Nutritive Value Of Food Biology Essay

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Even on Earth people should have an adequate diet so they can complete their goals by the end of the day. For a heavy workload and a acceptable level of stress a human with no health problems requiers a diet between 2000-2500 kcal per day. We all know people should drink 2000 g of water and eat about 300 g carbohydrates per day. Usually these carbohydrates can be found in 300g of vegetables ,300g of fruit like bananas, apples or in 50 of honey or sweets.

The nourishment needs to be settled in order to follow 3 basic rules:

Nutrition should assure an appropriate growth and development.

Nutrition must assure normal physical and intelectual developement.

Nutrition should help us fight against all kinds of diseases.

When we talk about food we usually refer to carbohydrate, protein and fat. Carbohydrates and fat help us keep producing energy and proteins often readjust our tissues.

Carbohydrates produce more than a half of the energy that we consume every day. They can be taken from honey, milk, grapes or barley. We need between 100-300g per day.

Fats provide a concentrated source of energy and help us transport some vitamins. People can found them when they eat sour cream, eggs, nuts or butter. Human body needs at least 40 g per day.

Proteins help us repaird our damaged tessues. We can find them when we eat nuts, chestnuts, potatoes or soy. It is estimated that we require 100g per day.

Vitamins are organic substances which sustain our organism to grow and function normally. For example the B vitamins can be found nuts, oatmeal and milk. C vitamin is reprezentative for blackberries, cranberries, raspberries or cauliflower. It is estimated that people need about 60mg/day. K vitamin prevents internal bleedings and it can be found in yolk, yoghurt or soybean oil.

Minerals help our organism to synthesize vitamins. For example human body needs calcium from milk, cheese, cauliflower, phosphorus from fish, chicken and eggs or magnesium from banans, seeds, almonds or nuts.

The modern man usually needs food not only in order to survive. Recent studies have shown that feeding can also represent a psychological need so we need good quality and different types of food.

4.1.2 Nutritive value of food

We have developed a healthy meniu for our settlers. We estimated the numbers for a man/woman between 20-45 years old, high 1,65-1,80, about 70 kg with normal physical activity.

Food

Quantity

Energy value(kcal)

Proteins

Fats

Carbohydrates

Vitamins

Bread

100g

245

5,4

1,3

57,0

B

Chicken tights

100g

158

16,8

10,2

0,0

B3

Mushrooms

100g

15

2,1

0,5

0,5

B

Chocolate ice cream

100g

236

3,6

15,0

22,3

A,B6

Strawberries

100g

28

0,7

0,4

7,2

C

Bananas

100g

95

1,0

0,3

23,5

A, B6

Raspberry jam

100g

275

0,6

0,0

71,2

C,B2

Lemon

100g

36

0,8

0,3

9,5

C

Orange

100g

44

0,9

0,2

11,3

C

Grapes

100g

69

0,5

0,2

17,6

C

Onion

100g

30

1,4

0,4

6,9

B6

Sweet potatoes

100g

61

2,0

0,0

13,3

A,C

Carrot

100g

31

0,8

0,3

6,6

A

Salad

100g

12

1,2

0,3

1,3

E

Eggs

100g

168

9,9

14,2

0,6

Biotin

Carp

100g

102

16,0

3,7

2,0

B3,B6

Soy

100g

381

2,0

0,1

1,0

A,B1,B2

Cheese

100g

209

30,0

9,0

0,6

A

Milk

100ml

61

3,3

3,2

4,8

B12

Butter

100g

659

1,1

73,5

1,1

A,E

Tomatoes 100g 19 0,8 0,3 3,5 A,B

4.1.3 Space farm

As we said previously we need a space farm in order to sustain a healthy lifestyle. We have calculated how much space do we need for each crop. Considering that our settlement will have between 3000-4000 houses we have assumed that there will be at least 2 people living in a house.

Column1

Examples

g/person/day

Kg/year(8000 people)

Space needed(mp)

Vegetables

Tomatoes

100

36,5

73.000

Potatoes

200

73

36.500

Wheat

100

309.000

103.000

Carrots

50

152.000

1.013

Onion

10

2950

1.450

Mushrooms

10

28.000

2.800

Salad

50

15.200

15.200

Fruit

Lemons

20

58.400

468

Oranges

20

58.400

468

Bananas

15

43.200

864

Apples

20

58.400

468

Strawberries

50

15.200

3.040

Raspberries

50

15.200

3.040

Total area

1318,72 he

For the food supply we will be providing both vegetables and meat to the inhabitants of Theia. The crops will mostly consist of carrots, potatoes and in general plants that are high in carbohydrates. Because fats generate more than double the quantity of energy other organic substances provide, we decided that the diet for the onboard humans will consist of 1 part vegetables(high in carbohydrates and proteins) and 2 parts meat(high in fats and proteins). You may notice that the most used nutrients in these meals are proteins and fats. While fats are much more effective than carbohydrates in producing energy to sustain the human body, proteins are useful in a completely other way: they are the main component of cellular structures.

Crops will be grown on a surface which is equal to the one where we have placed human's homes.. The model will be the one of a garden with multiple levels. This will ensure that the space is used to the fullest. Because most of the plants we will have a rich subterranean part, we recommand that each stage of land has a 50 cm soil layer and a 30 cm free space. The space between 2 plants should be roughly 50 cm. We shouldn't worry about the quantity of vegetables not being enogh to feed our citizens, as they grown in a space identical to the one humans inhabit, so it should be enough regardless of the number of houses we decide to construct. While 50% of the crops will be used for feeding citizens, the other 50% will be used for feeding the livestock.

4.1.5 Animals

If we refer to an adequate diet we must mention animals. Vegetarian food may be an option, but we can't force our settlers to eat only vegetables and fruit.

We have reached the conclusion that not all animals will live on Theia. Some of them need to much attention or maybe the need to much food related to what they give back.

The livestock will consist of half bovines(Bos primigenius) and half domesticated pigs( Sus scrofa domesticus). The reasoning behind this is that the cattle meat is protein rich, while the pork is high in fats. While pigs will be fed crops, cattle will eat their natural food: grass. The term of grass is a very largely used term. In fact, it refers to three different families: Poaceae, Junaceae and Cyperaceae. Livestock will be placed in a third space, which is as well identical to the one crops are grown in. They will be allowed to roam freely. Even the grass will be planted around the ecosystem, to help bovines feel at home. For balance purposes, we will be considering that one cow or pig is enough for one human, so the livestock will consist of 4000 cows and 4000 pigs. Everytime a new animal is born, the oldest female of that species will be retired to be fed to humans. The next time an animalof the same species is born, we will do the same for the oldest male. Sticking to this system will allow us to safely provide food while preserving a nice and safe ecosystem for the livestock.

4.1.4 Sports

When we talk about a healthy diet it is important to mention sport. Without physical activity people are exposed to obesity and several diseases like diabetes or hypertension. To avoid this things our settlers will be encouraged to use bicycles to the detriment of a solar-powered car. Moreover they will have a gym where they can practice different types of exercise.

4.4 Atmosphere, Weather and Climate

4.4.1 The composition of the atmosphere

Since we can't change people and their needs we should recreate the main conditions which can be found on Earth. On our planet the composition of the air is made of 78,09% Nitrogen, 20,95% Oxygen, 0,03% CO2, 0,93% Argon and other gases.

Why is it so important? Well, humans have adapted to certain conditions on Earth. The most important factors are the atmospheric pressure, humidity and temperature. On Theia we have to consider all of them if we want to create a peaceful and plesant place.

Because oxygen is a gas which without life would be impossible, the atmosphere of our space settlement must have a partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) which must be enough to ensure blood oxygenation and also to ensure the best possible breath. Partial blood pressure should not be very high ,in order to avoid blood loss and major changes in the number and distribution of micro-organisms such as bacteria growth.

On land, at sea level, the P02 is 22.7 kPa and it is the one that supports the necessary oxygen in the blood. Although the range of variation in this figure is large and not well defined, it should not exceed 9kPa.

It would be desirable to have an inert gas atmosphere because it could prevent the occurrence of unusual forms of decompression, that can occur within the human body and sinus, offering over time a larger margin of safety.

As a gas, the nitrogen appears to be reasonable,because although they were used more gas with this purpose, it proved to be the most effective for the colony.

Since nitrogen is 80% of Earth's atmosphere,it`s not a surprise that this gas is essential for normal development of organisms.The fact that denitrifying bacteria will release nitrogen gas in the atmosphere, leads to the accumulation of significant amounts of nitrogen.

Finally, the inclusion of nitrogen fixing plants in a colony, is a life support for Theia and the gas can be achieved biologically by converting nitrogen into protein.

Thus, due to the inevitable and to its various benefits nitrogen is an essential gas atmosphere.

The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere should be maintained below the standard of 0.4 kPa. However, CO2 level will be high enough to allow maximum efficiency of photosynthesis crops.

Atmospheric pressure

We all know that human body exchanges gases with the environment. Those exchanges are made under the terms of a certain atmospheric pressure. But what if the air pressure changes? Well everything will be the same except the number of the molecules which will increase if the pressure is higher, or it will come down if it goes lower. This can cause tachycardia and wretched headaches, chest pains or heart palpitations for hypertensive people. We have to consider the fact that human body is made of liquids like blood and tissues like bone tissue. All of them suffer changes only if we talk about high atmospheric pressure. But among the liquids and the tissues our lungs contain gas. Boyle-Mariotte law sais that the volume and the pressure of a gas are inversely proportional if the temeperature doesn't change. Addition pressure growth can cause pulmonary lesions. Oxygen can be toxic if it is under pressure and can harm our central nervous system. On Earth the atmospheric pressure is measured at the sea level and at 0°C and it reaches the value 760mmHg.

Atmospheric gases

First of all we will bring CO2 and O2 from the Moon in specially designed tubes. Later on those gases will be produced during photosynthesis. Nitrogen will be tranported on Theia from Earth. Since plants can't absorb the molecular shape of nitrogen, nitrogen-fixing plants will convert gas into proietin using the root nodules of leguminous plants. In order to keep the balance we also need denitrifying bacteria which will do the opposite : will release the gas into the atmosphere. Of course we need trees to absorb the excess of CO2 and we think that 20 trees per person will be enough.

Humidity

Why is it so important? For example we can't have photosynthesis without this factor. On Earth the relative humidity is 50+/-10 percent. On our planet the humidity is influenced by the dewpoint. The same thing will pe also used on Theia. There will be few rooms filled with water wich will be boiled gradually. Through some special fiters the vapors will be taken , condensed and spread where necessary.

Temperature

Temperature will be influenced by the weather but a temperature between 20-25 °C will be just fine for our settlers. But we also have to consider that we don't need the same temerature everywhere. Some places will need a higher temperature( the crops) or a lower temperature where the food is stocked.

4.4.2 Weather and climate

We have been asked " Why do you need seasons ? You should create a permanent summer. " Things are not as simple as they seem to be. Humans are designed to adapt to different kinds of weather changes during one year and that's the reason why we have chosen to make 2 seasons : summer and spring. But from the beggining we need to mention that summer won't be that hot as we may find it on different parts of the Earth. The temperatures will always be mild, never too higher or too lower. Half of the year(5 months) will be summer and the other half will be spring. On summer there will be about 25°C and on spring there will be 10-15 °C. Between those seasons we will have a period of transitions(1 month). Optimal parameters will be measured by the main computer who will get information from all over the place.

But how we will keep the same temperature during one season ? On Earth CO2,nitrogen oxide, CH4 and water vapors keep the energy provided by the Sun, acting like solar panels. The same thing will be done on Theia. Solar panels will reflect the sunlight during the day. The main computer will monitorize the temperature and when it reaches a certain value it will make the panels reject the sunlight.

Hotels

Assuming that we won't have so many guests we think that our Theia doesn't need more than 2 big hotels. Those places will have the best conditions in order to make our settlers enjoy themselves. But people from Earth may want to visit Theia so we have decided to have about 40 roms where they can sleep while staying on our Settlement. They will have a big wall made out of glass to see the beauty of the permanent night. Also the tourist will have a special route if they want to see how people live on Theia. It is important to mention that the accommodation isn't free. If you want to experiment a different life you will have to pay 1000$ for a single room per night or 2000$ for double room per night. Depending on the facilities like the view or the food the price can be higher reaching up to 4000$ per night.

4.12 Parks

4.12.1Why do we need parks ?

" All my life I have tried to pluck a thistle and plant a flower wherever the flower would grow in thought and mind. "

Abraham Lincoln 

There can be many reasons. Parks are great realxing places and we have to mention that all of the plants placed there give us O2. But we can't forget the pshychological factors because it is well known that humans have the need for beauty. Even if we live in an industrial society, where computers rule everything we feel the need of being close to nature and we want to bring it in the middle of our new world.Nowadays, flower farming is one of the most common hobbies. But beside the aesthetic factor, flowers may serve as raw material for medicine production like pennyroyal, pot marigold or in cosmetic industry like the lavender.

But in our parks there won't be only flowers. We will have playgrounds where kids can stay and banks where parents can supervise them while reading the newspaper. A museum of natural science will be opened in the central park and it will be exposed a variety of rare plants. Also near the trees and the flowers there will be written the name of them on tags.

4.12.2 Flower farming on Theia

We have made a table regarding the seeds which need to be provided from Earth.

Plant

Occupied area

Number of seeds

Orchids

15 ha

300,000

Roses

15 ha

300,000

Tulips

10 ha

200,000

Magnolia

10 ha

200,000

Gladioli

10 ha

200,000

Lilys

10 ha

200,000

Syringa

10 ha

200,000

Bushes

30 ha

300,000

Total area : 110 ha

4.12.2 Herbs

On Theia will be surface of 500 mp which will be occupied by herbs which will be used to cure mild diseases.

Plant

Occupied area

Number of seeds

Aloe

100 mp

110

Peppermint

100 mp

110

Pot marigold

125 mp

130

Camomile

125 mp

130

Sage

50 mp

60

Even if we don't like walking or spending our free time superviseing our kids parks are always the perfect alternative when we want to do something fun. However we can't forget to mention the little animals that can live there. Parks can be the place where nature meets our universe, creating a strong conection between the two of them. Why? Because we don't want to disconnect our settlers from the nature. Even if we create this "artificial" environment we can't forget that on Earth nature has been provided food to people for decades.

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