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Morphological Characteristics of Colchicum L. Species

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Botanical studies of the Turkish flora have been started on botanical trips approximately 300 years ago by French botanist Tournefort on north – northeast Anatolia (Davis H.P. 2008). Following years botanical investigations have been continued and according to these investigations a well-known publication has been prepared by Davis (1965-1988) with the name of “The Flora of Turkey and East Aegian Islands” and subsequently to the publish of all volumes, major part of the Turkish flora have been determined. Recently the taxonomic relations have been studied under a narrow area but more precisely methods such as molecular markers.

In this dissertaton the qualitatitve and quantitative morphological characters of 49 Colchicum L. species and 16 species candidates were investigated. The parameters were chosen by taking into consideration of UPOV technical certification criteria particular to Colchicum L. species with the purpose of Genome-Wide Association Mapping in this dissertation. The qualitative traits were converted into numerical form for compatibility to statistical analyses. Measurements of 29 morphological parameters for 168 populations can be found in Appendix 5 and the summary statistics is shown in Table 3.1. Within the scope of this dissertation, morphological parameters were subjected to TASSEL software for conducting Genome-wide Association Mapping and histogram charts for morphological parameters were prepared (Appendix 6).

According to the histogram results of the morphological parameters; 72% of anther color was measured as yellow while 15% was green, 9% was pink, and 2% was brown , purple. Anther length distributed between 2,5 mm to 14,6 mm and when the sizes clustered to 3 major groups ≤ 5 , 5< x < 10,5, ≥ 10,5 the percentages were seen 42%, 42%, and 16% respectively. The filament size was distributed between 2,5-10mm, 10-20mm, 20-30mm, above 30mm and their distribution rate were 35%, 45%, 13%, and 7% respectively. 2% of the populations doesn’t have styles, 17% style size were 2-10mm, 32% 10-20mm, 25% 20-30mm, 14% 30-40mm, and 10% was above 40mm in size. While 83% of the styles were consisted of one color, 17% of the styles were double colored. When the state of stigma was examined the 60% of the stigmas were seen horizantal, 29% point, 21% vertical, 11% perpendicular and 4% as unformed.

For penduncle aspect a high ratio as 95% was seen as integral and 5% was splintery, the diameter of penduncle distrubution seen as 0-2mm 32%, 2-3mm 18%, 3-4mm 26%, 4-5mm 14%, 5-6mm 8%, above 6mm 2%. The length of penduncle was seen as 0-20mm 22%, 20-30mm 43%, 30-40mm 23%, 40-50mm 7% and above 50mm 5%. The color of penduncle was differed between white, pink and green and the percentages for each color was seen 79%, 10% and 11% respectively.

When we cluster our populations for their blooming time they were clustered into 3 major groups which were blooming between January to March (Group-1) 23%, between July to September (Group-2) 67% and between November to December 10% (Group-3). The candle lives for our populations were distributed between 0 to 30 days and 80% of our populations had a candle life as 0-10 days, 18% of them had 10-20 days, and 2% were 20-30 days while vegetation time for populations were also clustered majorly as 5-10days, 10-20days,20-30 days, above 30 days and the distrubution rates for these clusters were 8%, 47%, 30%, 15% respectively.

The shape of flower was seen in 7 different motifs : open, incurved, circular, tubular, conical, reflexed, flared and the distrubution of flower shapes were 9%, 29%, 7%, 7%, 11%, 19%, 18% respectively. The size of the flowers were calculated by multiplication of their length and widths and 55% of the flowers were below 10 cm2, 33% were between 10-20 cm2, 8% were 20-30 cm2, and 4% of them were above 30 cm2. The tepal shapes were seen in 5 motifs which were subulat, oblanseolat, eliptic, linear, lanseolat and the distribution of these motifs were 18%, 26%, 26%, 14%, 16% respectively. Tepal sizes were determined by multiplying the length and widths of tepal and 41% of the tepals were below 2,5 cm2, 26% were 2,5 – 5 cm2, 9% were 5 -7,5 cm2, 8% were 7,5 – 10 cm2, and 16% of the tepals were above 10 cm2. The tepal surface shape was seen in 3 different motifs which were full splined 10%, half splined 25% and ductless 65%. The color of tepals were seen in 8 different ways; liht pink 15%, pink 21%, light lilac 21%, lilac 13%, white 14%, lilac + white 2%, pink + white 8%, yellowish white in 6%. When the tasellation was examined while 75% of the flowers showing no tasellation, 15% of them shows full tasellation and 10% of them showing half tasellation. Odourousity of populations were changing between odourless 94%, semi odour 4% and full odour 2%.

Our populations have majorly splited into 2 groups for their leaves coming out of the ground. While 32% of the populations giving leaves between January – March, 68% of the populations were giving their leaves between September – December. The number of leaves coming out of a population was differing within a wide range, the 35% of the populations had below 10 leaves per population while 26% for 10-20 leaves, 13% for 20-30 leaves, 17% for 30-40 leaves, 5% for 40-50 leaves, and 4% above 50 leaves. The size of the leaves were differentiated between 0,5 dm2 48%, 0,5-1 dm2 29%, 1-1,5 dm2 11%, 1,5-2 dm2 6%, 2-3 dm2 3%, 3-4 dm2 1% above 4 dm2 2% and the thicknesses of the leaves were observed as 0,25mm 12%, 0,35mm 26%, 0,45mm 27%, 0,55mm 17%, 0,65mm 9% and above 0,75mm 9%. There were 3 different colors on leaves and when we group our populations 40% of the populations had bright green color while 37% had green and 23% had dark green color. The shapes of the leaves were examined in five different forms which were 36% oblanseolat, 30% linear, 15% subulat, 13% lanseolat, and 6% eliptic. The position of the leaves were seen in 7 different forms 29% of the populations were vertical half folded, 15% were horizontal half folded, 14% were flat vertical, 13% for vertical folded, flat horizontal, and horizontal folded, and 3% for perpendicular. When we examine the leaf surfaces 3 different types of leaf surfaces were seen, 69% of the leaves didn’t contain keel while 16% were half keeled and 15% were owning full keels. The edges of the leaves categorized in 3 groups 63% with no waves, 30% poor waves and 7% wavy. In addition to these cllasifications the hairness of the leaves were examined and 95% of them were out of hairs while 5% of our populations were possesin hairy leaves.

For estimation of the fertility of the populations; the capability of producing a fruit was observed for 2 years and the 78% of the populations were found fertile where 22% were sterile. The fruit sizes for fertile populations were calculated by multiplication of the diameter and length of capsul. The capsul sizes were found in a range of 0,1 cm2 to 10 cm2, the distribution of capsul sizes were seen as; for below 1 cm2 23%, 1-2 cm2 31%, 2-3 cm2 15%, 3-5 cm2 13% and above 5 cm2 18%. The colors of the capsul were observed as 3 different colors and these were yellow 46%, brown 22% and crimson 32%.

Diameters and lengths of the corms were measuered and then to estimate the corm size multiplication of diameter and length were used. The the sizes were clustered into 6 groups. Size of the groups were distributed as: below 5 cm2, 5-10 cm2, 10-15 cm2, 15-10 cm2, 20-30 cm2, above 30 cm2 and the distribution ratios were 28%, 28%, 17%, 9%, 10%, 8% respectively. We have observed 4 different colors of corms of Colchicum L. populations which were yellow, brown, crimson, black and they were distributed over populations 3%, 47%, 35%, 15% respectively.

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