pg for m-cresol and 9.3 pg for camphor using an injection split of 1:50. The repeatability (%RSD) for all compounds were < 2% for peak area and < 1.4% for peak height ratios. This method was successively applied to the assay of camphor and the three cresol isomers". (MirzaÂ .T, TanÂ h. S. I.)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
lsolation and Assay of Camphor-6-exo-Hydroxylase
For the isolation of (+)-camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase
"Tissue cultures were harvested in late growth phase. During the isolation steps, the temperature was retained at 0 to 40 C. The Cells (50 g) were extracted in phosphate buffer (200 mL, 100 mM NaP04, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM DTT) by a glass Ten-Broeck homogenizer. After addition of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (2%, w/v) and kept on ice for 10 min, the large particulate matter was removed by centrifugation (3000 g, 15 min). A further centrifugation step (l0, 000 g, 15 min) the crude enzyme preparation is yielded after that, the light compounds were obtained by ultracentrifugation (195,000 g, 90 min). The pellet containing the microsomes was either resuspended in phosphate assay buffer or immediately frozen under argon and stored at -700C.
The assay for (+)-camphor-6-hydroxylase activity in crude extracts (10,OOOg supematants) and microsomal preparations (195,OOOg pellets) was performed in 10-mL screw-cap culture tubes containing a total volume of 1 mL of 50 m sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) with 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM NADPH, and 10% (v/v) glycerol. The mixture was then chilled on ice, 5 pg of 6-exo-hydroxy camphor was added as carrier. Then the products were extracted with diethyl ether (2 X 1 mL), this extract was dried by passage through a short column of anhydrous MgS04, the eluate was concentrated under NZ, and the products were separated by TLC (0.2-mm silica gel sheets, Kodak) using ether pentane (1:1, v/v) as a solvent. After visualization by exposure to I2 vapor, the zone containing 6-hydroxycamphor (RF = 0.2) was excised, and the radioactivity contained therein was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry (in 10 mL of cocktail consisting of 0.4% [w/v] Omnifluor [New England Nuclear] dissolved in 30% ethanol in toluene) (3H efficiency = 40%)".(Funk, C. Croteau, R)
Pine oil: such as L-pinene:
Class: cyclic terpene alcohols(Oleum Pini, B.P. Oil of Pine)
Iodine or PClHYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorus_trichloride"3 cause aromatization leading to p-cymene(alpha-Pinene)
the chief constituents of oil of pine are l-pinene, l-phellandrene, sylvestrene, dipentene, cadinene, and about 5 to 7 per cent. of bornyl acetate. Not more than 10 per cent. of the oil should distil below 165Â°.
(Oleum Pini, B.P. Oil of Pine)
Oil of pine is obtained by distillation from the fresh leaves of Pinus Pumilio. Specific gravity, 0.865 to 0.870. Optical rotation, -5Â° to -10Â°. An aromatic, brown extract of the fresh leaves of Pinus Pumilio is prepared for use in baths for rheumatism. (Oleum Pini, B.P. Oil of Pine)
"On the components of pine oils using electroantennogram (EAG) techniques. A ratio of each compound was taken after determining the response estimated from the similar quantity of linalool, which was used as a reference substance. Associations were found between chemical structure and activity. In each chemical class, the compounds having an unsaturation pinane compound demonstrated the highest reaction. Activity changes between the cis- and trans-isomers of the same compound and differ in relation to the site of the substituents with compounds having functional groups". ( R.Â F.Â Simpson)
Terpineol is a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol that has been isolated from a variety of sources such as cajuput oil, pine oil, and petitgrain oil .
There are three isomers,alpha-, beta-, and gamma-terpineol, the last two differing only by the location of the double bond. Terpineol is usually a mixture of these isomers with alpha-terpineol as the major constitue
-Terpineol has a pleasant odor similar to lilac and is a common ingredient in perfumes, cosmetics, and flavors.
-Î±-terpineol is one of the two most abundant aroma constituents of lapsang souchong tea; the Î±-terpineol originates in the pine smoke used to dry the tea.
-Although it is naturally occurring, terpineol is commonly manufactured from the more readily available alpha-pinene.
It is an alternative route was demonstrated starting from d-limonene :