Most Important Thing In And For The Environment Biology Essay

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What is definitely one of the most important thing in and for the environment. The answer is a plant. They provide all the energy for the environment, because they can get their energy from the sunlight. They use a process called photosynthesis to use energy from the bright sun to grow and reproduce. They also must get a lot of nutrients from the soil. Those nutrients get into the soil when decomposers which are organisms that break down waste and dead materials (5). Plants require space to grow and reproduce (1).

You may be wondering what is a plant. A Plant is something made up of many cells, which are connected and work together for the organisms as a whole. Plants have a very stiff cell wall, which is used to give cells rigidity and strength, offering protection against stress (12), it is made of cellulose. Cellulose is an organic compound and a polysaccharide, consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand linked D-glucose units (4). Plants also have the ability to make their own food from raw materials such as water and carbon dioxide. They also use a substance called chlorophyll which is is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria (13)to trap the energy from the sun. This process is called photosynthesis. The water and carbon dioxide are first converted to sugars then stored as starches.

Plants are also terribly important because they produce almost all the oxygen that we breathe. Because we exhale carbon dioxide we need to be able to inhale oxygen to live. That is where the all important plant comes in. Without plants we wouldn't be able to breathe therefore we wouldn't be alive. Another thing that plants aid in is pollination and the gathering of the plants nectar. Pollination is a process in which birds or bugs gather

the pollen from the flower. Bees make honey by another process, which involves gathering the nectar. In this process of gathering nectar, the insect transfers pollen from a flower to another and pollinates the flower. What is nectar? Nectar is pretty much the same thing as sugar diluted with water in the way that is a very sugar-rich liquid. Nectar is produced by the flower but more specifically by the extrafloral nectaries, the extrafloral nectaries are nectar that is produced outside the flower is generally made to attract predatory insects; this nectar attracts all sorts of creatures from birds and even bugs. Extrafloral nectaries are generally located on the leaf petioles, mid-rib or leaf margin. (11)

A Plant starts off as an itsy-bitsy seed and then they develop into a healthy seedling. The seed is protected by a coat. A seed coat, or testa, is just what the name implies, a protective layer covering a seed. A seed coat protects a seed from outside elements, such as too much water and sun that can harm the delicate seed encapsulated in it (9). On the inside of the seed is a thing called an embryo. An embryo is an organism in the early stages of development which cannot survive on its own (10) . This embryo soon turns into a plant. For the first few days, the embryo can live off the food that is supplied within the seed. After this food runs out they use two processes to produce food which are called photosynthesis and respiration.

Plants grow by slowly absorbing water or H2O from their main root. Kind of like a straw. Then the main root brings the water to the main part of the plant. The inside of a root has three parts which are the epidermis, the vascular rays, and the cortex. The epidermis' job is to protect the roots of the plant. The vascular rays carry the water to the

3 stele. The area between the epidermis and the stele is the cortex. The veins of a root are called the xylem, xylems are also long dead cells. The xylem carries the water and soluble mineral nutrients from the roots to the plant. The xylem also replaces water lost during the journey through the plants chambers and veins.

The dictionary describes the term photosynthesis as a synthesis of chemical compounds with the aid of radiant energy and especially light; especially: formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and a source of hydrogen (as water) in the chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants exposed to light (2) In simpler terms photosynthesis is when carbon dioxide and water combine in some sort of light, like sunlight, to form sugar, which is what plants need to survive. Photosynthesis is vital for life on Earth, and also for maintaining the levels of oxygen on this planet we call Earth. Almost all of life depends on photosynthesis for some source of energy and food. The amount of energy trapped by photosynthesis is immense, about 100 terawatts.(3b) A terawatt is equal to one trillion watts(3a)

There are six things that a plant needs to survive these things are water which is obviously essential for plants to live. Soil is the second of the most important factors for

the growth and survival of plants. The third one is sunlight which provides energy to the plant by a process known as photosynthesis. Another one is temperature. Temperature effects the plant growth, it also aids in the processes of germination which is the process of a seed becoming non-dormant, respiration, photosynthesis, and flowering. Atmosphere

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also helps the plant survive; the atmosphere includes relative humidity and carbon dioxide. The last thing a plant needs to survive is mineral nutrients also called plant food; plant food comes from the soil up through the plant roots. The nutrients are classified into two groups macronutrients and micronutrients. A micronutrient is a substance, such as a vitamin or mineral, that is essential in minute amounts for the proper growth and metabolism of a living organism (6). Micronutrients are chlorine, iron, maganese, zinc, boron, sodium, copper, molybdenum and nickel.(7) While macronutrients are a chemical element of which relatively large quantities are essential to the growth and health of a plant (8). Macronutrients include Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen. (7). Plants need these nutrients to survive

There are so many different types of plants and plant families. These plant families are mosses and liverworts these are usually the small green plants ,which has about 14,000 species, the fern is a very ancient family, ferns grow along creeks and in other wet places this family has about 12,000 species, cone plants or conifers are trees, these conifers are sometimes called evergreen trees, they no flowers or fruit on them, with only about 650 species they are the smallest plant family, and flowering plants which includes all which of the most familiar plants, the distinction of this plant is

obviously the flower, the flowering plant family is the largest with about 270,000 species. About 350,000 species of plants exist as of now. In 2004 about 287,655 species were identified. So in about five years we have discovered around 70,000 species. Imagine how many more species we could find in the upcoming five years.

Upcoming Five Years

Http:// www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/marssim/simhtml/info/ whats-a-plant.html.web.23.dec.2009

WWW.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/photosynthesis

A. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/photosynthesis

B. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/terrwatt#multiples

4) http://en.wikipedia.org.wiki/cellulose

5) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/decomposer

6) http://www.answers.com/topic/micronutrients

7) http://www.wiki.answers.com/Q/what_is_the_difference_between_macronutrients _and_micronutrients

8) http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/macronutrients

9) http://www.cornerstonegarden.com/article/10816-what-is-a-seed-coat.html

10) http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-an-embryo.htm

11) http://en.wikipedia.org.wiki/nectar#extrafloral_nectaries

12) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/cell_wall

13) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/chlorophyll

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