Music Effect On Heart Rate Biology Essay

Published:

Smoking has an immediate effect and long-term effects on the heart rate of any person. While smoking the heart rate can increase up to 30% whereas the long term effects on the heart rate are not really seen in the resting heart rate if comparing a smoker and a non-smoker.

The hypothesis of this investigation is that If the subject is running with classical music (type 1) then the heart rate will be less than compared to a subject running with metal music (type 2) due to the sympathetic system because this type of music might cause the system to initiate a protective response such as altering the heart rate. If the subject is a smoker then there might be a small increase in the heart rate.

Speed of the treadmill - The speed of the treadmill has to be kept at constant speed for the testing subjects to get reliable results. To control this variable the treadmill will be kept at a constant speed of 10 miles per hour.

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

Professional

Essay Writers

Lady Using Tablet

Get your grade
or your money back

using our Essay Writing Service!

Essay Writing Service

Time of running - The time a subject is running on the treadmill has to be kept at a constant amount of time for all the testing subjects to get reliable results. To control this variable the amount of time a subject is running will be 2 minutes.

Time a song is played - The time a song is played has to be kept at the same amount of time for all the testing subjects to get reliable results. To control this variable the time a song is played for a subject running will be kept as 2 minutes.

Volume of song - The volume a song is played has to be kept at the same volume level for all the testing subjects to get reliable results. To control this variable the volume level for the testing subjects will be 8 (16/8)

Subject

The age of the testing subjects has to be kept in a specific range to get reliable results. To control this variable, the age of the testing subjects will be from 16 to 18.

The gender of the testing subjects has to be kept the same of all the testing subjects to get reliable results. To control the gender all the subjects will be male.

Location/ Temperature - The location, where the experiment, takes place should be the same for all the testing subjects to control this variable only one gym is in use. The temperature must be kept at a constant to get reliable results to control this variable the temperature will be kept at a constant degree of 24 Celsius.

Smokers/ Non- smokers -The subjects will either be smoker or non- smoker to get the reliable results. To control this variable subject A to E will be non-smoker and subjects F to J will be smoker.

II. Materials and Methods

Materials:

Treadmill

Stopwatch

Calculator

iPod (mp3/CD player)

Earphones

Writing material and paper

Method:

Measure subject´s heart rate at rest by:

Locating pulse on neck or hands with two fingers together

Count the amount of heart beats in 15 seconds

Multiply figure by four to find out beats per minute

Connect mp3 player to earphones and wear earphones

Stand on treadmill and select a 'Classical' piece of music

Set treadmill at 10 miles per hour

While piece is playing run on treadmill at the speed of 10 miles per hour for 2 minutes

Remove earphones and wait for 45 seconds to measure the recovery heart rate

Repeat steps from i-iii

Allow subject to rest for 5 minutes and allow relaxation of breath and heart rate

Repeat steps c-f with a 'heavy metal' piece

Repeat steps i-iii

Repeat steps a-j two more times after a rest of approximately 5-10 minutes

III. Data

Raw Data Table: Heart Rate

Controlled Variable

Resting Breathing Rate (bpm)

Independent Variable

Dependent Variable: Heart Rate (bpm)

Subject

Type of music

1st reading

2nd reading

3rd reading

Mean

A

72

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

Comprehensive

Writing Services

Lady Using Tablet

Plagiarism-free
Always on Time

Marked to Standard

Order Now

Type 1

84

85

84

84.3

Type 2

85

86

85

85.3

B

75

Type 1

88

87

88

87.6

Type 2

86

87

89

87.0

C

73

Type 1

84

83

82

83.0

Type 2

85

84

84

84.3

D

69

Type 1

81

81

81

81.0

Type 2

82

82

83

82.3

E

76

Type 1

88

86

87

87.0

Type 2

88

88

89

88.3

F

77

Type 1

89

87

88

88.0

Type 2

89

89

88

88.6

G

72

Type 1

85

86

86

85.6

Type 2

87

87

86

86.6

H

87

Type 1

110

109

108

109

Type 2

111

112

109

110.6

I

69

Type 1

82

83

82

82.3

Type 2

82

83

83

82.6

J

89

Type 1

112

111

112

111.6

Type 2

114

112

111

112.3

Qualitative Data Table: Change in Breathing Rate

Subject

Did breathing rate increase?

A

Yes

B

Yes

C

Yes

D

Yes

E

Yes

F

Yes

G

Yes

H

Yes, heavily

I

Yes

J

Yes, heavily

Quantitative Data Table: Change in Heart Rate

Controlled Variable

Resting Breathing Rate (bpm)

Independent Variable

Dependent Variable: Heart Rate (bpm)

Subject

Type of music

Mean

Change in heart rate

A

72

Type 1

84.3

12.3

Type 2

85.3

13.3

B

75

Type 1

87.6

12.6

Type 2

87.0

12.0

C

73

Type 1

83.0

11

Type 2

84.3

12.3

D

69

Type 1

81.0

12

Type 2

82.3

13.3

E

76

Type 1

87.0

11

Type 2

88.3

12.3

F

77

Type 1

88.0

11

Type 2

88.6

11.6

G

72

Type 1

85.6

13.6

Type 2

86.6

14.6

H

87

Type 1

109

22

Type 2

110.6

23.6

I

69

Type 1

82.3

13.3

Type 2

82.6

13.6

J

89

Type 1

111.6

22.6

Type 2

112.3

23.3

IV. Data processing & presentation

Overview

All the data is processed in bar diagrams to show the relation between type 1 and type 2 music as well as the relation between smokers and non-smokers best.

Calculation

To make the raw data more useful, the mean value and therefore the change in the heart rate was being calculated.

Calculating the mean value:

Example a)

Subject

Resting Heart Rate

Type of music

1st reading

2nd reading

3rd reading

A

72

Type 1

84

85

84

Add all the three readings together and then divide by 3 to get the mean value, which is 84,3 for subject A, type 1 of the music.

Calculating the change in the heart rate:

Example b)

Subject

Resting Heart Rate

Type of music

Mean

A

72

Type 1

84.3

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

This Essay is

a Student's Work

Lady Using Tablet

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Examples of our work

Subtract the value of the resting heart rate from the mean value to get the value of the change in the heart rate, which is 12,3 for subject A, type 1 of the music.

Processed data & graphs

graph 1.0 change in heart rate: non- smokers

graph 1.2 change in heart rate: smokers

graph 2.0 mean heart rate smokers/ non-smokers

graph 2.1 types of music's effect on heart rate (smokers and non-smokers)

V. Discussion

a) Conclusion

Type of music: The type of music did not affect the heart rate as much as expected this can be seen in graph 2.1. It did not affect the smokers or the non-smokers heart rate which can be seen with subject I (smoker) and C (non-smoker). There is only a slight increase in type 2 music, having a higher heart rate. This could also be due to the fact that the type 1 music was played first and therefore the subject felt more tired when the second type of music was played so the heart rate increased.

Smoker/ Non-Smoker: The subject being a smoker or a non-smoker did not effect the heart rate a lot. Two subjects seem to have a really high heart rate (H and J) (seen in graph 1.2) which could be due to the fact that the smoked before doing the experiment. Smoking can increase the heart rate by about 30% and this can then last for at least ten minutes. In graph 2.0 it can be seen that there is not much difference between smokers and non-smokers they have almost the same values of the heart rate with both types of music. With doing the qualitative data test one can see that the subjects H and J had a heavier breathing after doing the experiment this might also be due to the smoking right before doing the exercise.

b) Evaluation

Some of the subjects had a higher heart rate in the 2nd and 3rd reading also with the second type of music because this was tested second. The experiment took place in only one day this might had an affect on the heart rate because the subjects got tired after running for a while. To improve this the experiment could be done over a few days with breaks in between the next time.

Only the male gender was tested so it could not be seen what for example smoking has for an effect on the heart rate of a female subject and therefore there also could not be a comparison done.

The time a subject was running was kept at 2 minutes to see a greater effect on what different types of music have on the heart rate the subjects might have to run for at least 5 minutes to see an obvious difference.

The heart rate was tested by counting the heart beats with placing two fingers on the subjects hand or neck so there might have been errors in counting and multiplying the heart rate properly to improve this the next time a heart rate monitor could be used.

VI. References

http://www.heartmonitors.com/exercisetips/heart_rate_basics.htm

http://www.biologiedidaktik.at/

http://www.biologie-online.eu/herz/