Prevalence Of Self Reported Allergic Rhinitis Biology Essay

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Rhinitis is a form of irritation of the nasal membranes characterized by a combination of a number of other related symptoms making it to be much more complex. The symptom consists of persistent sneezing, nasal congestion, persistent nasal itching, and at times persistent rhinorrhea. A number of body organs may involve, such as eyes, ears, sinuses, and most of the times the throat (Simons 2002). When it comes to the major causes, allergic rhinitis happens to be the main cause and is an exceptionally frequent condition that has been found out to be affecting an approximate 20% of the overall population worldwide. It has been found out that allergic rhinitis is a common health complication that has affected many people of which most of them do not go for proper medical checkup and administration of appropriate care. Despite of allergic rhinitis not being a life-threatening complication, it is believed to be the cause other related complications that in one way or another have been reported the main factors of impairing the overall quality of life and other substantial impact on the public health and the economy at large (Sullivan & Krieger 2001).

From the recent studies, it was estimated that the total direct and indirect costs impacted allergic rhinitis was at the rate of $5.3 billion per annum and the condition has resulted in drastic fall in the global economy and the figures are expected to be even higher in the current scenario since the cost of new medications and prevalence of the condition are believed to be even higher, as compared to the previous years (Sullivan & Krieger 2001).

The aims of the research

The main purpose of this research is to determine the prevalence of self-reported allergic rhinitis among the selected group of population.

It is also set to come up with critical data that when compounded will help medical practitioners and other individuals concerned to understand the differences between allergic rhinitis and the common upper respiratory conditions (Laine & Goldmann 2009).

To review the collected data on the possible effects of augmented pollutions, drastic changes in indoor environment, exposure to new allergens and psychologically stressful lifestyles, as also to explore their potential in the development of this more 'aggressive' form of disease (Simons 2002).

The key and supplementary research questions

The following research questions have been identified to lead the researcher and the subjects under the study in giving good data that will be evaluated so that a valid and most reliable conclusion can be arrived at.

What is the current data of allergic rhinitis?

What could be the main cause of the current projections on allergic rhinitis

What is the age of onset of symptoms and do these symptoms have been present continuously since onset.

What is the time pattern of symptoms and do these symptoms transpire within consistent rates throughout the whole year.

Are symptoms of allergic rhinitis related temporally to specific trigger factors

What are other allergic rhinitis related conditions and how frequent are they.

Current data about allergic rhinitis

The most current information about patients who are suffering from allergic rhinitis has shown that such group suffer from persistent and moderate/severe symptoms that are connected to severe impairment on the overall quality of life. The following data represents the number of persons with allergic rhinitis (by age) and the percentage of the population with allergic rhinitis (by state) (Simons 2002).

Figure 1: Number of people with allergic rhinitis (by age)

























Figures 2. Percentage of the population with allergic rhinitis (by state)



















A justification of the research approach method(s) to be used

A cross-sectional study of individuals of any age will be performed and will consist carrying out an analysis on the literature review with an aim of generating a significant list of potentially critical aspects that are to be used for referencing during the actual assessment (Huttin 2003).

A multi-stage cluster sampling approach will be used for the study where a simple random sampling is found to be much applicable to the research study (Laine & Goldmann 2009). A number of household will be drawn from all regions of the area of research and the subject randomly be selected to participate in the actual study.

The survey instrument will contain questions to be taken from the questionnaire that will also consists of socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects with a purpose of reflecting on the cultural standing and social structures of the subjects under the study.

The questionnaires are supposed to be administered in the form of face to face interviewing which will be done by very competent trained assistants, who are also expected to compile information on nasal allergies, demographics, allergic rhinitis symptoms analysis, possible diagnosis, and smoking history of subjects under study.

The available trained assistants will be health information officers who will take part in the day-long training program which will consists of a detailed questionnaire review and correct questionnaire completion guiding and the techniques to be used in the subject interviewing process.

The variability of the interviewer will be insignificant, with a value of 0.87 and the pilot survey will be expected to last for two weeks with supervision and monitoring being ongoing and regular. Supervising and monitoring will be carried out by the identified and trained investigators who will be visiting around 11% of subjects under the study, who have been randomly selected by the research team (Simons 2002). This will be a guide in understanding the kind of participants who definitely been interviewed.

The measurement of allergic rhinitis will depend on the recurring levels of the nasal symptoms. Such symptoms will consist of nasal obstruction or congestion, sneezing, nasal discharge, nasal itching that probably were reversible by either treatment of just spontaneously within the last one year. For validity to be achieved in the research findings, the combination of rhinitis symptoms and itchy-watery eyes which is used as a better epidemiological determinants for the prevalence of the terrible allergic rhinitis (Laine & Goldmann 2009).

The use of Positivist and Non-positivist

The approach to the research follows both positivist and non-positivist standpoint with an aim of viewing the critical issue at hand holistically. This kind of approach is the best way of having a clear reflection on the possible contribution that the study is able to make to the current body of knowledge that is available to the researcher.

Therefore, data is effectively collected, analyzed and probably the emergence of specific incidents that are relevant to the research topic are automatically allowed. Non-positivist approach involves the use of field-notes, unstructured interviews, and e-mails (Pandit

1996). On the other hand, positivist approach involves the use of self-administered questionnaires while collecting the required data to carryout effective quantitative analyses. During the study, it is expected that the approach of positivist will be used at several points.

Clarification of the ethical issues involved and indication of the process of

ethical approval required

There are a number of ethical concerns that needs to be stipulated first before the actual study has to be carried on. First, the research has to be confirmed first by the Health Monitory Board so that the health aspects of the participants have to be considered first. Therefore, a letter will be wrote to the persons concerned accompanied by the research proposal.

The panel is supposed to be assembled so that it can discuss all identified questions with a mind spotlight on variety of aspects that are related to the main items and their importance to the research study and the subjects under the study, streamlined wording of the identified questions, the supposed response options and the accepted time-frame for the assessment to be carried out.

Before the study is initiated to be carried on, it is supposed to be approved and this institutional approval for the research study will be given out by the ethics and the research committee from my institution and also the informed consent will be obtained from the subjects under the study. These two processes are quite important as they give a word go to the start of the research project also relieves the researchers and any other officer facilitating the research from any reliability on any damages that can arise during the researching process.

Clarification of any governance issues involve

Since it is a research that cuts across all age groups, then it will be able to address issues concerning legislations that are concerned with allergic rhinitis child who is at school. There is currently no any legislation that is supposed to govern a child while in school, especially when dealing with a child who has such complications and still under the care of a teacher. Currently teachers do not have any specific legal duties in terms of child health protection as the entire responsibility of such a kid lies completely with the health care system. The main issues that brings this kind of misunderstanding is all about the teacher having some legal responsibilities and possible liabilities in being able to administer medication at school and the child's need for care and privacy.

Therefore, it is of great important to understand the purpose of the Legal Framework which is to improve child health care, especially at any educational institution by adhering to the better reliable back-up of quality and standards provided.

Plans for implementing and managing data collection

Data that is to be collected from this research study is very vital and it ought to be kept in a safe place and in good conditions. Therefore, carrying out an implementation process on data collection is an important aspect as it will ensure that the data collected is enough and reliable for the overall analysis to be carried out. It is going to be carried out by very competent and qualified individuals who will not take anything for granted and jeopardize the whole process data collection and analyzing.

The data analysis process

The data that is going to be obtained from this research will definitely be analysed by using the SPSS package of version 15 (Laine & Goldmann 2009). Probably there will be need for examining the existing characteristics of the subject group in full of as subgroups that have allergic rhinitis and the best way to achieve this is by generating the descriptive and frequency statistics.

To determine the potential risk of developing allergic rhinitis in different individuals and examining the relationship between allergic rhinitis and other complications, such as asthma-, a multivariate logistic regression analysis will be carried out within the process of carrying out the research.

The proposed time frame for key aspects of the project

The study is going to have a pilot study that will be followed by the main study which commences after the approval the research to continue with the main study. The following is the proposed time frame of the research program.

Figure 3: A table of the time frame of what is to be achieved during the research project

Key Aspects of the Project


Time frame

Research Proposal

Initiating the topic of study

It involves a lot reviewing to streamline the research topic

Four Months

Training Officers

Training research assistant according to the objectives and needs of the research

One Week

Pilot Study

Carrying out a pre-study on a small portion of the subjects for preparing the main study.

Computing the finding to get a way forward with positive expectations.

Two Weeks

Main Study

Implementing the main strategies in the study

Collecting of actual data and recording

Analyzing and computing data

Coming up with a final decision about the study.

Six Months

Indication of avenues for dissemination

In recent studies, it was found out that the combination of the itchy-watery eyes and allergic rhinitis symptoms is the best way of determining allergic rhinitis prevalence, and geographical variations of such prevalence is basically attributed to environmental factors influencing an individual's genetic susceptibility of developing this complication (Laine & Goldmann 2009). The conflicting issue here is that very few people have come very frank and showed some big interest in doing research work.

Implications for practice and/or potential service development

Implications for this service delivery come with the kind of loopholes that exists within the field and needs to be replaced. On the issue of allergic rhinitis and children in school should be discussed in details because appropriate legislation need to be developed and implemented so that the environment of such children which we normally take for granted is safe for the allergic child and as well as safe-guarding educational workers who are always next to kids.


Different individuals are believed to be having much exaggerated response to a number of substances that are normally tolerated by the body. Sometimes, the same substances can end up promoting an allergic effect and therefore are they are known as allergens. In such vulnerable persons, the existing allergens are able to initiate an immediate immune response that in one way or another it is normally controlled by immune cells in the body. The compelling inflammatory agents such as histamine are released by the protein known as IgE which binds with the allergen over the surface of a number of malt cells (Laine & Goldmann 2009). During the early stages, the response to allergens normally results in a persistent runny nose, itching, and also persistent sneezing and in the late stages the response is almost the similar only that the nose becomes more congested.


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