Pharmacological Evaluation Of Quisqualis Indica Linn Biology Essay

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Rats: Albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 200- 250 g were obtained from Padmavati College of Pharmacy Research Institute. Animals of either sex were housed in groups of three under standard laboratory conditions with free access to standard pellet diet and water ad libitum.

Mice: Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30 g were obtained from Padmavati College of Pharmacy & Research Institute. Animals of either sex were housed in groups of five under standard laboratory conditions of 22 ± 30C with relative humidity 30% and 12 h light and dark cycle with free access to standard pellet diet and water ad libitum.

5.2.2 Acute oral toxicity test85:

Three male mice were fasted overnight with free access to water. Each animal received single doses of different extracts of leaves and flowers of QI (2,000 mg/kg, p.o.)

After administration of different extracts of leaves and flowers of QI , animals were observed individually and continuously for 30 min, 2 hr and 24 hr to detect changes in the autonomic or behavioral responses and also for tremors, convulsion, salivation, diarrhoea, lethargy, sleep and coma and then monitored for any mortality for the following 14 days. Different extracts of leaves and flowers of QI which were orally administered in increasing doses found safe up to 2,000 mg/kg dose.

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On the basis of acute toxicity the 1/10th of 2000 mg/kg, p.o. dose of different extracts of leaves and flowers of QI were selected at doses as 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, p.o. for evaluation of pharmacological activities.

5.2.3 ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY:

5.2.3.1 Hypoglycemic study in nondiabetic rats86

The Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used. The overnight fasted animals were divided into fourteen groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 21: Hypoglycemic study in nondiabetic rats

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Plasma glucose

On 0th, 60th, 120th, and 180th min after drug treatment.

II- Glim

Glimepride (0.09 mg/kg, p.o.).

III- MLQ-100

MLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

IV- MLQ-200

MLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

V- MLQ-400

MLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VI- PLQ-100

PLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VII- PLQ-200

PLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VIII- PLQ-400

PLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

IX- MFQ-100

MFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

X- MFQ-200

MFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

XI- MFQ-400

MFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

XII- PFQ-100

PFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

XIII- PFQ-200

PFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

XIV- PFQ-400

PFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Glim = Glimepride, MLQ = Methanolic extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn, PLQ = Pet. ether extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn, MFQ = Methanolic extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn, PFQ = Pet. ether extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn.

Parameters evaluated

Biochemical Parameters: At the 0th, 60th, 120th and 180th min after drug administration blood was collected by puncturing retro-orbital plexus under mild ether anesthesia by using fine glass capillary in epindroff tubes containing anticoagulant. Plasma was separated by centrifugation. Plasma glucose level was estimated by GOD/POD method.

5.2.3.2 Anti-hyperglycemic study in glucose induced rats86

The Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used. The overnight fasted animals were divided into fourteen groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 22: Anti-hyperglycemic study in glucose induced rats

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

GlucoseLoad

Parameters

I- Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

10% Glucose solution

(2 g/kg, p.o).

30 min after vehicle/drug administration

Plasma glucose

on 0th, 30th, 90th, 150th min.

after glucose loaded

II- Glim

Glimepride (0.09 mg/kg, p.o.).

III- MLQ-100

MLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

IV- MLQ-200

MLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

V- MLQ-400

MLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VI- PLQ-100

PLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

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VII- PLQ-200

PLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VIII PLQ-400

PLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

IX MFQ-100

MFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

X MFQ-200

MFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

XI MFQ-400

MFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

XII PFQ-100

PFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

XIII PFQ-200

PFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

XIV PFQ-400

PFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Glim = Glimepride, MLQ = Methanolic extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn, PLQ = Pet. ether extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn.

Parameters evaluated

Biochemical Parameters: At the 0th, 30th, 90th and 150th min after glucose load, the blood samples were collected by puncturing retro-orbital plexus under mild ether anesthesia by using fine glass capillary, in epindroff tubes containing anticoagulant. Plasma was separated by centrifugation. The plasma glucose level was determined by GOD/POD Method.

5.2.3.3 Study in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in mice87.

The male swiss mice weighing 25-30 g were used. The overnight fasted animals were divided into nine groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 23: Study in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in mice

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o., b.i.d.)

Biochemical Parameters

Plasma glucose

and triglyceride

Morphological

Parameter

Body weight

Antioxidants

GSH, SOD, Catalase, LPO levels in liver homogenate.

Glucose uptake

In isolated hemi-diaphragms.

II- Dexa + Control

(1mg/kg/day, i.m.) From day 1 to day 22.

III- Dexa + Pio

Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg/day, i.m.) daily for 22 days and pioglitazone (2 mg/kg/day, p.o., b.i.d.) from day 8 to day 22.

IV- Dexa + MLQ-100

Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg/day, i.m.) daily for 22 days and MLQ (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., b.i.d.) from day 8 to day 22.

V- Dexa + MLQ-200

Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg/day, i.m.) daily for 22 days and MLQ (200 mg/kg/day, p.o., b.i.d.) from day 8 to day 22.

VI- Dexa + MLQ-400

Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg/day, i.m.) daily for 22 days and MLQ (400 mg/kg/day, p.o.) from day 8 to day 22.

VII Dexa + MFQ-100

Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg/day, i.m.) daily for 22 days and MFQ (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) from day 8 to day 22.

VIII Dexa + MFQ-200

Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg/day, i.m.) daily for 22 days and MFQ (200 mg/kg/day, p.o., b.i.d.) from day 8 to day 22.

IX Dexa + MFQ-400

Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg/day, i.m.) daily for 22 days and MFQ (400 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.) from day 8 to day 22.

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Dexa = Dexamethasone, Pio = Pioglitazone, MLQ = Methanolic extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn, MFQ = Methanolic extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn.

Parameters evaluated

Biochemical Parameters: The plasma glucose and triglyceride levels were estimated on day 1 and day 22.

2) Morphological: The body weights were taken on day 1 and day 22.

3) Antioxidants: The antioxidant parametres (GSH, SOD, Catalase, LPO levels) were estimated from liver homogenate.

4) Glucose uptake in isolated hemi-diaphragms.

5.2.3.4 Study in nondiabetic and alloxan induced diabetic rats with reference to diabetic complications88,89.

Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitonial injection of alloxan monohydrate in citrate buffer (pH 4.5) at a dose of 140 mg/kg of body weight of the rat. The diabetic state was confirmed 48 hr after alloxan injection by hyperglycemia. Surviving rats with fasting blood glucose level higher than 250 mg/dl were included in the study.

Procedure

Total of 90 Wistar rats were used (50 diabetic surviving and 40 non-diabetics). The rats were divided in to 18 groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 24: Alloxan induced diabetic rats with reference to diabetic complications

Groups (n=5)

Treatment and Dose/ Day

Parameters evaluated

I- Control

(1% gum acacia 1 ml/kg, p.o., b.i.d)

Biochemical

Parameters

Plasma glucose,

Plasma triglyceride,

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Plasma total cholesterol,

Plasma LDL- cholesterol,

Plasma HDL- cholesterol,

Plasma creatinine,

Plasma albumin,

Plasma total protein

Hemodynamic parameters

Blood pressure,

Heart rate

Morphological parameter

Body weight

II-D Control

Alloxan (140 mg/kg, i. p.) on 0th day

III-D + Glim

Alloxan (140 mg/kg, i. p.) on 0th day + Glimepride (0.09 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

IV-D + Losar

Alloxan (140 mg/kg, i. p.) on 0th day + Losartan (2 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.) for 42 days

V- D + MLQ -100

Alloxan (140 mg/kg, i.p.) on 0th day + MLQ (100 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

VI- D + MLQ-200

Alloxan (140 mg/kg i.p.) on 0th day + MLQ (200 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

VII- D + MLQ- 400

Alloxan (140mg/kg i.p.) on 0th day + MLQ (400 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

VIII- D + MFQ -100

Alloxan (140 mg/kg, i.p.) on 0th day + M

FQ (100 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

IX- D + MFQ-200

Alloxan (140 mg/kg i.p.) on 0th day + MFQ (200 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

X- D + MFQ- 400

Alloxan (140mg/kg i.p.) on 0th day + MFQ (400 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

XI- Glim

Glimepride (0.09 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.) for 42 days

XII- Losar

Losartan (2 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

XIII- MLQ -100

MLQ (100 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

XIV- MLQ-200

MLQ (200 mg/kg, p.o. b.i.d) for 42 days

XV- MLQ- 400

MLQ (400 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

XVI - MFQ -100

MFQ (100 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

XVII - MFQ-200

MFQ (200 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

XVIII - MFQ- 400

MFQ (400 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d) for 42 days

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Glim = Glimepride, Losar = Losartan, MLQ = Methanolic extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn, MFQ = Methanolic extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn.

Parameters evaluated

Biochemical Parameters: The plasma glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol,

LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, albumin and total protein levels were estimated on day 1 and day 43.

Morphological: In this study, body weight of the animals were mesured on day 1 and day 43.

Hemodynamic parameters: In this study the blood pressure measurment was done by using BIOPAC (Invasive method).

5.2.4 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY:

Carrageenan induced paw edema in rats (Quisqualis indica Linn flowers extract)

The anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced hind paw edema was carried out as described by Winter et al90.

Male wistar rats of 200-250 g were used. Rats were divided into eight groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 25: Carrageenan induced paw edema in rats (Quisqualis indica Linn flowers)

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

% sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Edema volume

And Percent inhibition

II- Indo

Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.)

III- MFQ-100

MFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

IV- MFQ-200

MFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

V- MFQ-400

MFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VI- PFQ-100

PFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VII- PFQ-200

PFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VIII PFQ-400

PFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Indo = Indomethacin, MFQ = Methanolic extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn, PFQ = Pet. ether extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn.

5.2.4.1 Carrageenan induced paw edema in rats (Quisqualis indica Linn leaves extract)

Table 26: Carrageenan induced paw edema in rats (Quisqualis indica Linn leaves extract)

Male wistar rats of 200-250 g were used. Rats were divided into eight groups (n=5) as follows:

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Edema volume and

Percent inhibition

II- Indo

Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.)

III- MLQ-100

MLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

IV- MLQ-200

MLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

V- MLQ-400

MLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

VI- PLQ-100

PLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

VII- PLQ-200

PLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

VIII PLQ-400

PLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Indo = Indomethacin, MLQ = Methanolic extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn, PLQ = Pet. ether extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn.

Procedure:

After 60 minutes of administration of test drugs, 0.1 ml of 1% carrageenan was injected into right hind paw. Paw volume was measured by using Plethysmometer at a time interval of 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr, 5 hr and 6 hr after administration of carrageenan.

Edema volume and % inhibition were calculated by using following formulae

Edema Volume = Vt - Vc

Vt = Paw volume in ml, at time t, after carrageenan administration

Vc = Paw volume in ml, before carrageenan administration

Percent Inhibition = Ec-Et / Ec Ã- 100

Ec = Edema volume of control group

Et = Edema volume of treated group

5.2.4.2 Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice91 (Quisqualis indica Linn flowers extract)

The swiss albino mice weighing 25-30 g were used. The overnight fasted animals were divided into eight groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 27: Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice (Quisqualis indica Linn leaves extract)

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

% sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Amount of dye leakage

Percent inhibition of dye leakage

II- Indo

Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.)

III- MFQ-100

MFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

IV- MFQ-200

MFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

V- MFQ-400

MFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VI- PFQ-100

PFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VII- PFQ-200

PFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VIII PFQ-400

PFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Indo = Indomethacin, MFQ = Methanolic extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn, PFQ = Pet. ether extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn.

5.2.4.3 Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice (Quisqualis indica Linn flowers extract)

The swiss albino mice weighing 25-30 g were used. The overnight fasted animals were divided into eight groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 28: Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice (Quisqualis indica Linn flowers extract)

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Amount of dye leakage

Percent inhibition of dye leakage

II- Indo

Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.)

III- MLQ-100

MLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

IV- MLQ-200

MLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

V- MLQ-400

MLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VI- PLQ-100

PLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VII- PLQ-200

PLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VIII PLQ-400

PLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Indo = Indomethacin, MLQ = Methanolic extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn, PLQ = Pet. ether extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn

Procedure

After 60 minutes of test drug administration, 0.6 % solution of acetic acid was injected (10 ml/kg, i.p.) in mice. Immediately, 10 % (w/v) Evan's blue was injected (10 ml/kg, i.v.) through the tail vain. Thirty minutes after Evan's blue injection, the animals were anaesthetized with ether anaesthesia and sacrificed. Peritoneal fluid was removed from each animal, filtered and volume to make up to 10 ml with distilled water. Absorbance of each sample was measured spectrophotometrically at 610 nm.

Results were expressed as,

Percent inhibition = Wc-Wt/Wc

Wc = Amount of dye leakage in control group

Wt = Amount of dye leakage in test group

5.2.4.4 Cotton pellet granuloma formation in rats92 (Quisqualis indica Linn leaves extract)

Male rats of 200-250 g of rats were divided into eight groups containing six animals in each group.

Table 29: Cotton pellet granuloma formation in rats (Quisqualis indica Linn leaves extract)

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Granuloma weight

Percent inhibition

Ulcerogenic Index

Antioxidant in liver

LPO

SOD

Catalase

GSH

II- Ibup

Ibuprofen (10 mg/kg, p.o.)

III- MLQ-100

MLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

IV- MLQ-200

MLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

V- MLQ-400

MLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VI- PLQ-100

PLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VII- PLQ-200

PLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VIII PLQ-400

PLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Ibup = Ibuprofen, MLQ = Methanolic extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn, PLQ = Pet. ether extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn.

5.2.4.5 Cotton pellet granuloma formation in rats (Quisqualis indica Linn flower extract)

Male rats of 200-250 g of rats were divided into eight groups containing six animals in each group.

Table 30: Cotton pellet granuloma formation in rats (Quisqualis indica Linn flowers extract)

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Granuloma weight

Percent inhibition

Ulcerogenic Index

Antioxidant in liver

LPO

SOD

Catalase

GSH

Ibup

Ibuprofen (10 mg/kg, p.o.)

MFQ-100

MFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

MFQ-200

MFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

MFQ400

MFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

PFQ-100

PFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

PFQ-200

PFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

PFQ-400

PFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Ibup = Ibuprofen, MFQ = Methanolic extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn, PFQ = Pet. ether extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn.

Procedure

The cotton pellet weighing 50 ± 2 mg was sterilized in an autoclave (Lab hosp, Mumbai, India) handled with sterile instrument. The pellet was inserted in each animal on the back. On 8th day, animals were anaesthetized by ether and blood was withdrawn by retro orbital plexus by using fine glass capillary and collected into epindroff tubes for separation of plasma.

After blood withdrawal animals were sacrificed by decapitation, cotton pellets were carefully removed and made free from extraneous tissues.

Each Pellet was then dried at 60â-¦C in an oven until constant weight was obtained. Granuloma formation was evaluated by the dry weight of the pellet. Liver of each animal was removed rapidly and washed with ice cold TRIS buffer.

Liver of each animal was cut into a small pieces and homogenated with homogenizer, so that clear homogenate is formed. These lever homogenate were used for estimation of LPO, GSH, SOD and Catalase levels.

5.2.5 ANALGESIC ACTIVITY

5.2.5.1 Acetic acid induced writhing in mice93 (Quisqualis indica Linn leaves extract)

The swiss albino mice weighing 25-30 g were used. The overnight fasted animals were divided into eight groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 31: Acetic acid induced writhing in mice (Quisqualis indica Linn leaves extract)

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Number of writhes during 60 min

Percent inhibition

II- Penta

Pentazocine (10 mg/kg, i.p.)

III- MLQ-100

MLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

IV- MLQ-200

MLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

V- MLQ-400

MLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VI- PLQ-100

PLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VII- PLQ-200

PLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VIII PLQ-400

PLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Penta = Pentazocin, MLQ = Methanolic extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn, PLQ = Pet. ether extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn.

5.2.5.2 Acetic acid induced writhing in mice (Quisqualis indica Linn flowers extract)

The swiss albino mice weighing 25-30 g were used. The overnight fasted animals were divided into eight groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 32: Acetic acid induced writhing in mice (Quisqualis indica Linn flowers extract)

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Number of writhes during 60 min

Percent inhibition

II-Penta

Pentazocine (10 mg/kg, i.p.)

III- MFQ-100

MFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

IV- MFQ-200

MFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

V- MFQ-400

MFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VI- PFQ-100

PFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VII- PFQ-200

PFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VIII- PFQ-400

PFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Penta = Pentazocin, MFQ = Methanolic extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn, PFQ = Pet. ether extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn.

Procedure

The writhing syndrome was elicited by intraperitonial injection of acetic acid (0.1 ml of 0.6% solution) and numbers of writhes displayed from 5 to 20 min were recorded118

After 60 minutes of drug administration, 0.6 % acetic acid solution (10 ml/ kg, i.p.) was injected to each animal and resulting writhes and stretching were observed and counted over a period of 60 min after acetic acid injection. Results were expressed as,

Percent inhibition = Wc-Wt/Wc

Wc= Number of wriths in control group

Wt = Number of wriths in test group

5.2.5.3 Formalin induced nociception94 (Quisqualis indica Linn leaves extract)

The Swiss albino mice weighing 25-30 g were used. The overnight fasted animals were divided into eight groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 33: Formalin induced nociception (Quisqualis indica Linn leaves extract)

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Number of writhes during 60 min

Percent inhibition

II- Asp

Aspirin (100 mg/kg, p.o.)

III- MLQ-100

MLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

IV- MLQ-200

MLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

V- MLQ-400

MLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VI- PLQ-100

PLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VII- PLQ-200

PLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VIII PLQ-400

PLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Asp = Aspirin, MLQ = Methanolic extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn, PLQ = Pet. Ether extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn

5.2.5.4 Formalin induced nociception (Quisqualis indica Linn flowers extract)

The Swiss albino mice weighing 25-30 g were used. The overnight fasted animals were divided into eight groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 34: Formalin induced nociception Quisqualis indica Linn flowers extract

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Number of writhes during 60 min

Percent inhibition

II- Asp

Aspirin (100 mg/kg, p.o.)

III- MFQ-100

MFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

IV- MFQ-200

MFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

V- MFQ-400

MFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

VI- PFQ-100

PFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

VII- PFQ-200

PFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

VIII PFQ-400

PFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, Asp = Aspirin, MFQ = Methanolic extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn, PFQ = Pet. Ether extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn.

5.2.5.5 Hot plate method95 (Quisqualis indica Linn leaves extract)

The Swiss albino mice weighing 25-30 g were used. The overnight fasted animals were divided into eight groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 35: Hot plate method (Quisqualis indica Linn leaves extract)

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Time of reaction

(sec)

II- Penta

Pentazocine (10 mg/kg, i.p.)

III- MFQ-100

MFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

IV- MFQ-200

MFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

V- MFQ-400

MFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

VI- PFQ-100

PFQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

VII- PFQ-200

PFQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

VIII- PFQ-400

PFQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.)

Penta= Pentazocine, CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, MLQ = Methanolic extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn, PLQ = Pet. ether extract of leaves of Quisqualis indica Linn.

5.2.5.6 Hot plate method95 (Quisqualis indica Linn flowers extract)

The Swiss albino mice weighing 25-30 g were used. The overnight fasted animals were divided into eight groups (n=5) as follows:

Table 36: Hot plate method (Quisqualis indica Linn flower extract)

Groups (n=5)

Treatment

Parameters

I- Control

0.5 % sodium CMC (1 ml/kg, p.o.)

Time of reaction (sec)

II- Penta

Pentazocine (10 mg/kg, i.p.)

III- MLQ-100

MLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

IV- MLQ-200

MLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

V- MLQ-400

MLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VI- PLQ-100

PLQ (100 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VII- PLQ-200

PLQ (200 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

VIII- PLQ-400

PLQ (400 mg/kg in 0.5% CMC, p.o.).

Penta= Pentazocine, CMC = Carboxy methyl cellulose, MFQ = Methanolic extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn, PFQ = Pet. ether extract of flowers of Quisqualis indica Linn.

Procedure

After 60 minutes of test drug administration, animals were individually placed on hot plate with temperature adjusted to 55 ± 10o C. The latency to the first sign of paw licking or jump response to avoid the heat was taken as index of pain threshold; the cut off time was 20 secs in order to avoid damage to the paw. Procedure was performed after every 30th, 60th, 120th, 180th and 240th minutes of interval.