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Biotechnological procedures have been employed over eras to produce humans necessary foods. Using of microorganisms like bacteria and yeast have been done by earlier people without even knowing of their presence. Nowadays, there is only few information available about the specific characteristics of genetic background of most of the organisms that may include in the process of fermentation as un example. New techniques of biotechnology offer a chance to translate different kinds of genes into a variety of organisms. In addition of the biotechnology, genetically modified can be applied in other sciences such as medical and biological (Hemmer 1997).
During last two decades Genetically modified organisms have been used noticeably in the field of agriculture in many countries especially the developed ones, in 2008 about 125 million hectares of genetically modified crops has been grown, while this increased into 134 million and 148 million hectares in both 2009 and 2010 respectively (FSA 2012). Consumers' perception towards GMO products is different from one country to onother for many reasons. For example, in America, people tend to consume GM foods/products more than the European countries because of the following reasons: the press effectively, trusting in regulators, and having a vast knowledge of this new technology (Gaskell et al. 1999). In spite of the benefits of biotechnology for producing (GMOs) and its vast application in different areas such as agriculture, pharmacy, biofuels and biomaterials. There are also some drawbacks. For example, it has become a very controversial issue in many countries and there are lots of discussions about it especially in the term of safety and environment issues. (Agnihorti 2009).
1.2 Producing System of Genetically Modified Organisms
In our life, there are many different types of creations. These creatures are different morphologically, physically and completely. Some of them are very simple in creatures and small in size such as bacteria and virus, while others are more sophisticated and developed like humans. These organisms are set up of Cells which are the basis of the structure of all these creatures. Each cell is covered by a wall called cell membrane with a nucleus. The lasts is located at the center of cell. A unique instruction is saved on DNA (Dixie nitric acid). Each DNA contains of small parts called genes (Agnihorti 2009).
Naturally, transfer of gene from one living organism to another may occur only between the same species or between organisms which are closer to each other. While as a result of the advancement of technology, biologists and researchers have a chance to understand how to produce plant or organisms with new traits by transfering a special gene from one living organism into another successfully (Burke 1998).
According to (Pascalev 2003) genes can be translated from one living organism to another by a process called gene technology or recombinant DNA, and the result called ''genetically modified'' or ''genetically engineered,'' or ''genetically organisms''. The production of genetically engineered foods/products needs to add a new DNA into the plant's genomic DNA. This process called transformation 'event'. This new DNA has all information needed to produce the product with new required characteristics (Griffiths et al. 2002).
1.2.1 The purposes of Genetically Modified Organisms
The producing of genetically modified crops such as …….. has increased noticeably all over the world due to the fact that genetically modified has many advantages for both producers and customers. The main characteristics in (GMO) crops are: lower price, high nutritional value and durable products (WHO 2013).
There are many purposes and objectives behind the development of genetically modified crops as shown below:
Herbicide tolerance plants: is produced by the transferring of a gene from resistant bacteria to some herbicides into the required plant. In this case the new plant has the ability to tolerant to the herbicides while the weeds will be controlled (Rissler and Mellon 1996).
Virus resistant plants: to produce a genetically modified crop resistance to virus which cause diseases, need to transfer a special gene into the plant. By this way a resistant plant will be produced which led to high crop yield (Agnihorti 2009).
Insect resistance: in this case the genetically modified crops have the ability to resist insecticide and this achieved by transferring a toxin gene from the bacterium B. thuringgiensis (Bt) into the plant. This toxin is non-harmful for human consumption. By this way the GM plants which produce this toxin permanently do not need high quantities of insecticide (Slater et al. 2008).
1.2.2 Application area of Genetically Modified Organisms
Due to the fact that biotechnology has developed and scientists have attacked knowledge about DNA structure and genes and how can transferred it. This gives scientists the ability to apply in many different areas and fields as shown below:
Agriculture: The main reasons for applying GMOs in the field of agriculture are to produce plant resistant to pests, herbicides, improved shelf life and also to give plants the ability to tolerate tough environmental conditions. This achieved by transfer a specific gene into the plant. For instance,
transfer of a toxin gene from bacterium Bacillus ( Bt ) into the plant. This toxin is safe for human consumption. By this way the GM plants which produce this toxin permanently do not need high quantities of insecticide. The second field is Pharmacy: Application of GMOs in the field of pharmacy gives scientists a chance to produce drugs and vaccines in short time with large quantities. Otherwise the process takes a long time and also too expensive. For example, yeast or such bacteria can produce drugs and vaccines in high quantities and in much more efficient way. It can be also applied in Biomaterials area, GMOs are mainly used in the health area, surgery, treatment and dental. Moreover, genetically modified organisms may apply in the field of Biofuels to produce biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels (Anon 2008).
1.3 Genetically Modified Organisms Risks
Nowadays, there has been a lot of discussion about genetically modified crops in terms of safety (Galimberrti et al. 2013). In spite of there is no proof that GM products are un safe or not suit for consumption (Slater at el. 2008). However, People tend to take care for the consumption of GM foods and also for environmentally friendly. Therefore, it is suggested by different groups including environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) and customers that GM crops should be tested before being offered in markets and consumed by people. To ensure the safety of gmo the following should be investigated: toxin level which may cause a direct health effect, the allergic of the procuct, the gene's stability, the effect of toxic or nutritional characteristics and any other unwanted effects may cause by gene inerting. So, according to (WHO 2013), the main three aspects may come from GM products are: allergic reaction, outcrossing and gene transfer.
In 2000 and 2006, a review had been done about the information which is published in world-wide scientific journals. The interview showed that very limited reference was about animal toxicological/health and concerning human risks on GM food/plants and there was no information available on some products such as cucumber, tomatoes and potatoes. One has to take into consideration that most of the studies that have been were conducted by companies, who produce GM products for commercializing. These findings suggest a remarkable development comparable to the inadequate of the studies which are published recently by those companies in scientific journals. This new information is critically studied (Domingo and Bordonaba 2011).
There is a study has been done on genetically modified maize in the term of tolerating to round up (which is a herbicide) to show the health effects of consumption of GM maize on rats for two years. The results show that GM maize has a health effects on both sexes, especially in female due to the fact that all female treated rats died 2-3 times more than not-treated rats and in less time. In the male the health effect was with liver, while in female was with sex and hormone (Seralini at al 2012).