Overview Of Intravenous Urography Biology Essay

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Intravenous urogram or IVU is better known as one of many tests x-rays to assist in producing an anatomic structure and processes that occur in normal human urinary system with the help of contrast medium injection through the nerves. This is usually called intravenous pyelogram (IVP).


- Intravenous urography is an x-ray test in which the excretory system will be reviewed by the liquid method and system of IVU (intravenous urography) for diagnostic purposes.

-From a variety of other ways to get the image of the excretory system, the injection of intravenous contrast agent into the traditionally is considered the best and safe way.IVU kidneys to excrete fluid into the urine (the urine). X rays can produce an image of each structure in through the urine (the urine).

This procedure are many variations and names.

Ø intravenous Pyelography

Ø Urography

Ø Pyelography

Ø Antegrade Pyelography distinguish this procedure from "retograde pyelography" in which fluid is injected into the bottom end of the system, so will the process of reversal of the drainage of urine or "retograde." Retograde pyelography is one of the best ways to detect problems that occur at the bottom of the system and it is the only way to generate images using x-rays if there is any problem in the kidney or kidneys can not function properly.

Ø Nephrotomography a difference in the way of taking images where the image is obtained through x-rays sources are constantly moving into the film that is constantly moving in opposite directions. With the exact coordinates of the movement , to all but one plane of tissue surfaces that appear blurred , and the plane will look after another without a shadow .

Each of the existing methods to produce high quality images excretory system, the question is which method is most suitable. Every different situation or a situation requiring special needs, while each technique has its own specialty.

Ø nuclear inspection depends on the radiations emitted by several types of specific atoms. Chemicals that contain atoms to be injected into the patient's bloodstream. If the chemical is able to attend to the kidney, where the resulting image quality depends on the amount of radiation released. Radiation is not dangerous as x-rays commonly used. Images that require intensive training is important so that images can be reviewed and discussed this, they often provide a unique and useful information to help treat patients. Thus, the technology is often used to study abnormal events in the excretory system. Different chemicals that are able to collaborate with radiation to study the different tissues. The technique requires several days for the chemicals react and focus on the desired destination. It also requires a special detector to produce an image.

Ø ultrasound or ultrasonic wave is the fastest method, a safe, simple and inexpensive way to acquire images of internal organs. Although it is not to create an image of each organ of view more clearly, it may be sufficient.

Ø retrograde pyelography is way better and more effective to study the problems or any abnormal activity that occurs at the bottom of the system and is the only way to conduct x-rays if the kidneys can not function normally. Often the liquid will be injected through the equipment (cytoscope) penetrate into the bladder through uretera.

Ø Computed tomography scans (CT or CAT scanning) is an examination using the same type of radiation used in x ray examinations, the difference is that the machine collects the information through the computer in a form that can be built as three-dimensional images, remove or prevent image interference from adjacent structures.CT examination requires special equipment.

Ø Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is examining the use of magnetic waves and radio frequency signals, rather than using the ionized radiation to produce images of the computer. Forms of energy like this is entirely safe form of energy used while the patient does not carry or possess any object oriented pure iron during the inspection.The technique should be used in this examination is more when compared with CT.MRI requires specialized equipment, being powerful magnet is needed, a special building to be built for this examination. And it takes a high cost.

Procedures for intravenous Urogram


§ Patients experience pain in the kidneys (the renal)

§ Heamaturia

§ kidney infection recurring

§ Trauma

§ urinary tract diseases (urine)


§ Thyrotoxikosis

§ For patients taking metaformin

§ hepato renal syndrome

§ Pregnancy


Patient preparation

Emptying the contents (faeces) in the intestine using a laxative or enema to avoid the shadow of faecal daraipada anatomical structures prevent urinary tract system. An empty stomach to avoid the complications patients often spit, vomit, rare effects caused by contrast agents. Thus, the night before the IVP (intravenous pyelogram) patients asked to empty the contents of the stomach, do not eat dairy products and are advised to drink lots of water cooking. Here is the sequence of patient preparation before the examination.

§ Preparation am a patient, the patient will be given laxative (laxative) within 24 hours prior to inspection, to ensure the volume kumuhan fully excreted.

§ The patient will take a laxative the oral (by mouth) 2-6 hours before the examination.

§ Patients are advised to plenty of runs because in this way can reduce the amount of air into the stomach.

§ Adaptation of patient preparation is required for certain patient groups contahnya-children, people with diabetes and predisposes patients to health controls, in line with current jabtan action.

Patient care

• Treatment to calm the patient through psychological

• The needle wound cleaned and checked the extravasasi

• Check whether the patient understands the procedures to be performed.

• Make sure the patient understands any preparation instructions and when finished.

• accompanied by a copy of the patient into the room.


Films for the control of abdominal

• Radiation Centre should be accurate and are in the upright position (right in the middle of the line L3 of the margin kostal.

• Make sure that the position required to be right in the middle area to make sure the top looks and renal simfisis pubis is also evident in the image

• The process performed while patients hold their breath after being given directions by an x-ray.

Film renal sections

• Centre should be in the direct rays of the center line at a midpoint of the ats and below the renal end.

• Exposure is made on the patients hold their breath on the direction of x-ray interpreters.

Film bladder

• Central ray angled 15 degrees downward and centered on the center line bpada simfisis the pubis and ASIS

Protection from radiation.

• Use the gonad shield made of lead materials, protection of Kings Lyn or 'half apron' when necessary.

Here are the steps IVU examination

The type of film IVU

• Film prelimenari

• Film immediate

• Film 5 minutes

• Film 10 minutes

• Film Release

• Film postmicturation

Film preliminary

Size of the film - which is used 35x43cm


- To see a patient's bowel preparation

- Identify the position of the renal

- Determining the exposure factor

- Looking for any pathology

Film immediate

Size of the film - 24x30cm


- Images taken after injection of contrast media

- The dose of contrast medium was 50ml, and the image taken immediately after the injection is made



- See opasiti renal and evaluate the system after his kidney perinkima injected contrast media

- To show nefrogram phase of the renal parenchyma shows

5 minute film

Size of film - 35x30cm


- KUB image after 5 minutes of contrast medium injected


- To assess the secretion of contrast media in both renal

- To see the symmetry in both kidneys

- Demonstrate system pelvis

15 minutes film

Size of film - 24x30cm


- The emphasis used to suppress the patient's abdomen

- Radiographs kidney after pressure for 10 minutes performed 15 minutes after injection



         - To demonstrate the system pelvis kalikseal

         - Indicates the density of the pelvis with contrast agent system

         - Prevention of contrast media down to the ureter

Film release

Size of film - 35 x 43 cm


- KUB radiograph after total removal tool emphasis

The purpose

- to show the entire urinary tract

- To see a complete contrast media pnegaliran whole ureter

Film postmicturation

Size of film - 35 x 43 cm


- Pictures taken after the urine removed from the bladder urine


- To ensure that the remaining balance of contrast media in the urinary tract

 - To assess the ability urater and bladder emptying

- Show any abnormality such as bladder tumor

The way of contrast media injection

- Medial vein injected kubital dangan 19 gouge needle dam is a temperature contrast agents (40 degrees Celsius) in the bill continues.

The purpose of inspections carried IVU

Many diseases that occur in the kidneys, ureters and bladder will respond with a decision that should be accepted after the procedure carried out, which should have two phases. First of all, it requires a functioning kidney to filter the liquid out of the blood and into the urine (the urine). The time required for a liquid chemical that is to look at x ray examinations carried out precisely at the time of kidney function. The second phase shows the anatomical features of the image clearer. For the first few minutes, the liquid chemical to be 'shining' in the kidney, a phase which is called nephrogram. The sequence of images which would indicate that the chemical liquid to be downloaded through the organs of the ureter and excretory systems directly into the bladder. The last film of him taken after the patient's bowel and the images will show how well the bladder removed.

IVPs is one method of inspection is often carried out in order to detect any structural abnormality or blockage of urine drainage in the urinary tract. If the kidneys showed no abnormal reaction Bals, more films are required to record the earliest phases of the process.

• Formation of kidney stones, tumors (tumor) and congenital defect from birth.

• Abnormalities of kidney and the cancer appears.

• Surgery or transfer to the kidney or ureter causing space to infection like cancer for example.

• bladder cancer and other defects as shown by the liquid in the bladder.

• prostate gland enlargement will be shown when the bladder does not empty completely may enforce and there is a bump at the end of the bladder.

Security measures

Only the most important complications of IVP and dangerous, has allergies to iodine-containing fluid to be used. Allergies such as the following are rare, but it is very dangerous and can cause death. Emergency action is taken quickly are often quite effective.


IVPs dijalnkan usually in the morning, to wear clothes that are available in x-ray department, the patient will remove all clothing and will be in baringakan. There are two ways to inject a liquid chemical into the body. Intraveneus line process can be carried out, in which the continuous liquid will be put into the body during the procedure. The other way is to give all of the liquid chemical through the needle at the same time a new issue. X-rays will be taken until the liquid is sampi into the bladder, the presence can be seen within half an hour or less. Patients will be asked to empty the bladder, bowel dangan before undergoing a final x-rays.

Possible dangers

Effects of allergy to contrast agents are the only hazards that may occur. Anyone with a possible allergic reaction to iodine or before the x-rays must take precautionary measures to address the problem dangan interpreter x-ray.


Urinary tract infection


The most common problems and was treated by doctors. Urinary tract infection may be known as the 'infection' bladder (cystitis) if the bacteria found in the bladder or kidney infection (pyelonephritis) if there are bacteria in the kidneys.


• Children who throw water at night.

• Frequent urination.

• Pain and burning sensation when urinating.

• Fever and feeling cold

Pain or aches in the back below the ribs