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Organisation of the Body

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  • Karen Stroud


Light Microscope

Electron Microscope

Magnifies an object using visible light to pass through the lens and bend through the specimen, wavelengths are filtered to produce an image. Can be seen by the eye when light is passed through eyepiece lens. Specimens can be living or dead.

These use beams of electrons rather than visible light to magnify the object, meaning this can provide a higher magnification, and shows more detail. Specimens are dead.

The microscope is used for looking at structures that are too small for the unaided eye to see.

Used for the same principle but has much more capability of higher magnification, allowing the user to see much smaller objects in finer detail.

The clarity means the sharpness of the image you can see, how definitive it is, and how crisp the image appears.

Electron beams have a shorter wavelength than light therefore have a greater resolving power allowing the specimen to be seen thousands of times better.

Resolution is the ability to identify the difference between objects that are very close together and the amount of information that can be seen.

More powerful therefore has more resolution, this means that the level of detail can be more visible to the eye.

Meaning how much bigger the specimen appears under the microscope. x400-x1500 is the magnification.

Magnification of up to x500000.

Word count 219

TAQ 2:



S = Ribosomes

T= Cytosol

U= Cell Membrane

V= Cytoplasm

W= Rough Endoplasmic reticulum

X= Mitochondria


Z=Golgi apparatus



Function of organelle


Chromatin compacts long DNA strands into a smaller area to fit into a cell, it also protects the DNA from any damage and whist compact and protected it allows the DNA to strengthen to allow for mitosis.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Called rough because it has ribosomes attached to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. A network of flattened sacs which manufacture process and transports chemicals for use whether it is for inside or outside of the cell. It produces membranes and secretary proteins, It is connected to the double-layered nuclear which provides a route between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

A tubule network which allows carbohydrate and lipid synthesis to occur; also it serves as an area that transports products to other destinations.

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus function is to transform, sort and package proteins ready for secretion, it also plays a part in the transportation of lipids around the cell, and creates lysosomes. It modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum, and prepares them for export to the outside of the cell.


Means more than one, and is part of a cell that is used for the movement of the cell as it has a whip like tail that pushes the organism forward.


Mitochondria are oblong shaped organelles. These are the cells power houses. They convert energy that has been stored in ATP molecules to be used by the cell, whether it to be to grow, reproduce or even just to live. Mitochondria are found in every cell but predominantly found in high concentrations within the muscle cells. Mitochondria are also an important part of the metabolism process.


The Nucleus is the control centre of a cell. It contains, stores and controls all the genetic material of an organism from the chromosomes to DNA and genes. The nucleus is also where protein synthesis and cell division takes place.

During the cell division, chromatins are arranged into chromosomes in the nucleus.


Lyosomes act as a digestion or clear up role, whereby certain materials which are either no longer required or have exceeded their life cycle will be broken down into waste products, either fats, carbohydrates, proteins or any other molecules, these are then recycled back into the cytoplasm and used for new building materials for another process.

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Red blood cells are an irregular round flat disc like shape with an indentation in the centre on either side and are flexible. The primary function of the red blood cell is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body’s cells and tissues, and to return carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Within the red blood cell a protein called Haemoglobin is contained and it’s this that carries the oxygen. The shape of the red blood cell helps to move through tiny blood vessels to allow this process to occur.

Ciliated epithelial cells appear as oblong in shape covered in tiny hair like formation, which move from side to side to move objects or various substances around. Their function plays an important role in secretion, and protection, selective absorption, detection of sensation, protection, and transportation of solutes.

Spermatozoa are male germ cells that have matured. The function is to fertilize an egg cell for reproduction. It consists of a head, body and tail. The head contains a nucleus which holds the genetic material, the body which contains mitochondria which gives it the energy, and the tail that propels the sperm to its destination.




“The Cell membrane is a fluid mosaic model made up of lipids and protein molecules”

A very thin semi-permeable structure made up of a bilayer of lipid molecules with protein molecules distributed within its layer. The function is to protect the integrity of the interior of the cell allowing certain substances to pass into the cell easily like carbon dioxide and oxygen, while keeping other substances out. Many of the proteins within the bilayer float continuously creating patterns similar to mosaics hence the name “fluid mosaic model”, it is these proteins that regulate the cells chemical environment.

Phospholipids are a component of the cell membrane and made up of two fatty acids to form a barrier by their heads pointing outwards and tails pointing inwards.

Cholesterol accounts for roughly 20% of the membrane. Its hydrocarbon rings sits in between the tails of the phospholipids supporting the membrane reducing the movement of them.

Glcolipids are carbohydrate attached lipids found on the outside of the membrane. Their role is to provide energy and to also act as a marker for cell recognition.




Active transport uses energy to move substances from a lower to a higher concentration across a partially permeable membrane. Active transport is used to move substances into cells and out of cells, these will normally have lots of mitochondria to give them the energy needed for this process.

Passive transport also knows as diffusion is very important in the body for the movement of substance. It does not require energy to carry out the process but is spontaneous in its action with the molecules moving into an available space. Diffusion is the dispersal of a substance in solution from an area of high concentration to low concentration to maintain the same consistency within the cells.

Osmosis is another form of passive transport and is also spontaneous with water molecules moving from an area of low concentration to a very high concentration area via a semi permeable membrane equalizing the concentrations on either side.




Active Transport

1 Use of energy

Does not use energy for the process

Does not use energy for the process

Uses energy for this process

2 Water specific

No water is present

The use of water is present

No water is present

3 Concentration gradient

Net movement from an area of high concentration to low concentration

Moves from a very low concentration area to a high concentration area

Moves from a low concentration to a high concentration

4 Examples

Movement of glucose from the blood to the cells

Occurs in the kidneys to recover water from the waste products in the bod

Occurs in the digestion of food. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose this is then absorbed into the blood and passed around the body




Type of tissue

Describe how the structure of the function is linked to the function

Nerve tissue

Nerve tissues have a specific role whereby it reacts to stimuli and manages the impulses to various organs within the body which will then in turn create a response to the stimulus. Made of a cell body, dendrites and an axon. The cell body contains a nucleus and cytoplasm and is responsible for controlling metabolic activities, growth and repair, and powers the neuron by making energy. The dendrites are cytoplasmic extensions that protrude from the body also know as fibres, these are mainly short and branch out allowing them to receive electric signals from various other neurons. The axon is covered with a white fatty layer called myelin sheath and this protects and insulates it and speeds up the signals during transmission. The axon terminal branches out at the end and it’s this terminal which is responsible for sending out impulses from one neuron to another.

Muscle Tissue

There are 3 types of muscle tissue: Cardiac called this as it is found within the heart, they are branched and striated. They have an involuntary contraction as we have no conscious control over their movement. Skeletal muscle which is attached to bones by tendons, also striated but not branched, this is a voluntary movement which allows the cells to enlarge but does not increase the overall amount. Smooth muscle also known as visceral found in walls of hollow organs such as intestines and uterus, made from small fibres and a lot less visible striations. They are also involuntary and are invaluable within the function of contraction the muscles.

Connective Tissue

Main function primarily to support the body and to provide a framework. Connective tissue is regarded as having large amounts of intercellular substance. Ligaments are strong bands which connect bone to bone at the joint and allow for movement but not enough to go out of its range. Cartilage is a soft cushioning which covers the ends of bones and acts as a shock absorber and also helps to reduce any rubbing. Tendons are the strong strips which attaches to muscle and it’s the tendon that pulls on the bone when a muscle is contracted.

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial tissues are tightly packed together with very little space between them which lie in one or more layers. They cover the whole of the body both internal and external surfaces and act as a barrier between the outside environment and the body. The cells reproduce often to either replace damaged or dead cells, and as there are many layers it provides better protection so when a layer is gone there is no cause for concern as the undelaying tissue is still intact. They are also deficient of blood vessels.

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Skin is the largest organ which contains layers of epithelial tissue predominantly there to protect the underlying bones, ligaments, muscles and other internal organs.

Liver is the second largest organ performing crucial roles within the body for it to continue living, such as the storage of nutrients, and digestion, it also regulates the chemical levels within the blood and excretes a product called bile which is used to breakdown fats.

Respiratory system – Lungs: A pair of large organs which are one of the hardest working organs in the body, surrounded by a pleural membrane to protect them and allow them to expand and compress. The purpose is to bring large amounts of oxygen into the body and remove waste products such as carbon dioxide out of the body.

Cardiovascular system – Heart: The function is to pump blood around the body to blood cells that are abundant in nutrients and oxygen repeatedly, its pumping action helps push the oxygen deficient blood back to the heart ready to be deoxygenated before starting its journey again. It also carries waste away from the organs and cells.

Heart and lungs work very closely together as they also situated close to each other for their purpose. The heart acts as a pump and is divided into left and right side to protect oxygen rich from mixing with oxygen poor blood. The right side pushes deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it collects the oxygen that has been inhaled, it is then moved to the left side of the heart and is pumped through the aorta where it will supply the tissues in the body with oxygen.



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