PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF STEROID IN COMMONLY AVAILABLE UNREGISTERED, APHRODIASIC AND ANTI-ARTHERITIC HERBAL FORMULATIONS

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PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF STEROID IN COMMONLY AVAILABLE UNREGISTERED, APHRODIASIC AND ANTI-ARTHERITIC HERBAL FORMULATIONS

ABSTRACT

The current study is designed to evaluate the presence of steroid in commonly used unregistered aphrodisiac and anti-arthritic herbal formulation because in unregistered herbal formulations. Steroids are added deliberately to give rapid therapeutic effects due to lack of quality control where as the container of the drug indicate names of herbs which are actually not added in these unregistered formulations. Although the work is done on preliminary level but this work will open the door for researchers to evaluate unregistered herbal formulations for the presence of phyto steroid or steroids which are added in formulation for rapid therapeutic effects.

Keywords:

Unregistered drug, poly herbal formulation, aphrodisiac, anti-arthritis, adulteration.

INTRODUCTION:

Herbalism is the most popular form of traditional medicine due to their effectiveness, less adverse effects, low prices and easy availability. Most of the herbal products sold in community pharmacy and health food shops are not registered hence lacking readily accessible key safety information (leaflets). Many herbal products are unsafe for use by people with some pre-existing illnesses for example Asian ginseng is contra-indicated for diabetes; interaction with other products for example the use of St John’s Wort affecting the efficacy of warfarin; adverse effects for example allergic reactions are associated with ginkgo. Unlicensed herbal remedies are wide spread due to the lack of pharmacovigilence .These remedies don’t meet specific standards of safety and quality. (Raynor et al, 2011).

Herbal drug utilization in Pakistan is very popular. These drugs are not only utilize in modern medicines but in the form of crude medicinal plants, poly herbal formulations and herbal extracts has been used in Unani, Ayurvedic and Homeopathic system of medicine. The presented work was designed to evaluate some commonly available unregistered aphrodisiac and anti-arthritic herbal formulations for the presence of steroid.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Commonly used unregistered aphrodisiac and anti arthritic poly herbal formulations were selected (ten different samples of each category). Each herbal formulation was marked for the code number assigned to each herbal formulation.

Qualitative analysis

The Crude extract was tested for the presence of steroid

compounds in Formulation by using following standard methods.

Test for Steroids:

Salkowski’s test

Crude extract was mixed with 2ml of chloroform. Then 2ml of concentrated H2SO4 was added carefully and shaken gently. A reddish brown colour indicated the presence of steroidal ring, i.e., glycone portion of the glycoside.[14]

Liebermann Burchard test

Crude extract was mixed with few drops of acetic anhydride, boiled and cooled. Concentrated sulphuric acid was then added from the sides of the test tube and observed for the formation of a brown ring at the junction of two layers. Green coloration of the upper layer and the formation of deep red color in the lower layer would indicate a positive test for steroids and triterpenoids respectively. [11

Table 1.

Products Code

Salkowski

Test

Liebermann

Test

Products

Code

Salkowski

Test

Liebermann

Test

APF 1

+ ve

+ ve

AAF 1

- ve

- ve

APF 2

+ ve

+ ve

AAF 2

+ ve

+ ve

APF 3

+ ve

+ ve

AAF 3

- ve

- ve

APF 4

+ ve

+ ve

AAF 4

+ ve

+ ve

APF 5

+ ve

+ ve

AAF 5

+ ve

+ ve

APF 6

+ ve

+ ve

AAF 6

+ ve

+ ve

APF 7

+ ve

+ ve

AAF 7

+ ve

+ ve

APF 8

- ve

- ve

AAF 8

+ ve

+ ve

APF 9

- ve

- ve

AAF 9

+ ve

+ ve

APF 10

+ ve

+ ve

AAF 10

+ ve

+ ve

APF = Aphrodisiac Herbal Formulation; AAF =Anti Arthritic Herbal Formulation; +ve = Presence of Steroid; -ve = Absence of Steroid; N = 3.

Table 2. The mentioned composition of used aphrodisiac and anti-arthritic poly herbal formulations.

Products Code

Composition

Products

Code

Composition

APF 1

Not mentioned

AAF 1

Rhus tox D3, Dexa, Arnica D3, Caulophyllum D3, Urtica

APF 2

Not mentioned

AAF 2

Belispers, Calocenth, Hypericum, satesorenjan, Satehanzal

APF 3

Agnus cast, Selenium, Sabal ser,

Yohambinum, Ginseng, Acid phos

AAF 3

Rhus tox, Bryonia D3, Urtica urtens D3, Belladona, Ginger

APF 4

Not mentioned

AAF 4

Dulcamara, Guicum, Rhus tox, Belladona, Bryonia

APF 5

Ocimumbasilicum, Mace, Nutmegs, Zagar, Cloves, Silk, Hyosamus

AAF 5

Ledum, Arnica, Colocynthis, Urtica Ur, Rhustox

APF 6

Agnus cast, Acid phos, Sabal ser, Damiana, Bombyx mori

AAF 6

Acid benz D3, Bryonia D3, Urtica urtens D3, Caulophyllum

APF 7

Lycopodium, Avena sativa, Ambra, Nuphar lut, Orchitinum

AAF 7

Arnica, Ruta, Bryonia, Rhus tox

APF 8

Ginseng, Ambra, Acid phos, Helonias diocia, Allium sativum

AAF 8

Dexa, Urtica ur D3, Caulophyllum D3, Belladona

APF 9

Not mentioned

AAF 9

Not mentioned

APF 10

Kalium phos,Argentum nitricum, Uva ursi, Cantharis, Sabal serrulata

AAF 10

Not mentioned

C:\Users\ahmed\Documents\urdu.u.project\unethical hp\pick out\pic leiberman\Picture 015.jpgC:\Users\ahmed\Documents\urdu.u.project\unethical hp\pick out\pic aphro\DSC07717.jpg

LIEBERMANN’S TEST SALKOWSKI’S TEST

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

The observations of tested herbal formulations and their composition are mentioned in table 1 and 2. Most of the tested samples indicate the presence of steroid. Outcomes of this research study will be helpful for creating awareness not only to the lay person but also to herbal practitioners and physicians about the presence of steroids in unlicensed poly herbal formulations and further more boycott of these unregistered herbal formulations for further consumption.

The public should be able to expect full disclosure of key safety information when they purchase herbal products over the counter. Consumers need to be advised what are registered products, where and how to purchase these products. So, that the necessary information for safe use will be available to them. In addition there should be on going monitoring of the written information supplied with these products to encourage improvement in this important safety issue (Raynor et al, 2011).

There are four possibilities of counterfeit in herbal medicines. The first one is herbal medicines adulterated with undeclared synthetic pharmaceuticals, with undeclared heavy metals, herbal medicines without active ingredient and herbal medicines with wrong active ingredient [Herbal Remedies].

Awareness should be made to the general public, local healers and the physicians about the toxicities of steroids to human health.

The presented work is of preliminary level. However most authentic pharmacopeial methods are required to confirm the presence of steroids in tested sample as well as methods to evaluate the steroids of added herbs or other externally added steroids.

In modern era, patients are still using drugs prescribed by quacks and 21% of Quackery Formulation in Rawalpindi is contaminated with steroids. The steroids comprise mainly of dexamethasone and prednisolone in adulterated tablets and powders prescribed by hakeems. Many quacks contaminate drugs with steroids for early relief of symptoms, although they do not label their formulations or indicate the steroid content ( phua et al, 2009; koishnaparsad et al, 2005).

In Pakistan a major proportion of population is un-educated and there is a lack of proper medical care facilities even in the cities for poor patients. These people take the quackery formulations from different sources. Because of the lack of comprehensive regulations regarding quackery practices and standards for quackery formulations, it is imperative that these drugs be screened for steroids with an aim to protect the patients from adverse effects of these contaminants (Attarde et al, 2008; Ciesla & wadmunzka,2009).

Conclusion:

References:

>Raynor DK, Dukinson R, Knapp P, Long AF, Nicolson DJ. Buyer beware? Dose the information provided with herbal products available over the counter enable safe use ? BMC Medicine.2011; 9:94.

> Phua DH, Zosel A, Heard K. Dietary supplements and herbal medicine toxicities—when to anticipate them and how to manage them. Int J Emerg Med .2009; 2: 69–76.

> Krishnaprasad R, Pillay VV, Rajesh RR, Vishnupriya N. Adulteration and contamination of Ayurvedic herbal medications. Journal of the Indian Society of Toxicology 2005; 1: 1.

> Attarde DL, Aurangabadkar VM, Belsare DP, Pal SC. Report: quantitative estimation of beta-sitosterol, lupeol, quercetin and quercetin glycosides from leaflets of Soymida febrifuga using HPTLC technique. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2008; 21: 316-9.

> Cieślaa L, Waksmundzka-Hajnos M. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of secondary plant metabolites. A. 2009; 1216: 1035-52.

> Harborne, JB. Phytochemicals Methods. Chapman and

Hall Ltd., London,1973. pp. 49-188.

> Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. New Delhi: Springer (India)

Pvt.Ltd; 2005.17 p.

>’Herbal remedies’ containing heavy metals. Available from: http://www.mhra.gov.uk.

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