Properties Of Extracts From Natural Sources Biology Essay

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Ojeda et al., (2010) studied the ACE inhibitory activity of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa and bio-assay guided fractions of the aqueous extract of the dried calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa using preparative reverse phased HPLC. The in vitro ACE inhibition assay was biological monitor model for the isolated compounds which were characterised by spectrophotometric methods. The competitive ACE inhibition activity of the anthocyanins 1 and 2 (fractions) was reported for the first time. The activity was in good agreement with the folk, medicinal use of Hibiscus sabdariffa as an anti-hypertensive.

Lahogue et al., (2010) evaluated the angiotensin converting enzyme ACE) inhibitory activity of a fish hydrolysate using different methods. Finally a sensitive extraction free HPLC method using FAPGG as substrate was preferred. This method relies on the UV-titration of the peptide FAP resulting from the hydrolysis of the FAPGG after chromatographic separation on a reverse phase column. The investigational conditions (enzyme/substrate ratio, incubation time, NaCl concentration) were optimised for linearity, sensitivity and presision. The assay was sufficient for the study of ACE inhibition by Captopril. The determination of the hill coefficient supported the hypothesis that active peptides present in the fish hydrolysate were low molecular weight molecules.

Jhon et al., (2010) evaluated the properties of two species of edible bamboo shoots in Korea (Phyllostachys pubescens and Phyllostachys nigra). Powdered bamboo shoots were first extracted with methanol and then an aqueous suspension of the methanol extract was partitioned consecutively with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol, leaving residual water extract. All obtained extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity, ACE inhibition activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic compound content. Methanol and water fractions were found to have high ascorbic acid contents where as the ethyl acetate fraction contained a high concentration of phenolic compounds. Among all extracts, the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed high antioxidant activity while methanol extract had significantly higher ACE inhibition activity. None of the extracts were found to have antimicrobial activity.

Jain et al., (2009) studied, the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Apium graveolens L. (celery) seeds against Di-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Oral administration of DEHP (1000 mg/kg b.wt/day) for six weeks in rats resulted in a significant increase in the levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the levels of total bilirubin and hepatic lipid peroxidation (TBARS). The levels of serum protein, hepatic glutathione and ascorbic acid were found to decrease on administration of A. graveolens seeds extract (300 mg/kg b.wt./day p.o.) for six weeks resulting in the recovery of the biochemical parameters towards normalcy compared with the DEHP treated and control rats.

Rao et al., (2009) studied the in vitro antioxidant potential of chloroform extract of Chromolaena odorata leaves. The DPPH activity of the extract (0.1-5 mg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, when compared to ascorbic acid. The IC50 values of leaf extract in DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, ABTS radical scavenging were obtained to be 0.31, 0.43, 0.28 and 1.32 mg/ml, respectively. But, the IC50 values for ascorbic acid were found to be 0.24, 0.41, 0.23 and 1 mg/ml, respectively. Assessment of total phenolic content of the leaf extract of C. odorata was done using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and was found significantly higher when compared to the reference standard gallic acid.

Umamaheswari et al., (2009) investigated the hypouricaemic and antioxidant activities of the various fractions of the hydromethanolic extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo L. The antioxidant activity was assayed by in vitro methods like DPPH assay, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The total phenolic content and flavonoid content of the fractions were estimated using pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. All the fractions produced a significant reduction in serum urate levels and inhibited XO/XDH enzyme activities when administered to hyperuriceamic mice. The ethyl acetate and petroleum ether fractions possessed highest phenolic and flavonoid content among the fraction tested. These results suggest that the leaves of Vitex negundo is a potential source of antioxidant to treat various disorders.

Abro et al., (2008) investigated the anti-microbial activity of crude water extracts, supernatant as well as methanolic extract of Raphanus sativus L. by using in vitro agar well diffusion method. All extracts were tested against two gram positive and gram negative bacteria and four fungal cultures. Plant extracts exhibited anti-microbial properties and the extracts displayed highest antibacterial activity against Enterobacter agglomerens, Lactobacillus and Bacillus thuringenesis.

Alqasoumi et al., (2008) evaluated the freshly squeezed Radish juice (FRJ) for its anti-gastric ulcer activity in experimental models, besides preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening. Oral administration of FRJ in doses of 2 and 4 ml/ 200 g b.w. considerably inhibited gastric ulcer formation induced by necrotizing agents (ethanol, sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride) hypothermic restraint-stress and indomethacin. The FRJ also revitalised the ethanol induced depleted gastric wall mucus secretion and nonproteinsulfhydryl (NP-SH) concentrations in rats. The phytochemical screening highlighted the presence of flavonoids, anthocyanins and sulfurated constituents. In conclusion, fresh juice of Radish was found to possess gastroprotective ability related to the mucus secretion stimulation and increase in NP-SH concentration would probably be due to prostaglandin-inducing abilities, mediated through its antioxidant activity.

Misic et al., (2008) evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Apium graveolens L. seed oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbondioxide and by hydro distillation against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii strains, isolated from animal origin and clinical specimen. The supercritical extract was more effective than the essential oil obtained by hydro distillation against the selected strains. The chemical composition of the supercritical extract and oil extract by hydro distillation was analysed and it was found that the supercritical extract was superior to the oil extract in terms of concentration and quantity of isolated bioactive compounds sedanenolide, sedanolide and 3-n-butylphthalide.

Rafatullah et al., (2008) evaluated the fresh juice of locally grown radish root for hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocellular injury in albino rats. The juice at doses of 2 and 4 mL/kg/rat showed a considerable dose-dependent protective effect when given for five consecutive days. The magnitude of protection was assessed by using biochemical parameters including determination of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin (Bil) and non-protein sulfhydryl content in the liver tissues (NP-SH), along with histopathological assessment. The protective effect was determined by the lowering of the elevated serum levels of SGPT, SGOT, Bil, ALP and increasing NP-SH level. The positive control used for the experiment was Silymarin. The phytochemical screening of the fresh juice exposed the presence of sulfurated, phenolic and terpenoid compounds in radish.

Nagulendran et al., (2007) evaluated the antioxidant activity of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes extract (CRRE) in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals and reactive oxygen species and IC50 values were determined. CRRE showed its antioxidant activity in a concentration dependent manner on superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, and property of metal chelating and reducing power. The extract was also evaluated for lipid peroxidation assay by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) using young and aged rat brain mitochondria. The extract was found to be effective in preventing mitochondrial lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4/ ascorbate in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study indicate that CRRE can be a potential source of natural antioxidant.

Pihlanto et al., (2007) isolated proteins from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) and various by products from the potato Industry was evaluated for their ACE-inhibitory and radical-scavenging abilities. The isolated Proteins and by-products were further autolysed or hydrolysed by alcalase, neutrase and esperase. The ACE-inhibitory potencies of the hydrolysates were high and the by-product fractions also showed ACE-inhibition before hydrolysis. All samples showed a insignificant radical-scavenging activity but after hydrolysis for 2 h with proteases they exhibited an increase in their activity. This study thus suggests that potato is a capable source for the production of bioactive compounds which can be used for developing functional foods with a positive impact on cardiovascular health.

Anwar et al., (2006) evaluated the leaves powder of Raphanus sativus L. and its water and ethanolic extracts for hepato protective effect. The extracts were found to significantly decrease the activity of SGOT, SGPT, SLDH, SAP and serum total Bilirubin levels both in acute and chronic administration. Crude leaf powder of Raphanus sativus L. was also found to decline the SGOT, SGPT, SLDH, SAP and serum total bilirubin levels after the chronic administration of paracetamol. Crude powder, its water and ethanol extracts did not produce a significant outcome on the total proteins contents.

Chandra et al., (2006) investigated the effect of chronic intake of fresh and cooked radish, R. sativus under changeable states of iodine intake on the morphological and functional condition of thyroid gland in albino rats by evaluating the its morphology and histology, thyroid peroxidase activity, serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin and thiocynate levels respectively. After chronic radish intake an increased weight of thyroid gland, decreased thyroid peroxidase activity, reduced thyroid hormone profiles and elevated levels of thyrotropin were observed resembling a comparative state of hypoactive thyroid gland in comparison to control even after adequate iodine intake.

Hsu et al., (2006) studied the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of dried roots of Polygonum cuspidatum. To study the antioxidant abilities of the extract superoxide radical scavenging assays, lipid peroxidation assays and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA strand scission assays were used. The results showed that the Polygonum cuspidatum extract had considerable free radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging activity and DNA shielding effect in hydroxyl radical-induced DNA strand scission assays. The total phenolics and flavonoid content of the extract was found to be 641.1 ± 42.6 mg/g and 62.3 ± 6.0 mg/g respectively.

Chen et al., (2005) evaluated the kinetic properties and capacities of water (GWE), 50% ethanolic (GE50) and 95% ethanolic (GE95) extracts from Graptopetalum paraguayense for the ability to inhibit ACE. The results exhibited that GWE, GE50 and GE95 possesed considerable inhibitory effects on ACE. In addition, the ACE inhibition of the tested extracts was considerably reduced after the addition of 1.5 mM ZnCl2 thus signifying the inhibitory action of the extracts would have resulted from the chelation of the ACE zinc cofactor. The inhibition of the extract was found to be a mixed-type when analysed Lineweaver-Burk plots.

Gilani et al., (2004) investigated the crude extract of Raphanus sativus L. leaves (Rl.Cr), its petroleum spirit, chloroform, and aqueous fractions for gut stimulatory activity. The crude extract showed a dose-dependent (0.03-5.0 mg/ml) spasmogenicity in guinea-pig ileum and colon. The effect was not found on atropine pre-treatment but was completely abolished by pyrilamine indicating the involvement of histaminergic (H1) receptors. Rl.Cr also improved the transit of charcoal meal in mice at 30-100 mg/kg. All the fractions exhibited histaminergic activity in ileum of which aqueous fraction was found to be more active.

Murray et al., (2004) modified the existing method for quantification of ACE activity using FAPGG as substrate. Hydrolysis of FAPGG to FAP and GG were assessed by noting the decrease in absorbance at 340 nm. It was shown that increasing the level of ACE activity in the assay from 155 to 221 + 15 units per litre resulted in a equivalent increase in the IC50 value for captopril. The result demonstrates the need for controlling ACE activity levels in the assay to obtain a valid and reproducible result for the inhibitory potency of ACE inhibitors.

Yuan Shi (2004) investigated a herbal mixture for treating hypertension, constipation, detoxification and for improving the immune system, produced by extracting arctium lappa L, carrot and whole radish with water for two hours at a temperature of 70 °C -100°C under agitation, separating the extracts and solid by-products, vacuum condensing the extracts, lyophilizing condensed extracts to a powder using a low temperature, and encapsulating the powder or pressing the powder into tablets. Patients taking a daily dosage of the herbal mixture were shown to have greatly improved health conditions.

Kitajima et al., (2003) analysed the water soluble portions of the methanol extract of Apium graveolens L. A total of five sesquiterpenoid glucosides (celerioside A-E), three phthalide glycosides (celephtalide A-C) along with six aromatic compound glucosides, two norcarotenoid glucosides and a lignan glucoside were isolated. Their structures were derived by spectral investigations.

Ottaviani et al., (2003) determined that flavan-3-ols and procyanidins have a prominent inhibitory effect on ACE activity and the effect was reliant on the number of epicatechin units making up the procyanidin molecule. The inhibition by flavan-3-ols and procyanidins was found to be competitive when assayed with both N-hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) and N-[3-(2-furyl)acryloyl]-L-phenylalanylglycylglycine (FAPGG) substrates. Tetramer and hexamer fractions showed potent inhibitory activity towards ACE.

Sreedharan et al., (1999) investigated the various plants used in traditional systems of the indian medicines for their ACE inhibitory activity. They were chosen on the basis of their practice as cardiotonics, diuretics and other uses related to the cure of hypertension.A total of 73 species were investigated out of which 22 species exhibited more than 50% activity.

Duncan et al., (1999) evaluated 20 plants used by traditional healers in South Africa for the management of elevated BP. They were investigated for their anti-hypertensive effect using the ACE assay. A hit rate of 65% was achieved, with the highest inhibition (97%) obtained by aderopodia spicata leaves. A further seven plant exhibited an inhibition greater than 70% and five more than 50%. the leaves of the plant showed greater levels of inhibition. there was little difference in the over all hit rate between ethanolic and aqueous extracts, although in most cases there was a marked difference in activity between aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the same species, plants exhibiting inhibition greater than 50% were tested for the presence of tannins in order to eliminate possible false positives.

Vargas et al., (1999) investigated the aqueous extract of the bark of Raphanus sativus L, for its antiurolithiatic and diuretic activity. The urolithiasis was experimentally induced by placing zinc disc in the urinary bladder of rats. A considerable decrease in the weight of stones was noted after administration of the aqueous extract in animals in comparison with control groups. The extract also showed considerable increase in the 24 h urine volume when compared to the control.

Singh et al., (1995) evaluated the methanolic seeds extracts of Apium graveolens L. and Astercantha auriculata Nees, for its antihepatotoxic effect on rat liver damage induced by a single dose of paracetamol (3 g/kg p.o.) or thioacetamide (100 mg/kg, s.c.). The assay was carried out by monitoring several liver function tests, like serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin in serum. Furthermore the hepatic tissues were processed for the assay of triglycerides and histopathological studies. The methanolic seed extract of both the plants was reported to have significant hepatoprotective activity.