Musical Stimulation On The Pulse And Blood Pressure Biology Essay

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The cardiopulmonary system of the human body is affected by a variety of stimuli, from something as easily documented as temperature change or physical exertion to more abstract forms of stimulation such as emotion or arousal. The purpose of this experiment is to try and understand the effect of stimulation resulting from exposure to various types of music on cardiopulmonary measurements. The effect of musical stimulation on humans has been documented throughout the history of civilization, ranging from stories in the Bible of music from a harp being used to treat depression to contemporary experiments involving the effects of music on scholastic performance [Lemmer 2008]. Previous studies have shown that musical stimulation can affect human exercise intensity, with music genres with higher tempos resulting in increased intensity workouts over lower tempo genres [Karageorghis 2006]. The effects of musical stimulation have also been shown to have beneficial results when applied to individuals who suffer from coronary disease and may allow individuals to experience decreased blood pressures and aid in their recovery from cardiac disease [Guzzetta 1994]. In the following experiment, participants were exposed to musical stimulation in order to see if these previously researched effects of music could be observed in a simple experiment. The null hypothesis for this experiment was that musical stimulation does not have an effect on any aspect of human cardiopulmonary physiology, while the alternative hypothesis was that musical stimulation would provoke some sort of change in pulse rate and blood pressure of human cardiopulmonary physiology. The results of this experiment were significant because they revealed whether or not the conclusions reached in the previously mentioned experiments could be replicated in a simplified setting, or if the experimentation need to be more greatly controlled in order to observe significant results.

Materials/Methods;

The data for heart rate and blood pressure was collected using an electronic blood pressure monitor. Individuals were collectively seated at tables in a room and allowed to remain relatively static in order to collect data for resting heart rates and blood pressure. The heart rates and blood pressures were recorded three times in succession for each individual present. This data for resting heart rates served as a control value in the following experiment. Following the collection of resting cardiac data, the participating individuals were exposed to two varying genres of musical stimulation, which served as the variable in this experiment, and the results of the exposure would serve as the experimental values. The musical stimulus was exposed to the participants concurrently using a speaker that was audible to all participants equally. The first genre exposed to the participants was a style of music that was agreed among the participants to be a more relaxing variety and consisted of slower beats and light vocals. The song used in this portion of the experiment was titled "This Year's Love" by David Gray and will be referred to as song 1 for the remainder of this document. The second genre exposed to the participants was a style of music that was agreed among the participants of the experiment to be a more intense variety and consisted of harsh instrumentation and loud, sharp vocals. The song used in the experiment was titled "Bleeding Mascara" by Atreyu and will be referred to as song 2 for the remainder of this document. The participants of the experiment were first exposed to song 2 and cardiac data was recorded at three intervals. The intervals for data were at 30 seconds of exposure, 1 minute 30 seconds of exposure, and 30 seconds post exposure. Following exposure and data collection for song 2, participants were exposed to song 1. The data for song 1 was collected in the same manner as the previous song. Each participant was exposed to song 1 and song 2 only one time while data on that individual was collected, but due to the physical constraints of testing material available to be used at one time there were two separate trial groups that participated in the experiment in sequence. The data for all participants was then collected and analyzed to determine the effects, if any, of the musical stimulation.

Results;

The data collected in this experiment is presented in the following tables 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0. The data has been digested and is presented in a bar graph form in Figures 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0. Following the experimental data, a sample calculation is included to reveal whether or not the measured changes were statistically relevant.

Table 1.0, Resting Cardiopulmonary Data

Subject

Trial

Resting Pulse Rate 1

Resting Pulse Rate 2

Resting Pulse Rate 3

Resting Systolic Blood Pressure 1

Resting Systolic Blood Pressure 2

Resting Systolic Blood Pressure 3

Resting Diastolic Blood Pressure 1

Resting Diastolic Blood Pressure 2

Resting Diastolic Blood Pressure 3

3

1

79

74

81

107

107

107

71

60

71

4

1

84

90

85

97

94

134

66

72

67

6

1

80

77

75

102

100

117

54

62

62

7

1

75

73

87

87

105

87

45

62

60

9

1

65

65

76

105

103

80

58

64

54

10

1

80

80

77

121

89

133

88

53

72

13

1

73

67

68

90

95

100

58

57

68

16

1

72

78

72

120

103

98

80

81

65

17

1

72

78

78

121

101

115

85

66

68

19

1

71

71

73

124

129

115

81

73

67

20

1

58

58

61

113

114

102

60

57

54

Average Value Trial 1

 

73.55

73.73

75.73

107.91

103.64

108.00

67.82

64.27

64.36

1

2

77

76

76

99

96

102

71

76

57

2

2

53

57

59

114

104

105

64

67

58

5

2

60

66

60

119

121

121

81

82

81

8

2

80

80

90

105

103

102

55

66

63

11

2

69

68

73

88

94

93

46

62

62

12

2

61

52

65

92

90

104

61

52

66

14

2

58

59

70

102

84

116

64

51

69

15

2

no data

80

84

94

94

108

51

58

58

18

2

76

80

65

89

102

82

59

50

52

21

2

76

80

65

89

102

82

59

50

52

22

2

70

72

75

99

116

140

67

72

68

Average Value Trial 2

 

68.00

70.00

71.09

99.09

100.55

105.00

61.64

62.36

62.36

Table 1.0, Resting Cardiopulmonary Data (continued from previous page)

Total Average Value

 

70.77

71.86

73.41

103.50

102.09

106.50

64.73

63.32

63.36

Table 2.0, Cardiopulmonary data during and following exposure to song 1

Subject

Trial

30 Seconds Exposure Pulse Rate

30 Seconds Exposure Systolic Blood Pressure

30 Seconds Exposure Diastolic Blood Pressure

90 Seconds Exposure Pulse Rate

90 Seconds Exposure Systolic Blood Pressure

90 Seconds Exposure Diastolic Blood Pressure

30 Seconds Post Exposure Pulse Rate

30 Seconds Post Exposure Systolic Blood Pressure

30 Seconds Post Exposure Diastolic Blood Pressure

3

1

65

102

68

65

106

70

74

106

73

4

1

64

98

60

58

64

42

64

91

54

6

1

65

89

63

64

95

65

62

97

62

7

1

77

102

76

76

95

67

73

100

59

9

1

81

110

84

81

127

74

78

122

74

10

1

70

103

58

71

86

61

72

93

66

13

1

72

111

83

71

110

70

72

111

66

16

1

59

94

61

64

108

57

62

110

64

17

1

82

113

73

79

114

77

87

109

75

19

1

67

130

77

69

127

77

69

136

70

Average Value Trial 1

 

70.2

105.2

70.3

69.8

103.2

66

71.3

107.5

66.3

20

1

54

116

62

53

106

55

55

114

61

2

2

56

113

72

54

95

68

58

105

70

12

2

61

103

54

61

86

61

64

92

65

14

2

65

104

70

52

97

50

64

88

57

8

2

70

110

75

67

103

69

73

105

77

11

2

61

106

70

53

100

67

51

95

65

15

2

93

99

60

90

99

59

97

103

60

5

2

73

122

73

69

116

80

69

119

79

1

2

67

114

64

65

99

57

66

111

59

18

2

74

100

68

65

93

62

70

94

68

21

2

60

146

90

58

141

86

60

138

77

22

2

67

118

63

64

100

56

65

124

66

Average Value Trial 2

 

66.75

112.58

68.417

62.583

102.92

64.167

66

107.33

67

Total Average Value

 

68.48

108.89

69.36

66.19

103.06

65.08

68.65

107.42

66.65

Table 3.0, Cardiopulmonary data during and following exposure to song 2

Subject

Trial

30 Seconds Exposure Pulse Rate

30 Seconds Exposure Systolic Blood Pressure

30 Seconds Exposure Diastolic Blood Pressure

90 Seconds Exposure Pulse Rate

90 Seconds Exposure Systolic Blood Pressure

90 Seconds Exposure Diastolic Blood Pressure

30 Seconds Post Exposure Pulse Rate

30 Seconds Post Exposure Systolic Blood Pressure

30 Seconds Post Exposure Diastolic Blood Pressure

3

1

67

102

61

71

102

60

75

100

61

4

1

77

100

72

80

97

67

74

90

68

6

1

68

125

98

79

123

91

80

117

79

7

1

64

107

59

64

85

58

60

89

52

9

1

60

111

68

60

115

58

62

107

61

10

1

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

96

119

74

13

1

65

87

57

63

88

60

61

79

53

16

1

73

150

55

73

103

65

67

102

77

17

1

76

113

67

79

115

69

86

108

71

19

1

70

149

83

70

124

69

80

123

86

20

1

55

119

58

56

119

58

54

104

54

Average Value Trial 1

 

67.50

116.30

67.80

69.50

107.10

65.50

72.27

103.45

66.91

1

2

65

111

56

65

91

57

66

114

58

2

2

59

112

68

55

116

71

55

101

70

5

2

72

118

80

73

114

77

67

115

73

8

2

68

101

68

76

94

73

no data

no data

no data

11

2

57

104

68

61

90

65

60

96

64

12

2

64

88

53

64

86

56

64

85

46

14

2

61

95

60

58

85

68

54

116

59

15

2

100

97

52

100

96

59

94

102

58

18

2

67

92

62

65

94

64

68

99

59

21

2

62

149

86

58

149

87

65

137

91

22

2

72

101

67

73

111

70

71

98

56

Average Value Trial 2

 

67.91

106.18

65.45

68.00

102.36

67.91

66.40

106.30

63.40

Total Average Value

 

67.70

111.24

66.63

68.75

104.73

66.70

69.34

104.88

65.15

Figure 1.0, Pulse Rate Fluctuation due to Stimulus

Figure 2.0, Systolic Blood Pressure due to Stimulus

Figure 3.0, Diastolic Blood Pressure due to Stimulus

Calculations; Before any conclusions could be made about the results of the experiment, a statistical test was needed to see if the results of the experiment are significant or simply due to random chance. The appropriate statistical test to accept or reject the null hypothesis in this case was the hypothesis test for the difference between two means. A sample calculation that was conducted to conclude if the difference in pulse rate after 30 seconds while exposed to the stimulus labeled song 1 was significant and is presented as follows;

Null hypothesis; µno stimulus = µstimulus

Alternative hypothesis; µno stimulus ≠ µstimulus

Significance level; α = 0.05

Standard error; √[(sno stimulus2/nno stimulus) + (sstimulus2/nstimulus)] (where s = sample standard deviation, n = sample size)

Degrees of freedom; (sno stimulus2/nno stimulus + sstimulus2/nstimulus)2 / ([(sno stimulus2 / nno stimulus)2 / (nno stimulus - 1)] + [(sstimulus2 / nstimulus)2 / (nstimulus - 1)])

Test statistic; [(xno stimulus - xstimulus) - d] / standard error (where d = hypothesized difference between the population means)

Standard error value; √[(8.902/22) + (9.212/22)] = 2.73

Degrees of freedom value; (8.902/22 + 9.212/22)2 / ([(8.902 / 22)2 / (22 - 1)] + [(9.212 / 22)2 / (22 - 1)]) = 41.95 ≈ 42

Test statistic value; [(72.01 - 68.48) - 0] / 2.73 = 46.93

Based on these statistical inputs for the sample calculation, a two tailed t test calculated that the cumulative probability that a value for µno stimulus equals a value for µstimulus is equal to 1.000. This is an extremely high probability, and therefore results obtained in this portion of the experiment are insignificant and extremely probable to occur due to chance alone. Because of this, I was unable to reject the null hypothesis for this portion of the experiment.

Discussion;

Due to the numerous variables in this experiment, there are many calculations to be made in this experiment to try and find a relationship between musical stimulus and components of cardiopulmonary physiology. In another calculation, the systolic blood pressure that was not exposed to stimulus was compared to the systolic blood pressure of individuals after they were exposed to the musical stimulus labeled song 2 for 30 seconds. In this calculation, the results were as follows;

Standard error value; 4.92

Degrees of freedom value; 17.30 ≈ 17

Test statistic value; 1.41

P value; 0.912

The results of this calculation also reveal a high probability of the results occurring due to chance, and therefore I failed to reject the null hypothesis in the case of exposure to musical stimulus for 30 seconds and systolic blood pressure values. An individual could take hours statistically analyzing all of the data in this experiment for potential relationships between no stimulus and musical stimulus, but the unusually high probability levels of the hypothesis tests already conducted coupled with the data presented in figures 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 reveal that this is probably not a necessary task. The null hypothesis for this experiment was that musical stimulation does not have an effect on any aspect of human cardiopulmonary physiology. The alternative hypothesis was that musical stimulation would provoke some sort of change in pulse rate and blood pressure of human cardiopulmonary physiology. The results obtained in this experiment caused a failure to reject the null hypothesis numerous times, meaning that the results of this experimentation did not reveal a significant correlation between musical stimulation and changes in cardiopulmonary physiology. This conclusion makes sense from simply observing the data presented in Figures 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0. The graphs illustrate only small changes in pulse rate or blood pressure which vary in direction as well. An easily observable trend is not present in the figures and the statistical analysis of the data reinforces this idea. The conclusion makes sense in the context of the experiment that was conducted because despite being exposed to musical stimulation, the exposure time was only for a brief amount of time. Therefore, unless strong emotions or feeling is felt by an individual upon hearing the stimulation, the short duration of the stimulus is unlikely to cause any break from the normal cardiopulmonary physiological activities of an individual. While the results of this experiment failed to show a correlation between musical stimulation and changes in cardiopulmonary physiology of individuals who were exposed to it, it should not be mistaken to mean that there is not a correlation. Follow on experimentation and post experimentation analysis would be necessary in order to confidently make that correlation. Therefore, the results of this experiment do not support or conflict with any previously published works, but instead shows the need for further testing if a solid conclusion is to be made. Improvements on this experiment in order to reach a more solid conclusion would include depriving an individual of stimulation other than the experimental stimulation during the process of the experiment as well as controlling their diet and physical activity prior to experimentation so that a relatively constant foundation of data is collected before exposure to the experimental stimulus. An interesting improvement on this experiment would be to control all variables with the exception of emotion to see how varied emotional response to a common stimulus experienced may induce changes in components of their cardiopulmonary physiology.

Sources Cited;

Guzzetta, C.E. 1994. "Soothing the Ischemic Heart." American Journal of Nursing 94.1: 24.

Hinds, S.B., Raimond, S., Purcell, B.K. 2007. "The Effect of Harp Music on Heart Rate, Mean Blood Pressure, Respiratory Rate, and Body Temperature in the African Green Monkey." Journal of Medical Primatology 36.2: 95-100.

Karageorghis, C.I., Jones, L., Low, D. 2006. "Relationship Between Exercise Heart Rate and Music Tempo Preference." Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 77.2: 240-250.

Lemmer, B. 2008. "Effects of Music Composed by Mozart and Ligeti on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Circadian Rhythms in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats." Chronobiology International: The Journal of Biological & Medical Rhythm Research 25.6: 971-986.

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