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The discovery of ribozymes supports the RNA World Hypothesis. A ribozyme or ribonucleic acid enzyme, is an RNA molecule that is capable of performing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes. This theory states that earlier life forms may have relied on RNA solely to store genetic information catalyse chemical reactions. This hypothesis was first proposed in the 1960's by Francis Crick, Carl Woese and Leslie Orgel. This occurred many years before the discovery of ribozymes but shortly after the determination of DNA as a helical structure was discovered. According to this hypothesis, DNA and proteins came into use as life had evolved to use them as opposed to RNA due to RNA's poorer catalytic properties and instability relative to DNA.
Picture (1) A hairpin ribozyme.
3) RNA plays a major role in the process of creating proteins from DNA. It is known as the "Central Dogma" of molecular biology. The genetic information of an organism is stored in their cells' DNA and is encoded as a linear base sequence. During transcription, messenger RNA or mRNA, an RNA copy of DNA, is made. This strand of RNA can then form a protein after being translated by a ribosome.
The structure of RNA is very similar to that of DNA, the main difference between the two is that the RNA has a hydroxyl group on ribose sugar backbone that DNA does not (as seen in diagram 2). Another minor difference is that DNA uses the base thymine in place of uracil that RNA uses. Despite great structural similarities, DNA and RNA play very different roles from one another in cells.
Diagram (2) - The structural differences between DNA and RNA in diagram form.
Another major difference between DNA and RNA is that DNA is usually found in a double-stranded form in cells, while RNA is typically found in a single-stranded form. The single stranded structure of RNA allows it fold into three-dimensional structures which are highly unique and highly complex. This folding is similar to that of DNA by forming base to base pairs. The only difference being that the bonds are formed within a single strand in RNA, rather than between two strands, in the case of DNA.
4) In basic terms support for the RNA world theory comes from RNA's ability to process genetic information by storing, transmitting and duplicating it. The strongest piece evidence for the RNA World Hypothesis is the fact that the ribosome, which is a large molecular complex that assembles proteins from mRNA strands, is a ribosome. Although ribosomes are made up of both protein and RNA elements, an analysis of both its chemistry and structure has revealed that the mechanisms for translation are catalysed by RNA and not by proteins. This therefore suggests that the use of RNA by early life forms to carry out chemical reactions may have preceded the use of proteins. An experiment was performed by John Sutherland and his colleagues from the University of Manchester that greatly supports the RNA world hypothesis. He and his team created a ribonucleotide, which is a major part of RNA, from simple chemicals. These chemicals are those though to be present on the early earth, or primordial soup. Donna Blackmond, a chemist at Imperial College, stated that "this is extremely strong evidence for the RNA world. We don't know if these chemical steps reflect what actually happened, but before this work there were large doubts that it could happen at all."
Furthermore, RNA molecules may have survived for much longer periods of time in early earth conditions than it can today. This is because UV light can cause the polymerisation of RNA and can also cause the break down of organic molecules that could otherwise have catalyzed the break down of RNA. Therefore, suggesting that RNA may have been fairly common on early Earth.
5) Some critics of this theory suggest that rather than nucleic acids, other organic molecules were the first self-replicating substances capable of storing genetic information. According to this idea, during the course of evolution these other hereditary systems were replaced by nucleic acids. A further criticism is that it has been shown that many of the steps needed for nucleotideÂ formation do not occur correctly inÂ prebioticÂ conditions. It has been argued by that nucleotides cannot link unless there is an activationÂ of theÂ phosphate group and this, according to researchers is "totally implausible in any prebiotic scenario". A further problem of the RNA world theory is the assumption of the presence of nitrogen bases that make up RNA strands, as there has been no evidence for their creation from early earth. The creation of these bases has been demonstrated by scientists however it required a complex series of random steps to combine these bases with the phosphate and sugar groups required for the formation of an RNA strand. Many prebiotic simulations of making nucleotides have conditions that are incompatible with those for making sugars as they contain lots of formaldehyde. So therefore they must be synthesized in another way and then brought together.Â This problem leads to the creation of the 'perfect accident'.
6) There are many other theories that contradict the RNA world theory. Firstly, the electric spark theory which is based around the generation of amino acids and sugars from the atmosphere. TheÂ Miller-Urey supports this theory. This experiment in 1952 simulated the conditions thought to be present on theÂ early Earth, and tested for the chemical origins of life. Using the molecules thought to be present on early earth and an electric current it was observed that two percent of the carbon had formed some of the amino acids which are used to make proteins today. Miller's experiment therefore showed that organic compounds such as amino acids could be made easily under these conditions. Another theory is that of community clay according to Alexander Cairns-Smith, the first molecules of life might have joined together on clay. These environments may have concentrated the organic compounds together and also helped to sort them into patterns in the same way our genes today do. A further theory is that of panspermia, this theory suggests, controversially, that life may have formed out in space and been brought to earth through cosmic impacts or on comets.
There are many other theories of the origins of life, some of which include the chilly start theory which suggests life began in icy conditions which could have protected early life from impacts and UV light from the sun. One of the more heavily favoured theories is that life may have evolved from simpler systems than that of the RNA world theory. It suggests that smaller molecules may have interacted with each other and formed life. Over time more complex molecules have evolved which have taken over these simple systems.
7) This theory is the most favoured theory explaining the origins of life today. There are vast quantities of supporting evidence that have lead many people to favour this particular theory. There is no scientific evidence to suggest that RNA was spontaneously created and capable of forming the first life. There has also been no scientific evidence of RNA performing this act today. While some laboratories have created artificial ribozymes there are still significant holes in the reproduction of an RNA world to support the hypothesis. The ribozymes created lack the ability to process themselves, and there is no evidence of them producing large quantities of nucleotide sequences. However the production of cellular life by a model is not unique to the RNA world theory it is true for all origin of life hypotheses as none have ever created cellular life when tested. There is even significant debate among scientists over the conditions and constituents of a "prebiotic Earth" model.