Purpose And Types Of Contrast Media Biology Essay


Contrast medium is a substance that is injected into the human body is put through a catheter, or has been to facilitate the production of radiographic images of internal structures that should be difficult for the film produced using x-ray.Media contrast is whether features can not be penetrated by radiation or which can be penetrated by radiasi.Ianya called contrast agents.

The types of contrast agents

Double Contrast

-The use of two types of contrast agents or contrast of two ways on a patient. For example, radio opaque fluid and follow with an air bladder in the Pundit.

Contrast Material

-Just as the contrast agent

 Contrast Medium

- A material used in the process to allow for radiographic images in the internal structure of the body. Also called a contrast agent or contrast material.

Negative Contrast

Non-contrast material as an example of radio-opacity of air and carbon dioxide.

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Contrasting patterns

-The pattern produced by an agent kontras.sebagai example, damage to the bladder.

Positive contrast

-The use of radio opaque contrast is profiled as an example, barium sulfate and the products beriodin.

Contrast triple

The use of contrast media-or three channels on one patient at a




Water-soluble contrast agents

-Agents are used for injection in the vascular system to either the original or the visual organs, or to show the line on the excretory system. Previously, it was found that most of the preparations of iodine are dangerous and can cause damage to the tissue so it should be in an intravenous injection. However, the progress of medical research, the production of water-soluble iodine is not dangerous and it has helped in the process used in myelography.

Reform in the imaging diagnosis and therapy are not only limited to improvements in equipment and techniques but also in terms of "dye" is used. A "dye" or contrast medium is a liquid substance that is used during a radiological examination for the purpose of describing the internal structures or an organ being studied. This is the only way to do so. Contrast medium can be inserted into the body by injection (through a vein, artery or lymphatic), by mouth, or from below, through the anus.

Generally, there are three types of contrast media:

1. Beriodin contrast medium injected. It may also be taken by mouth.

2. Barium sulfate given by mouth or by rectum

3. Gadolinium is injected.

Effective contrast media through one of the following ways. When a contrast medium is injected, contrast medium will make the channels and organs with a good blood supply appear opaque or white when the image is.

Therefore, the examination of angiography, vessels may appear thick or opaque on x-ray is taken. On computerized tomography, vessels and organs with a good blood supply will appear opaque. Contrast medium is then excreted by the kidneys and therefore the Urografi intravenous, urinary system will look at the films opaque x-ray. In this way, the various organs or structures can be viewed and studied.

When the contrast medium is given by mouth in the form of barium meal, the stomach will appear opaque or white on x-ray film. Similarly, when given via the rectum in barium enema, the colon will look more opaque or white on x-ray film. In this way, the colon can be viewed and studied.

Gadolinium is a contrast medium is given in the form of injections during magnetic resonance imaging. Contrast medium serves to make vessels and organs with a good blood supply, it looks white on the MRI images.

Modern intravenous contrast media to be retained by most patients and quickly eliminated by the body without adverse side effects. Iodine-containing contrast medium can cause a feeling of warmth when injected. Sometimes, but unusual, it may cause nausea. Therefore advised not to eat before any radiological examinations requiring contrast media. Rarely, iodine-based contrast media may cause an allergic reaction.

Containing barium sulfate contrast media are not dangerous. Barium will terkumuh out within a day or two. Gadolinium containing contrast medium rarely cause side effects.

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In all cases, the use of contrast media for pregnant women is not advised because of the lack of conclusive evidence about how safe contrast media in pregnancy. However, if this type of examination can save lives, the risks should be weighed again on a case to case.

Intravascular contrast media (through a vein or artery) in Radiology (refers to iodine-containing contrast media)

Patients in dire need of contrast media in radiology examinations because study and several investigations showed that patients in need of radiology contrast into the patient's body through a vein or artery. A common example is Urogram Intravenous. There are two types of contrast media containing iodine, and this is the type of ionic or non ionic.

Usually only the bones, and the wind will be seen on X-ray. To distinguish the path of blood in the urine or blood vessels, contrast media containing iodine to be added to increase the density of urine or blood. Then, this will cause them to look "white" in the film, such as your bones on x-ray.

Inventory and special precautions

If the patient does not have any of the following circumstances, patients are required to fast for (no food or drink) 4-6 hours before the examination.

If a patient shows symptoms, the patient should take precautions, special examination, and recognizes the additional risk:

History of God be§ known


Never had a reaction§ to contrast media

Never had a reaction to§ medication

The§ Heart

§ Multiple myeloma or myelodysplastik syndrome or severe diabetes (please do not reduce your drinking water)

It is§ very old (> 65 years) and very young <6 months>

If the patient has allergies or reactions in the past, patients are advised to take drugs Prednisolone 40 mg 12 hours before and 40 mg, 2 hours before the examination. Inspection requirements should be compared with the risk. The doctor will usually recommend inspection. If patients can not be sure about the risk factors, please tell the doctor to explain more about any allergies or medical conditions.

For patients with Multiple myeloma or myelodysplastik syndrome, patients should drink enough water (to prevent dehydration conditions) even though such examination Urogram Intravenous (IVU).

Type of intravenous contrast used in such patients must often on a non ionic contrast media.

If the patient is a person who has diabetes or is taking Glucophage (Metformin): please stop for 48 hours before the medical examination that requires an intravenous injection of contrast media or intraarteria.


Difficulties or complications that may arise

Although there are explanations on this matter at the bottom, the possibility of a simple reaction to the strong reaction is very low. The doctors of course take into account benefits comparable risk ratios when they propose some kind of inspection for you. It is more likely to cross the street from the checking may help you diagnose the condition more accurately.

Contrast media is like any other drugs you know. In fact, new contrast media are very safe. But like all medications (including drugs commonly taken as Panadol / Paracetamol), contrast media also have the potential for undesirable reactions. It is classified as low, moderate and severe. With non-ionic contrast media, the possibility of reaction that is reduced. Most of the reactions were weak, temporary and require no treatment, and occurred in the first 20 minutes after injection. There are a few reactions "late", which can occur a day or two after the injection.

An example of a reaction to medication, including contrast media:

Weak reaction Category:

Nausea, vomiting, or§ both.

§ Be temper throughout the body (if circumstances after exercise).

Itching is temporary§ or lasting for several days. Antihistamine drugs can be given. Sneezing. Conditions such as flu

Reaction Medium Category:

Trouble breathing (like asthma).§ Treatment is given immediately. Rarely life-threatening condition.

§ Hypotension: Blood pressure fell suddenly - given immediate treatment. Rarely life-threatening condition.

- Category Reactions Severe and Life Threatening (VERY RARE with non-ionic contrast media are new):

- The anaphylactic - severe reaction that can not be expected. (Anaphylactic shock)

Things to do after receiving intravenous contrast media

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- It depends on the procedure performed.

- In general, you are encouraged to drink plenty of water and make sure your body dehydration. Most of the contrast media will come out through urine after 4 hours.

Talk about contrast media

Question: Has any patient to suffer an allergic reaction to liquid Gadolinium, the contrast agent for MRI, and whether it could impact the long term?

Answer: As with other contrast media fluid, it only affects patients with allergies to contrast media or materials beriodin.Kes like this has happened in the year 1969 in which a patient nearly died because of the liquid IVP.Langkah best to avoid such problems This is the patient's own consciousness, patients should tell your doctor or any physician involved if this has any impact alergi.Masalah long time to the same patient because the patient complained of chronic pain in the bones belakang.Setelah health check on the run, it was found that it was caused by contrast media.

Question: What are examples of materials used in contrast media and what is its function?

Answer: The contrast material is a chemical used to improve visualization (visibility) on the internal structures of a diagnostic imaging in medicine.

Contrast material used in the X-ray imaging to improve the X-ray attenuation (positive contrast material) that will be discussed more widely here or lower power X-ray attenuation (negative contrast material with a basis of air or gas). In addition to the contrast material is also used in examining MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), but this method is not based on X-rays, but change the magnetic properties of the hydrogen nucleus absorbs the contrast material. MRI contrast material with such properties is Gadolinium.

Intravenous urography




Intravenous urogram or IVU is better known as one of many tests x-rays to assist in producing an anatomic structure and processes that occur in normal human urinary system with the help of contrast medium injection through saraf.Ini often called intravenous pyelogram (IVP).


- Intravenous urography is an x-ray test in which the excretory system will be reviewed by the liquid method and system of IVU (intravenous urography) for diagnostic purposes.

-From a variety of other ways to get the image of the excretory system, the injection of intravenous contrast agent into the traditionally is considered the best way to excrete fluid and selamat.Ginjal IVU in the urine (the urine). Sinar X will be able to produce images of each structure in through the urine (the urine).

This procedure are many variations and names.

Ø intravenous Pyelography



Ø Antegrade Pyelography distinguish this procedure from "retograde pyelography" in which fluid is injected into the bottom end of the system, so will the process of reversal of the drainage of urine or "retograde. Retograde pyelography is one of the best ways to detect problems occurs at the bottom of the system and it is the only way to generate images using x-rays if there is any problem in the kidney or kidneys can not function properly.

Ø Nephrotomography a difference in the way of taking images where the image is obtained through x-rays sources are constantly moving into the film that is constantly moving in opposite arah.Dengan coordinates the movement of the right, to all but one plane of the surface of tissue that appear blurred, and the plane it would seem that after another without a shadow.

Each of the existing methods to produce high quality images excretory system, the question is which method is most suitable digunakan.Setiap different circumstances or situations that require special needs, while each technique has its own specialty.

Ø nuclear inspection depends on the radiations emitted by several types of specific atoms. Chemicals that contain atoms to be injected into the blood stream these chemicals pesakit.Apabila managed to appear in the kidney, where the resulting image quality depends on the amount of radiation is not dangerous dibebaskan.Radiasi as x-rays commonly used. Images that require intensive training is important so that images can be reviewed and discussed this, they often provide a unique and useful information to help treat pesakit.Oleh, the technology is often used to study the incidence of abnormal perkumuhan.Bahan different chemical systems capable of working with radiation to study the tissue berlainan.Teknik take several days for the chemicals react and focus on the destination dikehendaki.Ianya also requires a special detector to produce an image.

Ø ultrasound or ultrasonic wave is the fastest method, a safe, simple and cheap to obtain images of organs dalaman.Walaupun it can not create the image of any organ of view more clearly, it may be sufficient.

Ø retrograde pyelography is way better and more effective to study the problems or any abnormal activity that occurs at the bottom of the system and is the only way to conduct x-rays if the kidneys can not function normal.Selalunya fluid is injected through the equipment (cytoscope ) penetrate into the bladder through uretera.

Ø Computed tomography scans (CT or CAT scanning) is an examination using the same type of radiation used in x ray examinations, the difference is that the machine collects the information through the computer in a form that can be built as three-dimensional images, remove or prevent interference image of the structure berdekatan.Pemeriksaan CT requires special equipment.

Ø Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is examining the use of magnetic waves and radio frequency signals, rather than using the ionized radiation to produce images of komputer.Bentuk energy as a form of energy is entirely safe as long as patients do not carry or possess any object oriented dijalankan.Teknik pure iron during the inspection to be used in this examination is more when compared with the inspection CT.MRI require special equipment, being powerful magnet is needed, a special building to be constructed for inspection ll it takes a high cost.


Procedures for intravenous Urogram


Patients§ experience pain in the kidneys (the renal)

§ Heamaturia

kidney infection§ recurring


urinary tract§ diseases (urine)



For patients taking§ metaformin

hepato§ renal syndrome

§ Pregnancy


 Patient preparation

Emptying the contents (faeces) in the intestine using a laxative or enema to avoid the shadow of faecal daraipada anatomical structures prevent drainage systems that empty kencing.Perut prevent patients from having complications often spit, vomit, a rare effect caused by contrast agents. Thus, the night before the IVP (intravenous pyelogram) patients asked to empty the contents of the stomach, do not eat dairy products and are advised to drink lots of water is a sequence masak.Berikut patient preparation before the examination.

§ Preparation am a patient, the patient will be given laxative (laxative) within 24 hours prior to inspection, to ensure the volume kumuhan fully excreted.

§ The patient will take a laxative the oral (by mouth) 2-6 hours before the examination.

§ Patients are advised to plenty of runs because in this way can reduce the amount of air into the stomach.

§ Adaptation of patient preparation is required for certain patient groups contahnya-children, people with diabetes and predisposes patients to health controls, in line with current jabtan action.

Patient care

• Treatment to calm the patient through psychological

• The needle wound cleaned and checked the extravasasi

• Check whether the patient understands the procedures to be performed.

• Make sure the patient understands any preparation instructions and when finished.

• accompanied by a copy of the patient into the room.


Films for the control of abdominal

• Radiation Centre should be accurate and are in the upright position (right in the middle of the line L3 of the margin kostal.

• Make sure that the position required to be right in the middle area to make sure the top looks and renal simfisis pubis is also evident in the image

• The process performed while patients hold their breath after being given directions by an x-ray.

Film renal sections

• Centre should be in the direct rays of the center line at a midpoint of the ats and below the renal end.

• Exposure is made on the patients hold their breath on the direction of x-ray interpreters.

Film bladder

• Central ray angled 15 degrees downward and centered on the center line bpada simfisis the pubis and ASIS

Protection from radiation.

• Use the gonad shield made of lead materials, protection of Kings Lyn or 'half apron' when necessary.

Here are the steps IVU examination

The type of film IVU

• Film prelimenari

• Film immediate

• Film 5minit

• Film 10 minutes

• Movie Release

• Film postmicturation

X ray image on the back are the results of each step.


Film preliminary

Size 35x43cm film-used

 Function-To see the patients bowel preparation

               Identification of renal-position

               Exposure-determining factor

               -Looking for any pathology


Film immediate

Size-24x30cm films

Technical - Images taken after injection of contrast media

       - The dose of contrast medium was 50ml, and the image taken immediately after

          injection made


Goal - See opasiti renal system and evaluate the contrast media after his kidney perinkima


              To demonstrate the phase-nefrogram to show the renal parenchyma


Film 5minit

Size-35x30cm films

KUB-image technique after contrast media injection 5minit

Goal - To assess the secretion of contrast media in both renal

               -To see the symmetry in both kidneys

               Indicates system-pelvis


Movies 15 minutes

Size-24x30cm films

         Technical-emphasis tool used to suppress the patient's abdomen

        Kidney-radiograph performed after the pressure for 15 minutes after injection 10minit

          The purpose - to show the system pelvis kalikseal

         -Indicates the density of the pelvis with contrast agent system

         Prevention of contrast media-down to the ureter


Film release

Size-35x43cm films

Technical-KUB radiograph after total removal tool emphasis

The aim-to show the entire urinary tract

              -To see pnegaliran contrast media filling the entire ureter


Film postmicturation

Size-35x43cm films

Technical-issued picture is taken after the urine from the bladder urine

The purpose of contrast media-ensure that the balance remaining in the urinary tract

             -To assess the ability urater and bladder emptying

              Show any abnormal bladder-like tumor

         The way of contrast media injection

Medial vein-injected kubital dangan 19 gouge needle dam is a temperature contrast agents (40 degrees Celsius) in the bill continues.

The purpose of inspections carried IVU

Many diseases that occur in the kidneys, ureters and bladder will respond with a decision that should be accepted after the procedure carried out, which should have two fasa.Pertama all, it requires a functioning kidney to filter the liquid out of the blood and into the urine (urine). The time required for a liquid chemical that is to look at x ray examinations carried out precisely at the time of the second kidney berfungsi.Fasa shows images of anatomical features more jelas.Untuk first few minutes, the liquid chemicals will 'shine' in the kidney, a phase which is called nephrogram.Turutan next picture will show a liquid chemical that will go down through the organ systems of the ureter and urinary bladder kencing.Filem continues to be the last one he took after the patient's bowel and the images will show how well bladder removed.

IVPs is one method of inspection is often carried out in order to detect any structural abnormality or blockage in the urinary drainage ditches kencing.Jika kidneys showed no abnormal reaction Bals, more movies need to record the earliest phases of the process.

• Formation of kidney stones, tumors (tumor) and congenital defect from birth.

• Abnormalities of kidney and the cancer appears.

• Surgery or transfer to the kidney or ureter causing space to infection like cancer for example.

• bladder cancer and other defects as shown by the liquid in the bladder.

• prostate gland enlargement will be shown when the bladder does not empty completely may enforce and there is a bump at the end of the bladder.

Security measures

Only the most important complications of IVP and dangerous, has allergies to iodine-containing fluid will digunakan.Alergi following are rare, but it is very dangerous and can cause anxiety kematian.Tindakan taken quickly usually quite effective.


IVPs dijalnkan usually in the morning, to wear clothes that are available in x-ray department, the patient will remove all clothing and will be in baringakan.Terdapat two ways to inject a chemical into the liquid line badan.Proses intraveneus be conducted, in which the continuous liquid will be put into the body while the other dijalankan.Cara procedure is to provide all of the liquid chemical through the needle at the same time a new issue. X-rays will be taken until the liquid is sampi into the bladder, the presence can be seen within half an hour or kurang.Pesakit will be asked to empty the bladder, bowel dangan before undergoing a final x-rays.

Possible dangers

Effects of allergy to contrast agents are the only hazards that may occur. Anyone with a possible allergic reaction to iodine or before the x-rays must take precautionary measures to address the problem dangan interpreter x-ray.


Urinary tract infection


The most common problems and was treated by doctors. Urinary tract infection may be known as the 'infection' bladder (cystitis) if the bacteria found in the bladder or kidney infection., (Pyelonephritis) if there are bacteria in the kidneys.


• Children who throw water at night.

• Frequent urination.

• Pain and burning sensation when urinating.

• Fever and feeling cold

• Pain or aches in the back below the ribs.


Barium meal (examination after barium sulfate digested by the patient)

Anatomy for the 'barium meal'




Barium meal, better known by a series examining the top of the intestine (upper gastrointestinal series) is a procedure in which the radiographic image of anatomical structures such as the esophagus, stomach (gastric) and duodenal be taken immediately after barium sulfate is digested by pesakit.Pemeriksaan a useful method and assist in the process of diagnosis / review the structure and motility (spontaneous movement of microorganisms without external assistance) are abnormal in the next gut (foregut front-gut of the embryo, which meninmbulkan esophagus, gastric, and part of the small intestine).


Route gastrointestinal (gastrointestinal tract), as other soft tissue structures, it can not be shown clearly enough for diagnostic purposes in the normal radiographs. Barium salt is radio opaque, it will be clearly published on the images radiograf.Jika barium swallow radiograph examination prior to the run, barium remaining in the esophagus, stomach or duodenum would indicate a Lumina (obejek of light) the organs involved. Liquid suspension in the mixture is non-toxic barium, other than a small danger that resulted in disturbances in bowel function for a period of forty-eight hours is equivalent to two days in a row after digestion makanan.Selalunya it has a chalky taste that can be hidden by adding perasa.Proses 'barium meal' usually takes less than one jam.Pesakit be directed to digest in the form of gases such as gentelan (small bullets) and citric acid to develop perut.Selepas, the barium sulphate will be dihadamkan.Pesakit removed or the roll to cover the stomach and esophagus with the needles barium.Sebatang be used to assist in the muscle between the stomach and duodenum to be calm. The next step according to the inventory, inspection of x-rays will be taken. There are two types of 'barium meal' which is separate or double contrast (single and double contrast meals). Contrast 'meal' separate (single contrast meal) only uses the barium, a contrast medium that has the characteristics of radio-opacity (or positive), to generate the image path at the top usus.Kontras 'meal' double (double contrast meal) using barium and the contrast media may be penetrating radiation (or negative) for example air, nitrogen, or carbon dioksida.Kontras 'meal' double (double contrast meal) is more useful as a diagnostic test, demonstration features and allows detection of mucosal lesions mucosa (a zone of tissue with impaired function of the disruption caused by illness or injury) is small as polips.Penggunaan divertikula or barium studies in the diagnostic examination has been rejected in recent years with increasing use of endoscopic examination (examination of the use of extension tubes have yanag at the tip and an optical system for transmitting images to the eye examiner.) that allow direct visual inspection of the suspected problem areas in the esophagus, stomach and duodenum.

Definition of 'barium meal'

'Barium meal' is an investigation carried out to demonstrate the presence of gullet (the muscular tube, about 23 cm in length, which protrude from the pharynx to the gastric), stomach and duodenum (first part of the small intestine). The main reason for this screening method was used disepsia or illness caused by acid digestion (dyspepsia), early signs of suspected ulcer disease and weight loss that can not be explained or pendarahan.Walaupun so, checks were not as effective when compared with endoscopy to detect the source disepsia and weight loss caused by such inspections can only be used in patients who can not receive endoscopic examination.


§ Disepsia

§ Mark the initial ulcer

kidney infection§ recurring


§ rapid weight reduction


This test requires the patient to fast overnight. This test is to evaluate and make detection of the activity that is abnormal in internal organs such as stomach and duodenum. This is a test period of 20 to 30 minutes. Patients are required to swallow some pills or a special liquid before or after drinking some liquid barium. This special pill or liquid releases the gas to expand her stomach. Patients are required to keep this gas in the stomach and not release it (do not sedawa). This is to facilitate the depiction of the stomach. Radiologist there will guide patients to the description of different positions.

Injection into a vein in the hand may be given by the Radiologist. This is to relax the muscles and reduces stomach contractions (peristalsis). However, patients with the abnormal heartbeat, urination due to prostate problems or glaucoma should inform the Radiologist for injection is likely to react under these conditions. Patients may experience blurred view and if it is prolonged until the trial is over, patients are advised not to drive back or use any machine until a clear view. Once again, no need to fret if there are signs of pink or white wax.

Inventories patients

Inventories of patients is one of the procedures to be followed by the patient to ensure that these checks were run only lancar.Salah patients are not allowed to eat or drink six hours before the appointment, the aim is to avoid food or milk-based liquid that causes the resulting image is not clear . However, the medicines and tablets can be taken with significant amounts of water sedikit.Pesakit diabetes sufferers should follow

Additional advice is told in temujanji.Jika no advice or notification is given when an appointment, contact the hospital as soon as possible to avoid undesirable happens.
















Barium (Greek "barys" meaning "heavy") was first identified in 1774 by Carl Scheele and extracted in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy in England. The oxide was at first called barote, by Guyton de Morveau, which was changed by Antoine Lavoisier to baryta, which soon was modified to "barium" to describe the metal.


All water or acid soluble barium compounds are extremely poisonous. Oxidation occurs very easily and, to remain pure, barium should be kept under a petroleum-based fluid (such as kerosene) or other suitable oxygen-free liquids that exclude air. Barium sulfate can be used in medicine only because it does not dissolve, and is eliminated completely from the digestive tract.