Organoleptic Quality Of Indian Major Carps Biology Essay

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The present study has emphasis on the correction of soil and water quality of china clay mines with the help of organic and inorganic fertilizer and become transfer to like a productive pond. After successful transformation of china clay mines like a productive one, fingerling stages of Indian major carps were released to the mine water and the growth performance was observed with minute care. At the initial stage, mortality rate was high and after acclimation it slowed down. Monthly variation of growth, biochemical composition and nutritional quality were estimated and recorded. After one year culture period the remaining experimental fishes were harvested by cast net and distributed among the local people for tasting the organoleptic quality. They could not find any deviation of taste in between culture fish in china clay mines and general IMC. Protein and lipid content of experimental fishes (Protein percentage of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala was 11.55, 13.04 & 11.02 respectively and the lipid percentage was 4.59, 3.94 and 4.34 respectively) were slightly lower than the fish culture that was done in highly productive pond (Protein percentage of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala was 12.83, 14.47 & 11.86 respectively and the lipid percentage was 4.71, 4.23 and 4.52 respectively). There are various factors causing variation of protein and lipid in fish flesh. The factors like food, temperature, size or age, season, maturity, environment etc. are reported to have influencing effect on protein or lipid concentration in fishes. Therefore, moderate deviation of protein and lipid quality does not markedly vary the demand, taste as well as the market value of fish. Statistical analysis of outcome results reveled that, taste, flavour and biochemical composition are highly significant.

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Keywords: Protein, Lipid, Indian Major Carps, Taste, organoleptic appearance etc.

INTRODUCTION:

The main components in the edible portion of fish are water, protein, lipid and ash i.e. minerals. The analysis of these four basic constituents of fish muscle is often referred to as proximate analysis (Love, 1970). Even though data on proximate composition are critical for many applications, investigations on these lines had been carried out as early as in the 1880'S (Atwater, 1982; Miescher,1897). Reliable data on proximate composition of most of the species of fish are difficult to obtain. Stansby in1979 had observed that proximate composition was considered to be such an elementary sort of thing that it did not receive due attention from scientists. The different environmental conditions such as temperature, salinity, water pressure, availability of food etc. have profound influence on the biochemical composition. There may be group specific or even species specific differences in the biochemical composition.

Nair & Suseela (2000) have reported that, the proximate compositions of Indian fishes are: Water : 65 - 90%; Protein : 10 - 22%; Lipid : 01 - 20% and Minerals : 0.5 - 05%. They have also pointed out the proximate composition of Indian Major carps like, Catla catla : Water - 76.30%; protein - 19.60%; fat - 1.30% and ash - 0.90%: Labeo rohita : Water - 76.90%; protein - 19.10%; fat - 0.20% and ash - 0.90% & Cirrhinus mrigala : Water - 77.10%; protein - 19.00%; fat - 1.10% and ash - 1.40%. Water is present in two forms in the tissues: bound to the proteins and in the free form. These forms have well defined biological roles. Quantitatively, protein is the second major component in muscle tissues of fish. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. All the common amino acids are present in the fish tissues, but the proportion may vary from species to species.

MATERIALS & METHODS

At the outset of the experiment, the 'Khadan' water was immensely turbid and unable to survive any kind of aquatic organisms. So this type of water was transformed to a productive one by periodical application of organic and inorganic manures. After standardization of 'Khadan' water the fingerling stage of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala was released and recorded by the different parameters like growth, percentage of protein and lipid etc. in alternative months. Organoleptic quality assessment of experimental fishes was done through the preparation of some questionnaires, like, appearance, taste, texture, flavour of fish etc. Protein was estimated according to the methods of Lowry et al. (1951) using Folin Phenol reagent. Different kinds of fish were sampled and sacrificed at every 30 days' interval for growth trial and protein estimation for each of the experimental trial. Lipid of fish muscle was estimated following the method of Folch et al. (1957) using chloroform methanol mixture (1:1). Lipid was estimated on every 30 days' interval from 0.2 g of fish muscle. Methods used for amino acid analysis are usually based on a chromatographic separation of the amino acids present in the test sample. Current techniques take advantage of the automated chromatographic instrumentation designed for analytical methodologies. The commonly uses instruments are high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

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Discussion of our present work is fully based on the analysis of quationnaries, final results of different experiments and statistical analysis. Results of different questionnaires relating to taste of organoleptic quality are satisfactory. They could not find any deviation of quality between experimental fish flesh and general freshwater Indian Major Carps (IMC). On the basis of the results from protein estimation (Table-1), it has been found that there is a disparity in protein content or fatness in different months of the year and seasons. From this experiment it has been found that in Catla catla protein content at the time of release of fry in control pond was 9.81% and in china clay 'Khadan'(experimental pond) 9.77%. This value increased gradually up to the level of 12.83 % in Control pond (CP) and 11.%5 % in Experimental pond (EP). In the experimental trial, initial muscle protein value of Labeo rohita in control pond (CP) was 10.31% and in experimental 'Khadan' (EP) it was 9.87%. At the time of harvesting of experimental fiShes this muscle protein concentration increased up3to a level of 14.473an CP and 13.04 in EP. Monthly changes of muscle protein of Cirrhinus mrigala, followi.g their rele!se in to experimental pond were recorded reguLarly and at initial stage it was 10.16% in CP and 9.95% in EP, but after culture operation it reached the highest concentration of 11.86% in control pond and 11.02% in experimental mines.

From this investigation, it can be observed that muscle protein content of Labeo rohita is higher than Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala. From this investigation muscle lipid of Catla catla at the time of release in control pond was 1.40% and in experimental pond i.e. china clay 'Khadan' it was 1.31%. Through pass of time it was increased gradually and finally reaches the value of 4.71% in control pond and in experimental 'Khadan' it was 4.59%. Muscle lipid content of Labeo rohita in experimental trial at the time of release in control pond as well as experimental 'Khadan' is very low i.e.,1.44% and 1.38%, but with growth increment it was increased gradually up to the level of 4.23% in control pond and 3.94% in experimental china clay mines. Muscle lipid content of Cirrhinus mrigala in experimental trials in control pond at the initial stage it was 1.46% and experimental 'Khadan' was 1.40%. Through the passage of time the lipid content in muscle increases gradually and reaches the highest concentration like, 4.52% in control pond and 4.71% in experimental china clay mines. Table - 3 shows the variation of amino acid composition in fish muscle. Table-4 represents the statistical analysis of various experimental data. Correlation of muscle protein , lipid and amino acid composition of experimental china clay mines are significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Fig: 1 & 2 indicate the variation of protein and lipid increment in between general IMC and experimental fishes cultured in china clay mines. There is no marked deviation of protein and lipid composition among experimental fishes.

Table -1: Monthly changes of total muscle protein of Experimental fishes following their release (mg100g-1 muscle)

(Mean  Standard Error of Mean)

Catla catla

Labeo rohita

Cirrhinus mrigala

MONTHS

EP

CP

EP

CP

EP

CP

July

9.77  0.25

9.81  0.04

9.87  0.06

10.31  0.04

9.95  0.25

10.16  0.12

August

10.12  0.02

10.41  0.06

10.20  0.09

10.71  0.08

10.02  0.15

10.24  0.35

September

10.19  0.09

10.59  0.05

10.53  0.07

11.32  0.04

10.11  0.29

10.47  0.29

October

10.42  0.11

10.81  0.09

10.92  0.16

11.84  0.22

10.18  0.45

10.65  0.39

November

10.57  0.23

10.98  0.12

11.21  0.15

12.53  0.41

10.27  0.61

10.81  0.49

December

10.86  0.06

11.64  0.31

11.63  0.56

12.95  0.35

10.38  0.67

10.98  0.67

January

10.95  0.41

11.73  0.06

11.82  0.88

13.37  0.46

10.47  0.37

11.12  0.59

February

11.04  0.22

11.84  0.08

12.27  0.29

13.62  0.38

10.52  0.68

11.29  0.69

March

11.29  0.06

12.43  0.25

12.67  0.47

13.95  0.45

10.74  0.69

11.42  0.68

April

11.37  0.33

12.67  0.22

12.93  0.37

14.27  0.61

10.92  0.58

11.67  0.84

May

11.55  0.13

12.83  0.16

13.04  0.64

14.47  0.53

11.02  0.77

11.86  0.94[Each data is mean of 5 separate determinations]

Table -2: Monthly changes of total muscle lipid of Experimental fishes following their release (mg100g-1 muscle)

Values are Mean  Standard Error of Mean

Catla catla

Labeo rohita

Cirrhinus mrigala

MONTHS

EP

CP

EP

CP

EP

CP

July

1.31 * (0.01)

1.40  0.02

1.38  0.07

1.44  0.05

1.40  0.05

1.46  0.08

August

1.42  0.06

1.57  0.06

1.46  0.08

1.59  0.09

1.56  0.37

1.62  0.11

September

1.59  0.03

1.78  0.05

1.62  0.02

1.74  0.06

1.72  0.32

1.83  0.25

October

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1.91  0.06

2.04  0.06

1.83  0.26

1.96  0.11

1.98  0.61

2.13  0.38

November

2.13  0.03

2.26  0.03

2.03  0.46

2.31  0.17

2.27  0.57

2.36  0.59

December

2.31  0.05

2.46  0.04

2.41  0.48

2.56  0.15

2.52  0.69

2.61  0.48

January

2.54  0.06

2.68  0.06

2.67  0.61

2.89  0.25

2.86  0.82

2.94  0.68

February

2.92  0.11

3.11  0.01

2.97  0.58

3.14  0.08

3.16  0.73

3.27  0.60

March

3.32  0.08

3.41  0.04

3.37  0.25

3.52  0.78

3.54  0.48

3.64  0.82

April

3.79  0.07

3.92  0.12

3.68  0.39

3.88  0.81

4.16  0.58

4.32  0.67

May

4.59  0.22

4.71  0.06

3.94  0.67

4.23  0.28

4.34  0.37

4.52  0.28[Each data is mean of 5 separate determinations]

Table - 3: Amino acid composition of the experimental fish muscle proteins (g/100g protein)

Catla catla

Labeo rohita

Cirrhinus mrigala

Name of the amino acid

EP

CP

EP

CP

EP

CP

Aspertic acid

10.09

10.28

9.26

9.42

10.16

10.31

Threonine

5.29

5.83

4.47

4.82

3.94

4.12

Serine

3.18

3.62

3.19

3.41

3.68

3.91

Glutamic acid

17.24

17.76

12.94

13.11

14.06

14.27

Proline

1.72

2.04

4.08

4.26

2.58

2.74

Glycine

9.20

9.49

3.71

3.88

3.71

3.88

Alanine

5.18

5.77

6.40

6.52

5.83

5.92

Valine

6.12

6.46

4.26

4.31

4.86

4.94

Cystine

0.92

1.13

2.02

2.13

1.21

1.33

Methionine

2.03

2.24

2.04

2.23

2.40

2.53

Isoleucine

4.17

4.45

5.64

5.72

4.15

4.26

Leucine

9.08

9.33

8.22

8.35

7.74

7.91

Tyrosine

4.14

4.51

3.14

3.31

3.04

3.11

Phenyl alanine

3.41

3.58

3.68

3.91

3.71

3.82

Histidine

5.19

5.33

6.14

6.22

2.77

3.16

Lysine

8.13

8.49

12.16

12.37

13.08

13.26

Arginine

5.62

5.96

3.52

3.74

5.38

5.51

Tryptophan

1.06

1.27

1.25

1.33

0.97

1.12Each data is a mean of 5 separate determination

Table - 4 : Statistical analysis of experimental results

Correlation of muscle proteins

Correlations

VAR00009 VAR00010 VAR00011 VAR00012 VAR00013 VAR00014

Pearson Correlation VAR00009 1.000 1.000 .827 .829 .856 .858

VAR00010 1.000 1.000 .827 .830 .858 .860

VAR00011 .827 .827 1.000 1.000 .951 .954

VAR00012 .829 .830 1.000 1.000 .953 .956

VAR00013 .856 .858 .951 .953 1.000 1.000

VAR00014 .858 .860 .954 .956 1.000 1.000

Sig. (2-tailed) VAR00009 . .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

VAR00010 .000 . .000 .000 .000 .000

VAR00011 .000 .000 . .000 .000 .000

VAR00012 .000 .000 .000 . .000 .000

VAR00013 .000 .000 .000 .000 . .000

VAR00014 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .

N VAR00009 18 18 18 18 18 18

VAR00010 18 18 18 18 18 18

VAR00011 18 18 18 18 18 18

VAR00012 18 18 18 18 18 18

VAR00013 18 18 18 18 18 18

VAR00014 18 18 18 18 18 18

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Correlation of muscle lipid

Correlations

VAR00005 VAR00006 VAR00003 VAR00004 VAR00001 VAR00002

Pearson Correlation VAR00005 1.000 1.000 .997 .998 .988 .988

VAR00006 1.000 1.000 .996 .996 .989 .990

VAR00003 .997 .996 1.000 .998 .984 .984

VAR00004 .998 .996 .998 1.000 .987 .988

VAR00001 .988 .989 .984 .987 1.000 1.000

VAR00002 .988 .990 .984 .988 1.000 1.000

Sig. (2-tailed) VAR00005 . .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

VAR00006 .000 . .000 .000 .000 .000

VAR00003 .000 .000 . .000 .000 .000

VAR00004 .000 .000 .000 . .000 .000

VAR00001 .000 .000 .000 .000 . .000

VAR00002 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .

N VAR00005 11 11 11 11 11 11

VAR00006 11 11 11 11 11 11

VAR00003 11 11 11 11 11 11

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Amino acid Correlation

Correlations

VAR00009 VAR00010 VAR00011 VAR00012 VAR00013 VAR00014

Pearson Correlation VAR00009 1.000 1.000 .827 .829 .856 .858

VAR00010 1.000 1.000 .827 .830 .858 .860

VAR00011 .827 .827 1.000 1.000 .951 .954

VAR00012 .829 .830 1.000 1.000 .953 .956

VAR00013 .856 .858 .951 .953 1.000 1.000

VAR00014 .858 .860 .954 .956 1.000 1.000

Sig. (2-tailed) VAR00009 . .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

VAR00010 .000 . .000 .000 .000 .000

VAR00011 .000 .000 . .000 .000 .000

VAR00012 .000 .000 .000 . .000 .000

VAR00013 .000 .000 .000 .000 . .000

VAR00014 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .

N VAR00009 18 18 18 18 18 18

VAR00010 18 18 18 18 18 18

VAR00011 18 18 18 18 18 18

VAR00012 18 18 18 18 18 18

VAR00013 18 18 18 18 18 18

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Fig- 1: Level of muscle protein increment

Fig: 2: Level of muscle lipid increment