Positive Attitude Toward The Concept Of Alzheimers Biology Essay

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The twenty respondents were subjected into a survey questionnaire that consists of twenty seven questions. The first part is regarding their personal information such as gender, current marital status and others. The second part is regarding their current health condition as well as their day to day activities. The third part is regarding their perception on Alzheimer's disease and lastly, their feelings towards the disease.

The data gathered were subjected into the Cronbach's Alpha; Factor Analysis and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) as means of analysis of data. The researcher used the SPSS as the tool for the analysis of such.

Cronbach's Alpha

Normally, the Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient ranges between 0-1. However, there is no actual limit for the coefficient. The closer Cronbach's alpha coefficient is to 1.0 the greater the internal consistency of the items in the scale. Based upon the formula _ = rk / [1 + (k -1)r] where k is the number of items considered and r is the mean of the inter-item correlations the size of alpha is determined by both the number of items in the scale and the mean inter-item correlations. George and Mallery (2003) provide the following rules of thumb: "_ > .9 - Excellent, _ > .8 - Good, _ > .7 - Acceptable, _ > .6 - Questionable, _ > .5 - Poor, and_ < .5 - Unacceptable".

In the case of the obtained data, the reliability coefficient is .887 which indicates good reliability coefficient. While increasing the value of alpha is partially dependent upon the number of items in the scale, it should be noted that this has diminishing returns. It should also be noted that an alpha of .8 is probably a reasonable goal. It should also be noted that while a high value for Cronbach's alpha indicates good internal consistency of the items in the scale, it does not mean that the scale is one-dimensional. The dimensionality of the scale can be computed using the factor analysis which will be discussed in the next section.

Factor Analysis

The method followed here was to first examine the initial responses of the participants with a view to selecting a subset of characteristics that might influence further responses. Then, survey responses were analysed at the item level, using figures, tables, or text alone, to provide a first impression.

These item level responses were scrutinised for underlying patterns via factor analytic procedures (Note that all procedures reported here utilise SPSS). A prerequisite for including an item was that responses were not too badly skewed (i.e., 90% or more of responses clustered in single cell) and that more generally, the level of response to that item was not insufficient (<15-20%) to destabilise analysis. The factors identified in this fashion correspond to the primary topics or latent variables to which correspondents seem to be responding in terms of various related items.

The protocol adopted here for factor analysis was to use default settings initially (Principal Axis Factor - PAF) and to rotate the matrix of loadings to obtain orthogonal (independent) factors (Varimax rotation). The prime goal of factor analysis is to identity simple (items loadings >0.30 on only one factor) that are interpretable, assuming that items are factorable (The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy tests whether the partial correlations among variables are small. Bartlett's test of sphericity tests whether the correlation matrix is an identity matrix, indicating that the factor model is inappropriate).

Once clearly defined and interpretable factors had been identified (Factor loadings =>.10 were illustrated via an included table even though only item loadings >0.30 were considered relevant to factor loadings), and responses related to these factors were saved in the form of factor scores. These Bartlett factor scores are equivalent to sub-scale or scale scores with means of zero and standard deviations of one (z-scores), and with participants credited with separate scores in relation to each identified factor.

A Principal Axis Factor (PAF) with a Varimax (orthogonal) rotation of 22 of the 24 Likert scale questions from this survey questionnaire was conducted on data gathered from 20 participants. An examination of the Kaiser-Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy suggested that the sample was factorable (KMO=.698).

One Way Anova

One - way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is done with the dependent variable which is the groups perception and attitudes towards Alzheimer's disease as compared with the independent variables which are their gender, description/race, religion, current employment status, highest level of education, and current marital status.

Gender vs. the Perceptions and Attitudes

ANOVA

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Alzheimer's disease is progressive

Between Groups

1.152

1

1.152

6.806

.018

Within Groups

3.048

18

.169

Total

4.200

19

Alzheimer's disease destroy memory and thinking skills

Between Groups

.010

1

.010

.041

.842

Within Groups

4.190

18

.233

Total

4.200

19

more men get Alzheimer's than women

Between Groups

.060

1

.060

.290

.597

Within Groups

3.690

18

.205

Total

3.750

19

Alzheimer's is a normal part of aging

Between Groups

.010

1

.010

.041

.842

Within Groups

4.190

18

.233

Total

4.200

19

doesn't know what starts Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.193

1

.193

.797

.384

Within Groups

4.357

18

.242

Total

4.550

19

practices that can reduce the risk of Alzheimer's

Between Groups

.193

1

.193

.797

.384

Within Groups

4.357

18

.242

Total

4.550

19

children can get Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.060

1

.060

.290

.597

Within Groups

3.690

18

.205

Total

3.750

19

there is a cure for Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.117

1

.117

2.520

.130

Within Groups

.833

18

.046

Total

.950

19

worry about getting Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.402

1

.402

.170

.685

Within Groups

42.548

18

2.364

Total

42.950

19

as I get older, I worry more about getting Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

1.260

1

1.260

.819

.377

Within Groups

27.690

18

1.538

Total

28.950

19

no one will take care of me if I get Alzheimer's

Between Groups

3.086

1

3.086

1.869

.188

Within Groups

29.714

18

1.651

Total

32.800

19

I feel comfortable talking Alzheimer's with family and friends

Between Groups

1.371

1

1.371

.900

.355

Within Groups

27.429

18

1.524

Total

28.800

19

I feel people with ALzheimer's are treated without respect

Between Groups

.402

1

.402

.295

.594

Within Groups

24.548

18

1.364

Total

24.950

19

people with Alzheimer's have no feelings

Between Groups

2.593

1

2.593

2.542

.128

Within Groups

18.357

18

1.020

Total

20.950

19

I can get Alzheimer's by being around with people that have them

Between Groups

4.002

1

4.002

4.354

.051

Within Groups

16.548

18

.919

Total

20.550

19

Table 1 shows the results for the ANOVA comparing the respondents' gender into their attitudes towards Alzheimer's disease. On the question whether Alzheimer's disease is progressive, it has .018 level of significance while the question whether they think that if they can get Alzheimer's by being around people that have them indicates .051 level of significance.

Description/Race vs. the Perceptions and Attitudes

ANOVA

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Alzheimer's disease is progressive

Between Groups

.516

1

.516

2.520

.130

Within Groups

3.684

18

.205

Total

4.200

19

Alzheimer's disease destroy memory and thinking skills

Between Groups

.095

1

.095

.415

.527

Within Groups

4.105

18

.228

Total

4.200

19

more men get Alzheimer's than women

Between Groups

.592

1

.592

3.375

.083

Within Groups

3.158

18

.175

Total

3.750

19

Alzheimer's is a normal part of aging

Between Groups

.095

1

.095

.415

.527

Within Groups

4.105

18

.228

Total

4.200

19

doesn't know what starts Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.129

1

.129

.525

.478

Within Groups

4.421

18

.246

Total

4.550

19

practices that can reduce the risk of Alzheimer's

Between Groups

.445

1

.445

1.950

.180

Within Groups

4.105

18

.228

Total

4.550

19

children can get Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.592

1

.592

3.375

.083

Within Groups

3.158

18

.175

Total

3.750

19

there is a cure for Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.003

1

.003

.050

.826

Within Groups

.947

18

.053

Total

.950

19

worry about getting Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.950

1

.950

.407

.531

Within Groups

42.000

18

2.333

Total

42.950

19

as I get older, I worry more about getting Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.213

1

.213

.134

.719

Within Groups

28.737

18

1.596

Total

28.950

19

no one will take care of me if I get Alzheimer's

Between Groups

2.695

1

2.695

1.611

.220

Within Groups

30.105

18

1.673

Total

32.800

19

I feel comfortable talking Alzheimer's with family and friends

Between Groups

6.063

1

6.063

4.800

.042

Within Groups

22.737

18

1.263

Total

28.800

19

I feel people with ALzheimer's are treated without respect

Between Groups

1.161

1

1.161

.878

.361

Within Groups

23.789

18

1.322

Total

24.950

19

people with Alzheimer's have no feelings

Between Groups

.213

1

.213

.185

.672

Within Groups

20.737

18

1.152

Total

20.950

19

I can get Alzheimer's by being around with people that have them

Between Groups

.024

1

.024

.021

.887

Within Groups

20.526

18

1.140

Total

20.550

19

Table 2 shows the results for the ANOVA comparing the respondents' race description into their attitudes towards Alzheimer's disease. On the question whether Alzheimer's disease is progressive, it has .130 level of significance while the question whether they think that if they can get Alzheimer's by being around people that have them indicates .887 level of significance.

Religion vs. the Perceptions and Attitudes

ANOVA

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Alzheimer's disease is progressive

Between Groups

.725

3

.242

1.113

.373

Within Groups

3.475

16

.217

Total

4.200

19

Alzheimer's disease destroy memory and thinking skills

Between Groups

1.425

3

.475

2.739

.078

Within Groups

2.775

16

.173

Total

4.200

19

more men get Alzheimer's than women

Between Groups

.650

3

.217

1.118

.371

Within Groups

3.100

16

.194

Total

3.750

19

Alzheimer's is a normal part of aging

Between Groups

.225

3

.075

.302

.824

Within Groups

3.975

16

.248

Total

4.200

19

doesn't know what starts Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.275

3

.092

.343

.795

Within Groups

4.275

16

.267

Total

4.550

19

practices that can reduce the risk of Alzheimer's

Between Groups

.575

3

.192

.771

.527

Within Groups

3.975

16

.248

Total

4.550

19

children can get Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.650

3

.217

1.118

.371

Within Groups

3.100

16

.194

Total

3.750

19

there is a cure for Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.075

3

.025

.457

.716

Within Groups

.875

16

.055

Total

.950

19

worry about getting Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

7.050

3

2.350

1.047

.399

Within Groups

35.900

16

2.244

Total

42.950

19

as I get older, I worry more about getting Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

3.850

3

1.283

.818

.503

Within Groups

25.100

16

1.569

Total

28.950

19

no one will take care of me if I get Alzheimer's

Between Groups

3.425

3

1.142

.622

.611

Within Groups

29.375

16

1.836

Total

32.800

19

I feel comfortable talking Alzheimer's with family and friends

Between Groups

9.525

3

3.175

2.636

.085

Within Groups

19.275

16

1.205

Total

28.800

19

I feel people with ALzheimer's are treated without respect

Between Groups

4.675

3

1.558

1.230

.331

Within Groups

20.275

16

1.267

Total

24.950

19

people with Alzheimer's have no feelings

Between Groups

.675

3

.225

.178

.910

Within Groups

20.275

16

1.267

Total

20.950

19

I can get Alzheimer's by being around with people that have them

Between Groups

2.150

3

.717

.623

.610

Within Groups

18.400

16

1.150

Total

20.550

19

Table 3 shows the results for the ANOVA comparing the respondents' religion into their attitudes towards Alzheimer's disease. On the question whether Alzheimer's disease is progressive, it has .373 level of significance while the question whether they think that if they can get Alzheimer's by being around people that have them indicates .610 level of significance.

Current Employment Status vs. the Perception and Attitudes

ANOVA

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Alzheimer's disease is progressive

Between Groups

.763

3

.254

1.183

.347

Within Groups

3.438

16

.215

Total

4.200

19

Alzheimer's disease destroy memory and thinking skills

Between Groups

1.200

3

.400

2.133

.136

Within Groups

3.000

16

.188

Total

4.200

19

more men get Alzheimer's than women

Between Groups

.313

3

.104

.485

.698

Within Groups

3.438

16

.215

Total

3.750

19

Alzheimer's is a normal part of aging

Between Groups

1.200

3

.400

2.133

.136

Within Groups

3.000

16

.188

Total

4.200

19

doesn't know what starts Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.800

3

.267

1.138

.364

Within Groups

3.750

16

.234

Total

4.550

19

practices that can reduce the risk of Alzheimer's

Between Groups

.800

3

.267

1.138

.364

Within Groups

3.750

16

.234

Total

4.550

19

children can get Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.750

3

.250

1.333

.299

Within Groups

3.000

16

.188

Total

3.750

19

there is a cure for Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.950

3

.317

.

.

Within Groups

.000

16

.000

Total

.950

19

worry about getting Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

9.450

3

3.150

1.504

.251

Within Groups

33.500

16

2.094

Total

42.950

19

as I get older, I worry more about getting Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.700

3

.233

.132

.940

Within Groups

28.250

16

1.766

Total

28.950

19

no one will take care of me if I get Alzheimer's

Between Groups

2.863

3

.954

.510

.681

Within Groups

29.938

16

1.871

Total

32.800

19

I feel comfortable talking Alzheimer's with family and friends

Between Groups

5.800

3

1.933

1.345

.295

Within Groups

23.000

16

1.438

Total

28.800

19

I feel people with ALzheimer's are treated without respect

Between Groups

3.200

3

1.067

.785

.520

Within Groups

21.750

16

1.359

Total

24.950

19

people with Alzheimer's have no feelings

Between Groups

.700

3

.233

.184

.905

Within Groups

20.250

16

1.266

Total

20.950

19

I can get Alzheimer's by being around with people that have them

Between Groups

4.113

3

1.371

1.334

.298

Within Groups

16.438

16

1.027

Total

20.550

19

Table 4 shows the results for the ANOVA comparing the respondents' current employment into their attitudes towards Alzheimer's disease. On the question whether Alzheimer's disease is progressive, it has .347 level of significance while the question whether they think that if they can get Alzheimer's by being around people that have them indicates .298 level of significance.

Highest Level of Education vs. the Perception and Attitudes

ANOVA

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Alzheimer's disease is progressive

Between Groups

.843

4

.211

.941

.467

Within Groups

3.357

15

.224

Total

4.200

19

Alzheimer's disease destroy memory and thinking skills

Between Groups

.843

4

.211

.941

.467

Within Groups

3.357

15

.224

Total

4.200

19

more men get Alzheimer's than women

Between Groups

.560

4

.140

.658

.631

Within Groups

3.190

15

.213

Total

3.750

19

Alzheimer's is a normal part of aging

Between Groups

.843

4

.211

.941

.467

Within Groups

3.357

15

.224

Total

4.200

19

doesn't know what starts Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

1.002

4

.251

1.060

.410

Within Groups

3.548

15

.237

Total

4.550

19

practices that can reduce the risk of Alzheimer's

Between Groups

.752

4

.188

.743

.577

Within Groups

3.798

15

.253

Total

4.550

19

children can get Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.821

4

.205

1.052

.414

Within Groups

2.929

15

.195

Total

3.750

19

there is a cure for Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.117

4

.029

.525

.719

Within Groups

.833

15

.056

Total

.950

19

worry about getting Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

13.402

4

3.351

1.701

.202

Within Groups

29.548

15

1.970

Total

42.950

19

as I get older, I worry more about getting Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

9.021

4

2.255

1.698

.203

Within Groups

19.929

15

1.329

Total

28.950

19

no one will take care of me if I get Alzheimer's

Between Groups

3.788

4

.947

.490

.743

Within Groups

29.012

15

1.934

Total

32.800

19

I feel comfortable talking Alzheimer's with family and friends

Between Groups

5.110

4

1.277

.809

.539

Within Groups

23.690

15

1.579

Total

28.800

19

I feel people with ALzheimer's are treated without respect

Between Groups

2.200

4

.550

.363

.831

Within Groups

22.750

15

1.517

Total

24.950

19

people with Alzheimer's have no feelings

Between Groups

5.117

4

1.279

1.212

.347

Within Groups

15.833

15

1.056

Total

20.950

19

I can get Alzheimer's by being around with people that have them

Between Groups

6.288

4

1.572

1.653

.213

Within Groups

14.262

15

.951

Total

20.550

19

Table 4 shows the results for the ANOVA comparing the respondents' highest level of education into their attitudes towards Alzheimer's disease. On the question whether Alzheimer's disease is progressive, it has .467 level of significance while the question whether they think that if they can get Alzheimer's by being around people that have them indicates .213 level of significance.

Current Marital Status vs. the Perception and Attitude

Table 4 shows the results for the ANOVA comparing the respondents' current marital status into their attitudes towards Alzheimer's disease. On the question whether Alzheimer's disease is progressive, it has .116 level of significance while the question whether they think that if they can get Alzheimer's by being around people that have them indicates .633 level of significance.

ANOVA

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Alzheimer's disease is progressive

Between Groups

1.561

4

.390

2.218

.116

Within Groups

2.639

15

.176

Total

4.200

19

Alzheimer's disease destroy memory and thinking skills

Between Groups

1.311

4

.328

1.702

.202

Within Groups

2.889

15

.193

Total

4.200

19

more men get Alzheimer's than women

Between Groups

.444

4

.111

.504

.733

Within Groups

3.306

15

.220

Total

3.750

19

Alzheimer's is a normal part of aging

Between Groups

1.811

4

.453

2.843

.061

Within Groups

2.389

15

.159

Total

4.200

19

doesn't know what starts Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

1.244

4

.311

1.412

.278

Within Groups

3.306

15

.220

Total

4.550

19

practices that can reduce the risk of Alzheimer's

Between Groups

1.800

4

.450

2.455

.091

Within Groups

2.750

15

.183

Total

4.550

19

children can get Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.694

4

.174

.852

.514

Within Groups

3.056

15

.204

Total

3.750

19

there is a cure for Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

.200

4

.050

1.000

.438

Within Groups

.750

15

.050

Total

.950

19

worry about getting Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

4.950

4

1.238

.488

.744

Within Groups

38.000

15

2.533

Total

42.950

19

as I get older, I worry more about getting Alzheimer's disease

Between Groups

6.644

4

1.661

1.117

.385

Within Groups

22.306

15

1.487

Total

28.950

19

no one will take care of me if I get Alzheimer's

Between Groups

.994

4

.249

.117

.974

Within Groups

31.806

15

2.120

Total

32.800

19

I feel comfortable talking Alzheimer's with family and friends

Between Groups

8.744

4

2.186

1.635

.217

Within Groups

20.056

15

1.337

Total

28.800

19

I feel people with ALzheimer's are treated without respect

Between Groups

2.700

4

.675

.455

.767

Within Groups

22.250

15

1.483

Total

24.950

19

people with Alzheimer's have no feelings

Between Groups

4.728

4

1.182

1.093

.395

Within Groups

16.222

15

1.081

Total

20.950

19

I can get Alzheimer's by being around with people that have them

Between Groups

3.050

4

.763

.654

.633

Within Groups

17.500

15

1.167

Total

20.550

19

Discussion

Based on the results of the survey, majority of the respondents have a positive attitude and perception toward the concept of Alzheimer's. Though the respondents' knowledge regarding the disease is undeniably limited.

As a part of the statistical analysis, the non-parametric Spearman rho analysis was also conducted. The nonparametric Spearman's rho test was chosen because it is appropriate for the ordinal data used in the tools. It is useful in determining relationships among nonparametric data where the assumptions of the Pearson correlation are violated. The Spearman's rho test revealed some important, but not surprising relationships. The most significant relationships, based on a 0.01 level (2-tailed), were between the gender highest educational attainment of the respondents and their attitude and perception towards the disease. There were strong correlations between the knowledge in the progression of the disease, and the knowledge in the ability of AD in destroying the memory and thinking skills of individual

The Spearman's rho, based on a 0.05 level (2-tailed) however did not reveal any significant relationship or correlation between the respondents' personal information and their attitude and perception towards the Alzheimer's disease.

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