Morphological Traits In Wheat And Triticale Biology Essay

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Triticale, a new man made cereal, is known to be more drought tolerant and high yielding. An experiment comprising eight genotypes each of wheat and triticale was conducted at the NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2002-2003. The experiment was planted in Randomized Complete Block Design. Data were collected on plant height, spikelets spike‾¹, spike length and harvest index. Data of all the traits were statistically analyzed. All the genotypes were observed to be significantly different for plant height, spikelets spike-1, and spike length, while non-significantly different for harvest index. Heritability estimates for plant height, spikelets spike‾¹ and spike length were 90%, 98% and 84%, respectively. Significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations of plant height with spike length and spikelets spike‾¹, while non-significant correlation of harvest index with spikelets spike‾¹, spike length and plant height were observed. Morphologically, triticale appeared to be better than wheat, but the experiment needs to be repeated for getting more explicit conclusions.

INTRODUCTION

Wheat is the most important cultivated crop that ranks first in acreage as well as production amongst all the cereals in Pakistan and all over the world. Due to importance of wheat as a leading food crop in the farming system, many plant breeders are engaged in its improvement throughout the world. There has been an extensive research to pyramid such morphological traits that could partition adequate portion to grain yield resulting in high grain yield. The North West Frontier Province comprises several ecological zones having different climates and the existing wheat cultivars are not giving us good yields because of inadequate moisture availability and an erratic distribution of rain in the province.

Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack), an intergeneric cross between wheat and rye, has been in trials at CIMMYT as an alternate crop for the moisture scarced environment. Although some attempts have been made to develop specialized triticale products for human consumption, the principal uses are likely to be as substitute for wheat in human nutrition, or as forage for animal consumption. It has the potential to give better yield under moisture stress conditions. It has proved better in performance than wheat regarding yield, plant height and other characters (Ford et al., 1984 and Kempton et al., 1986). Dramatic increase in yield were recorded in many parts of the world, particularly in those breeding programmes which operated two cycles of selection per year (Larter and Hsam, 1973, CIMMYT 1987). In situations where yield were limited by environmental stresses, triticale produced more biomass (Graham, Geytenbeek and Radicliffe, 1983). It has out yielded the highest yielding wheat varieties used as check (CIMMYT, 1983). All of these evidences prove that triticale can compete with the long established cereal crop like wheat in many situations including drought.

Sheoran et al. (1986) observed that physiomorphological traits like plant height and spike length were directly related to yield. Harvest index (Shamsuddin, 1987), plant height, spikelets spike‾¹ and spike length (Pianchi et al., 1978) were directly related to yield. Zaheer (1991) suggested that yield could be increased through selection of plants with more plant height and more spikelets spike‾¹. So, it is hoped that triticale will exceed wheat in performance, due to its more plant height, spikelets spike‾¹, spike length and harvest index. Its performance is very good in NWFP and it seems to have a great scope in moisture stressed Peshawar valley (Baluch et al., 1977).

It is a new crop in this area and it is required that the triticale may be studied in multi-directions before recommending it for commercial cultivation.

The objectives of this study were to: i) study the genotypic performance of triticale in comparison with wheat under the agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar, ii) Determine the genotypic and phenotypic correlations among traits, and iii) determine the heritability of morphological traits.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The experiment was conducted in the department of Plant Breeding and Genetics NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan in the year 2002-2003. Eight genotypes of triticale from CIMMYT (ITYN 2001) and eight cultivars of wheat were studied and compared. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications. Each plot consisted of 5 rows with row length of 3 m and row to row distance of 30 cm. Seed rate for each plot was calibrated at the rate of 100 kg ha‾¹. Urea fertilizer and SSP were applied at the rate of 139 kg ha‾¹. Data were recorded on plant height, spikelets spike‾¹, spike length and harvest index.

Height of the main tiller was recorded from the ground level to the tip of spike excluding awns on 5 randomly selected spikes at maturity. Spike length of 5 randomly selected spikes was measured from the base of first spikelets to the tip of spike excluding awns at maturity. Plants of three central rows were harvested and weighed for biological yield. Harvest index was computed from the available data of grain yield and biological yield, using flowing formula.

The data, after compiling, were statistically analyzed by using the MSTATC statistical package (MSTATC, Version 2.00) and Orthogonal contrast was applied to test the significance of treatment differences. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients were also worked out using the same package. Heritability estimates were calculated from variances among inbred lines (Hallauer and Miranda, 1981) as

Where R is replicates, σ2G is the variance among genotypes as estimated by the expected mean squares, and σ2e is the line x replication interaction. Standard error for heritability was estimated according to Hallauer and Miranda (1981).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

PLANT HEIGHT

Mixed genotypes showed highly significant difference (P<0.01) for plant height (Table 2). Orthogonal contrast between wheat and triticale genotypes was highly significant for this trait. The comparative data of wheat and triticale reveal that triticale offers a wide range of plant height. Non-significant differences were observed within wheat and triticale genotypes (Table 2), while contrary to our findings, Ahmad et al. (1994), Allen et al. (1986), Ahmad et al. (2003), Mohammad et al. (2001), Munir et al. (1999), Akbar et al. (2000), Chaudry et al. (1991) and Panialvi et al. (1989) reported significant differences in wheat. One of the possible reasons could be that elite breeding lines were included in the study which resulted in the narrow genetic differences for this trait. Plant height for mixed genotyped ranged between 80.5 and 124.8 cm with a mean value of 102.87 cm (Table 3). Plant height for triticale genotypes ranged between 108.4 cm and 110 cm with a mean value of 115.2 (Table 3). Wheat genotypes ranged from 80.5 cm to 110 cm with a mean value of 90.53 cm (Table 3). Heritability estimate for this parameter was found to be 90% (Table 3). The high heritability for this trait indicates that a few genes control the character under consideration and that it is qualitatively inherited. Results of this study are in conformity with the findings of Rahman and Krostad (1991) who reported high heritability for this trait in wheat. Mixed genotypes showed significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations for plant height with spike length and spikelets spike‾¹ while its genotypic and phenotypic correlations with harvest index were non-significant (Table 4). Contrary to our findings, Shah et al.(1988) reported negative correlation between plant height and harvest index. This may be due to the differences of materials. Non-significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations were observed in separate analysis for wheat and triticale genotypes for plant height with spike length, spikelets spike‾¹and harvest index (Table 4).

SPIKELETS SPIKE‾¹

Highly significant differences (P<0.01) were observed in mixed genotypes showing diverse types of wheat and triticale genotypes (Table 2). Orthogonal contrast between wheat and triticale genotypes was highly significant for this trait. In the present study triticale exhibited more spikelets spike‾¹ than wheat. Non-significant differences (P<0.05) were observed within wheat and triticale genotypes (Table 2). Previously Ahmad et al. (1994) found similar results. Ahmad et al. (2003), Muhammad et al. (2001), Dautani et al. (1997) and Mahmood et al. (1990) reported significant differences in wheat. Non-significant differences may be due to the variations in materials and ecological conditions. Spikelets spike‾¹ ranged between 17 and 30 in mixed genotypes with a mean value of 22.97 (Table 3). Range of spikelets spike‾¹ was 25 to 30 for triticale having a mean value of 27.5, while it was 17-20 for wheat with mean value of 18.44 (Table 3). The heritability estimated for this trait was 98% (Table 3). Possible explanation of high heritability could be its high genetic variance between wheat and triticale genotypes. However, Mohammad et al. (2001) reported low heritability for this trait, while Rahman and Krondstad (1991) reported both high and low heritability in wheat depending on the genetic background. Mixed genotypes showed significantly positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations for spikelets spike‾¹ with plant height, spike length (Table 4). The genotypic and phenotypic correlations of spikelets spike‾¹with harvest index in wheat genotypes was significantly negative (Table 4). The genotypic and phenotypic correlations of spikelets spike‾¹ with harvest index in mixed genotypes of wheat and triticale was non-significant (Table 4).

SPIKE LENGTH

Mixed genotypes and triticale genotypes showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) for spike length (Table 2). These findings are in agreement with the findings of Pacetti et al. (1993), Khan et al. (2001), Leki et al. (1991), Dautani et al. (1997) and Swati et al. (1985) who reported highly significant differences for this trait in wheat. Orthogonal contrast between wheat and triticale genotypes was highly significant for this trait. Our comparative data suggests that triticale genotypes showed more spike length than that of wheat. Differences were non-significant (P<0.05) in triticale genotypes (Table 2). The reason for this could be the uniform genetic background of the materials for spike length. Data for spike length in mixed genotypes ranged from 9.74 to 13.62 cm with a mean value of 11.74 cm (Table 3). Range of spike length for triticale genotypes was 11.5 to 13.62 cm having a mean value of 12.65 cm while it was 9.74 to 12 cm for wheat with a mean value of 1.093 cm (Table 3). Heritability estimate for this parameter was 84% (Table 3). High heritability indicates that this character is less influenced by environment. Reddi et al. (1969) reported low heritability estimate for this trait. Mixed genotyped showed significantly positive genotypic and phynotypic correlation of spike length with spikelets per spike and plant height (Table 4). Non-significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation were observed in triticale genotypes for spike length with spikelets spike‾¹, plant height and harvest index (Table 4). Non-significant positive correlation of spike length with plant height was found which is opposite to the findings of Shahid et al. (2002) who reported significant positive correlation between spike length and plant height in wheat (Table 4). Correlation of spike length with other traits was found non-significant (Table 4).

HARVEST INDEX

Mixed genotypes showed non-significant differences (P> 0.05) for harvest index (Table 2). Ihsannullah and Mohammad (2000), Burrio et al. (1990) reported non-significant differences in wheat which in line with our findings. The findings of Chowdhury et al. (1989) are contradictory to these findings. From non-significant differences between wheat and triticale, it can be inferred that they share same genetic background for this trait and both can be collectively studied. Orthogonal contrast between wheat and triticale genotypes was non-significant for this character. The value of harvest index for mixed genotypes ranged between 5 and 27.8 with a mean value of 20.2 (Table 4). Mixed genotypes showed non-significant phenotypic and genotypic correlations of harvest index with spikelets spike‾¹, spike length and plant height (Table 4).

CONCLUSION

The study entitled as "Comparative Study of Morphology Traits in Wheat and Triticale" was conducted in Agricultural University Peshawar during 2002-2003. Data on plant height, spikelets spike‾¹, spike length and harvest index showed that all the traits except harvest index were positively correlated with each other. The heritability estimates showed that morphological traits were highly heritable and they were less influenced by diverse environmental conditions. While comparing plant height, spikelets spike‾¹, spike length and harvest index between wheat and triticale, it can be inferred that triticale appears to be a potential substitute for wheat in rain fed conditions.

Table 1. Cultivar/lines, used during this study.

No

Parentage

Pedigree

 

Triticale

 

1.

Pollmer_2.1.1

CTY88.547-22RES-IM-0Y-2M=1Y-0M-1B-0Y

2.

ARDI_1.TOPO 1419//ERIZO_9/3/2* KISSA_7-1

CTSS92B00490M-B-1M-1Y-0Y-0B

3.

LIRA/BUC/4/2*T4466/3/K760/DP//X77-387-1/5/LIRON_2/6/LIRON_1/7/CAAL

CTIB0009S-10Y-0Y-0B

4.

LIRA/BUC/4/2*T4466/3/L760/DP//X77-387-1/5LIRON_2/6/LIRON_1/7/CAAL

CTIB93Y00071T-4B-1Y-0Y-0B

5.

LIRA/BUC/4/2*T4466/3/K760/DP//77-387-1/5/LIRON_2/6/LIRON_1/7/ERIZO_11/YOGUI_3

CTIB93Y00070T-10B-4Y-0Y-0B

6.

NIMIR_3ERIZO_12/5GC.3/733.3/733.EB//MPE/3/LAMB_3/4/BUF_2/6/POLLMER_2

CTSS92B00849T-D-1Y-0Y-0B

7.

PFT80413/DLE//ZEBRA 79/3/GNU_5/4/KER_2/5/MANATI_1

CTSS92B00192S-25Y-0Y-0B

8.

RA64/SONNI_4/3/HARE_132/CIVET//STIER_28

CTSS92B00953T-C-1M-1Y-0Y-0B

 

Wheat

1.

TATARA

Released by NIFA

2.

PIRSABAK-85

Released by CCRI

3.

GHAZNAVI-98

Released by NWFP Agri. Uni. Peshawar

4.

DERA-98

Released by ARI (D.I.Khan)

5.

TAKBEER

Released from ATTILLA

6.

FAKHR-E-SARHAD

Released by NIFA

7.

INQALAB-91

Released by Ayub Agr. Res. Station, Faisalabad

8.

CHANAB

 Released by Ayub Agr. Res. Station, Faisalabad

Table II. Mean Squares of plant height (PH), spikelets spike‾¹ (SLPS), spike length (SL) and harvest index (HI) of wheat and triticale 2002-2003.

S.O.V

Variables Measured

 

Df

PH

SLPS

SL

HI

 

Wheat

 

Replication

1

82.90

7.56

1.71

2.02

Treatments

7

63.87

1.06

0.75**

30.16

Error

7

45.2

0.42

0.05

46.13

 

Triticale

 

Replication

1

185.64

0.25

0.01

28.09

Treatments

7

48.25

2.85

0.34

8.10

Error

7

21.85

0.82

0.44

15.16

 

Mixed Experiment

 

Replication

1

258.78

2.53

0.69

6.20

Treatments

15

327.05**

45.63**

1.94**

20.51

Error

15

32.03

0.93

0.30

32.48

Table III. Means and ranges of plant height (PH), spikelets spike‾¹ (SLPS), spike length (SL) and harvest index (HI) of wheat and triticale, Peshawar 2002-2003.

 

WHEAT

TRITICALE

MIXED EXPERIMENT

TRAITS

MEAN

RANGE

MEAN

RANGE

MEAN

RANGE

PH

91NS

81 - 110

115 NS

108 - 125

103**

81 - 125

SL

11 **

10 - 12

13 NS

12 - 14

12**

10 - 14

SLPS

18 NS

17 - 20

28 NS

25 - 30

23**

17 - 30

HI

15 NS

5 - 28

14 NS

5 - 21

20 NS

5 - 28

Table IV. Phenotypic and Genotypic correlations coefficients among plant height (PH),

spike length (SL), spikelets spike‾¹ (SLPS) and harvest index (HI) Peshawar, 2002-2003.

Traits

Wheat

Triticale

Mixed Experiment

 

rg

rp

rg

rp

rg

rp

PH VS SL

0.692*

0.256

0.523

0.228

0.899**

0.732**

PH VS SLPS

-0.210

-0.293

0.464

0.401

0.922**

0.836**

PH VS HI

-0.397

-0.030

-0.286

-0.082

-0.370

-0.165

SL VS SLPS

0.173

0.426

-0.194

-0.051

0.840**

0.801**

SL VS HI

-0.070

-0.092

-0.597

-0.370

-0.350

-0.253

SLPS VS

HI

0.785**

0.510*

0.224

0.045

-0.196

-0.101

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