Single carbohydrates or sugars are called monosaccharides; Polysacharrides are many single sugars combined.Polysaccharides store excess sugar in glycogen in animals. (Author unknown, date unknown)
A protein is built from protein synthesis with amino acids. The structure of a protein is a chain of amino acids called polypeptides. "Each protein within the body has a specific function. Some proteins are involved in structural support, while others are involved in bodily movement or in defence against germs". (Bailey, 2012) The diagram below is a polypeptide chain.
peptide_chain.jpg Lydia E. Kavraki (2007)
Lipids are molecules that are not dissolvable in water there are groups, of lipids which make up the lipid family, fats, waxes, steroids and phospholipids. Lipids are made when glycerol and fatty acids mix together. Lipids are found in different parts of the body:cell membranes, the lining of organs, under the skin and in the skin. Lipids make fats, oils and waxes they store energy and help with waterproofing. (See diagram below)
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Nucleic acids, there are two types of nucleic acids DNA and RNA. "Nucleic acids are made up of strands ofÂ nucleotides, which are made up of a base containing nitrogen (called aÂ nitrogenous base), a sugar that contains five-carbon molecules, and a phosphoric acid" (Author unknown, date unknown). Your genetic makeup, intelligence, personality etc. are because of these molecules. See diagram overleaf for the structure of DNA and RNA.
dna_versus_rna_reversed.jpgAuthor unknown (date unknown)
Without these four carbon compounds also known as organic molecules, living things would not be living because living things, organisms, are made of organic molecules. "These molecules are important to sustain life and almost every molecule has a defined function" (Author unknown, 2010).
"Cells form the basic "building blocks" for living things." (Author Unknown, 2013) Cells fall into two groups either eukaryotes or prokaryotes. Eukaryotes are cells that contain a nucleus and chromosomes e.g. animals, plants, fungi and most algae. Prokaryotes are cells that do not have a nucleus e.g. bacteria and blue-green algae. (See below for a picture of a eukaryotes cell: Animal.)
Author unknown (Date unknown)
The structure of a eukaryotes cell and their organelles' animal: The cell membrane holds in the fluid that is in the cell which is called cytoplasm. In the cell is a nucleus the nucleus has genetic material this genetic material is called DNA and RNA, has a key role in starting the production of proteins which make the organism work. Inside the cell also has endoplasmic reticulum, there are two types of endoplasmic reticulum which are rough and smooth, rough endoplasmic reticulum's have ribosome's, the endoplasmic reticulum stores the protein the ribosome is the organelle which does the protein synthesis, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum's do not. (See below for a diagram of the endoplasmic reticulum.) http://cronodon.com/files/Cell_ER_labeled.jpg
Author unknown (Date, unknown)
The main reason for the endoplasmic reticulum is for the making and for the transportation of proteins'. The Golgi apparatus inside the cell is where substances made from the cell such as hormones and enzymes are made ready for transporting it could be described as "packaged for export" (Author unknown, date unknown) These substances are secreted in a sac called a vesicle, these vesicles' will make their way to the cell membrane where proteins' will let a channel be made so the substance inside of the vesicle can be secreted in to the body.
Lysosomes are made in the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes are made to clean the cell they have digestive enzymes which break down substances that may be harmful to the cell; they collect these products and then release them out of the cell. Lysosomes also get rid of dead organelles they cover the organelle break down the proteins' and get rid of them, this helps in remaking an organelle. Peroxisomes are small sacs of enzymes made by the smooth endoplasmic reticulum; peroxisomes break down hydrogen peroxide to much hydrogen peroxide can kill you. The mitochondrion supplies the energy for all of what happens in the cell to work. Food is the fuel for the body. The mitochondria convert the fuel into useable energy. When food is eaten and then digested, and is broken down into small molecules and nutrients. Also when air is taken in, these small molecules and nutrients cross into the bloodstream. These small molecules and nutrients include things such as glucose and oxygen. (See overleaf for a diagram of mitochondria.)
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The structure of a eukaryotes cell and their organelles' plant: Plant cells have the same organelles' as an animal cell with a few added extra: a cell wall which is an outside layer to give shape, large vacuole which keeps starch and chloroplasts which get the plant their energy, the plant will absorb energy from the sun with the chloroplasts, the chloroplasts then store and change the energy into carbohydrate molecules.
The structure of a prokaryotes cell: Capsule, the capsule is found in some bacteria' this is an extra outer layer which will protect the cell from other organisms. The cell wall is the covering and protects the cell; cytoplasm is a liquid which contains different organic molecules, salts and enzymes. The cell membrane is set around the cytoplasm and allows substances to enter and exit the cell. Pili is on the outside of the cell which is hair like, allows the cell to attach to other bacteria cells there is a shorter version of pili which allows the cell to attach to surfaces. A prokaryotes cell has aflagella which looks like a long tail which helps the cell to move, there are ribosomes which like in the eukaryotes cell help in the making of protein. Plasmids are gene carrying DNAvessels which are not involved in reproduction and the nucleoid region which is the location in the cytoplasm in where the one DNA bacterial molecule is.
A beta cell is a eukaryotes cell it is an animal cell and a secretory cell, the beta cell secretes a protein which is a hormone, insulin."The primary function of a beta cell is to store and releaseÂ insulin. Insulin is aÂ hormoneÂ that brings about effects which reduce blood glucose concentration. Beta cells can respond quickly to spikes in blood glucose concentrations by secreting some of its stored insulin while simultaneously producing more." (Author unknown, date unknown)
Beta cells are different from plant and bacteria cells. In comparison to bacteria cells they don't contain a cell wall, cytoplasm, pili or flagella it has everything a eukaryotes cell has but not a cell wall, large vacuole and chloroplasts which are in plant cells. Beta cells have calcium ion channels and sensitive potassium ion channels which are on the outside surface of the cell membrane.
Transportation of substances: Cells are classed as selectively permeable, selectively permeable allows some substances in or out and restricts others.Cells have in them and around them solutions, solutions are made up of solute which is the substance to be dissolved and solvent which is the dissolver. Eukaryotes cell: some substances make a channel through the cell membrane to enter or exit the cell but the cell membrane can be picky in what they let in or out, some substances are recognised by receptors, some attach to a carrier membrane. In some cases the cell will use its own energy to transport substances this is called active. When energy is not used this is where the molecules are using passive transport.
Active: Active is the movement against a concentration gradient. There are two types of active transport: Exocytosis and endocytosis. Exocytosis is where substances fuse with the cell membrane and release through the wall. Endocytosis is where substances outside the cell membrane are caught and brought in. There are three types of endocytosis: Phagocytosis: The cell membrane wraps hold of the substance and turn it in to a vesicle. Pinocytosis: is where dissolved substances enter the cell the cell membrane makes a channel, closes the channel then puts the dissolved substance in a vesicle. Receptor mediated: The substance will attach to a receptor they form a vesicle.
Using Passive transport: Solutes flow down the concentration gradient. "TheÂ gradualÂ difference in theÂ concentrationÂ ofÂ solutes'Â in aÂ solutionÂ between twoÂ regions. InÂ biology, agradientÂ results from an unequal distribution ofÂ ionsÂ across theÂ cell membrane. When this happens,solutesÂ move along a concentration gradient. This kind ofÂ movementÂ is calledÂ diffusion." (Author unknown, date unknown)
There are three different types of ways to enter or exit the cell. There is diffusion which is where the molecules have to spread themselves across the membrane where concentration is higher in one area. Osmosis is diffusion of water, water molecules diffusing over a membrane these water environments are in three categories isotonic where concentration is the same inside and outside the cell, hypertonic where concentration is higher outside of the cell and hypotonic where concentration is higher inside the cell. Filtration is where the membrane acts as filter paper, the pressure of the blood flow is enough to let water and small substances through the membrane. There is facilitated diffusion where solutes diffuse through protein channels.
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Plant cells use the same processes to exit and enter into the cell and also transpiration this is where water is evaporated into the leaves and then in to cells in the stem of the plant.
A prokaryotes cell use the same transportation methods, active, diffusion, osmosis there is also group translocation which is a form of active transport but where the substance stays in the cytoplasmic membrane.
The human body has different types of cells, when the same types of cells come together they form a tissue, when two or more types of tissue work with each other they make an organ.
The beta cell is located in the islet of Langerhans; the islet of Langerhans is in the pancreas. There are five types of cells in the islet including the beta cell. The islet of Langerhans is, "Known as theÂ insulin-producing tissue"(author unknown, 2012) The islets of Langerhans make up about 2% of the pancreas. There are two types of tissue that work together to make the pancreas exocrine tissue and endocrine tissue. The endocrine tissue is where the islet of Langerhans is.
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