Material Balance With Chemical Reactions Biology Essay

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In this section of the report, the summary of the entire report will be shown below: The main aim of this experiment is to ensure the material balance with chemical reaction is being employed to it. This is to determine the yield, rate of conversion and factors affecting the rate of reaction. This is done by two sets of concentration which is 0.01M and 0.002M of ethyl acetate. The yield, conversion rate and rate of reaction will increase when 0.02M of ethyl acetate is added to the sodium hydroxide to form ethanol and sodium acetate.

In the theory part of the experiment the rate of reaction, conductivity, saponification, batch reaction, yield and conversion is important. The outmost important is saponification process whereby an ester is hydrolysed under basic conditions to form an acid salt and an alcohol.

In the procedure part of this experiment the 3 outmost steps is the preparation of the starting material, the experimental setup and the procedure.

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Safety precaution is also important as the reactants formed will have some hazard in it. This can be prevented if safety manual is read properly.

In the results and calculations of the experiment the result the yield, conversion rate and rate of reaction will be shown in table form or the data will be presented as graph. The results of the 0.02M of ethyl acetate should have a higher percentage of yield, conversion rate and rate of reaction.

In the discussion section, the use of a catalyst will be discussed and a conclusion will be determine as a catalyst will only speed up the reaction and not the yield and conversion rate. The conductivity value is also discussed and to conclude it, the conductivity value is determine by the sodium hydroxide because as time goes by the moles of sodium hydroxide becomes lesser causing the conductivity value to decrease.

In the last section the results are further evaluated as to how well it can be improved to obtain the optimum results. This can be done by ensuring safety precaution is reinforced at all times.

Introduction

Aim

The main aim of this experiment is to employ the principles of material balance with chemical reaction for batch reactions to study and determine the resultant yield, conversion and reaction rate. The purpose is also to find out if factors like increasing concentration can be applied to our experiment to determine if the rate of reaction will increase or decrease.

Hypothesis

The hypothesis of this experiment is that in a normal concentration, the conductivity value is expected to have a gradual drop with respect to time and conversion and yield is expected to be about 45%. When the concentration is double, the conductivity value is expected to decrease rapidly with respect to time and the conversion and yield must be higher than the 60%.

Background

There are three main key factors that are important in an industry that is why industries spent much effort and research to ensure that there would not be any loss of costly goods which will affect the capital. The product which should consist of maximum percentage conversion and maximum yield and the process should be as fast as possible.

By having a maximum yield, a maximum conversion and by increasing the rate of reaction these process industries companies will be able to earn lots of profit.

This experiment that is material balance with chemical reaction is batch process in a steady state between sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate. The products formed were mainly sodium acetate and ethanol after 30 minutes of the experiment. This can be further simplified as saponification process occurring in a closed system with batch reaction as no extra material was introduced during the experiment and the charge that was fed in was weighed and stopped after 30 minutes preventing a cycle from repeating. This saponification process is mainly used for making soaps. The material balance concept states that a matter can neither be destroyed nor created. The main outcome of this experiment is to apply material balance with chemical reaction to obtain the rate of conversion, yield and the rate of reaction. This is done by observing the sodium hydroxide conductivity values as time pass by. In order to determine the rate of reaction, the initial concentration of the sodium hydroxide should be the same. It is important to keep an eye on any limitations set on this experiment as through this experiment we can further improve the rate of reaction, the total yield and conversion rate of the products to maximise huge profit.

Theory

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In this experiment which is material balance with chemical reaction, a few important theories were being applied. It is mainly saponification process, batch reaction process, conversion rate, yield obtained, the rate of reaction and conductivity.

2.1 Saponification

Saponification is the process whereby an ester is hydrolysis by an alkali to form an alcohol and an acid salt which is the carboxylic acid. The process above is commonly referred as a reaction in which a base is reacted with fats or oil to form soap. What happens is that this base which is mainly a metallic alkali breaks the esters bonds to release two products. These two products are fatty acid salt and glycerol. (http://www.sdahq.org/cleaning/chemistry/)

In this experiment ethyl acetate which is the ester is hydrolysis by sodium hydroxide which is the base to form ethanol and sodium acetate. The ethanol is the alcohol produced and the sodium acetate is the carboxylic acid produced. Since the desired product of our experiment is sodium acetate, saponification process is the best way in obtaining it.

2.2 Batch Reaction Process

It is a process whereby a fixed charge of raw material with its known value is fed into the reactor. It is only withdrawn when the cycle is on the verge to be repeated or when the reactants fed in has completely reacted to form the desired products. This process can also be used to describe as to how pharmaceutical industry creates their products. (Singapore poly 2009/2010 CP 5047 Lecture Notes)

In this experiment it is a batch process as in the beginning 0.49ml of sodium hydroxide was added to the 0.01M of ethyl acetate solution. Once results were obtained at different interval the process was stopped even before all the reactants were used up. This is because the desired product was obtained hence by stopping the reaction before completion it proves that this experiment is a batch process. Then the apparatus were washed and a new volume of sodium hydroxide which is 0.98ml was added with 0.02M of ethyl acetate. The reaction was stopped only when results were obtained at different intervals.

This further proves that it is a batch process as a new fixed charge was prepared and fed into the reactor reinforcing the earlier conclusion that this process is a batch process.

2.3 Rate of Conversion (Degree of Completion)

Degree of completion is well known with chemical engineer as the number of limiting reactants consumed by the fed which is converted into products. Conversion can be defined as the fraction of key reactants that reacts simultaneously with other reactants usually in parallel reactions to form the products. (Thakore/ (Bhatt 2003)

A formula can be concluded from this which is moles of key reactant divided by the moles of key reactant fed into the reactor times 100% to obtain the rate of conversion.

In this experiment the key reactant is the sodium hydroxide which reacts with the ethyl acetate therefore the formula that was concluded in the earlier section can be used. In this experiment the conversion rate was found by using the moles of sodium hydroxide reacted divided by the moles of sodium hydroxide fed into the reactor times 100%.

2.4 Yield

In chemistry, yield can also be called as chemical yield or yield of a product. This is obtained in a chemical reaction and the yield is given in terms of grams or moles. Since one or more reactants are used in excess the yield is usually determine by the limiting reactant. This can only be done if the reaction is stoichiometry. The theoretical yield that can be obtained from a chemical equation is 100% but due to limitations on measurement accuracy the value of 100% is impossible to obtain. "With references to Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, yields around 100% are called quantitative, yields above about 90% are called excellent, yields above about 80% very good, yields above about 70% are called good, yields below about 50% are called fair, and yields below about 40% are called poor". It is important not to purify any substance as the yield will be much lower when compared to the impure product.

(Vogel, A.I., Tatchell, A.R., Furnis, B.S., Hannaford, A.J. and P.W.G. Smith. Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall, 1996.)

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Hence a formula can be conclude to obtain the yield which is moles of desired product formed divided by moles of key reactant fed into the reactor times 100%.

In this experiment, the desired product was the sodium acetate salt and the key reactant fed into the reactor is sodium hydroxide. Since the reaction stoichiometry the formula above can be used. Hence to obtain the yield in this experiment, the moles of sodium acetate must be divided by the moles of sodium hydroxide fed into the reactor and times by 100%. By doing this the yield can be obtained so as to ensure all the costly products were used to the fullest.

2.5 Rate of Reaction

The rate of reaction is defined as how fast is the reaction going to be completed. There are certain factors affecting the rate of reaction. It is mainly concentration, surface area, temperature, pressure and the presence of a catalyst.

2.5.1 Concentration

Concentration plays an important role in any reaction to speed up the reaction as this step is the easiest step. So what happens is that in the first concentration, the particles present in it have lower chances for the particles to collide into one another and when the concentration is double in the given volume, the particles which is present is now increased therefore there is now a higher chances of collision which will then increase the rate of reaction bring the reaction to completion faster. (Pearson Education, 2004)

In this experiment since two concentrations of sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate were added the constant rate of depletion could not be indentified causing the rate of reaction of the second concentration to be faster. This is because in the first concentration there were stoichiometry amount of reactant reacting with one another causing the rate of depletion in the number of moles to be moderate but in the second reaction the concentration of the products were in excess causing more particles to be present hence increasing the chance of collision to the maximum which in turn increase the rate of reaction and the rate of depletion. This proves that concentration does affect the rate of reaction in this experiment.

2.5.2 Surface Area

Surface area is usually determined by the state of the substance that is going to be reacted this will determine whether the rate of reaction will increase or remain the same. When the total surface area is less due to big particles present, the chances of collision is kept to the minimum. On the other hand the rate of reaction will only increase if particles present in it are small. This is because the total surface area is now increased causing the particles to collide into each other more frequently hence increasing the rate of reaction.

(Nigel D Purchon Copyright © 1997 - 2000 Gondar Design)

In this experiment the reactants that were used were all in liquid state. Thus by having it in liquid state the total surface area is increased causing the rate of reaction to be increased. This is due to the frequent collision of particles of particles. Thus these conclude that the total surface area does affect the rate of reaction in this experiment.

2.5.3 Temperature

An increase in temperature is able to ensure that the rate of reaction is increased. This is because when there is no heat introduced the particles are still then when the temperature is increase this particles now gain heat energy in terms of physics it is called kinetic energy. With this kinetic energy the particles are then are to collide into one another more frequently causing the rate of reaction to increase.

(Nigel D Purchon Copyright © 1997 - 2000 Gondar Design.)

In this experiment the temperature was remain at room temperature which is 25. Since there was no increased in temperature throughout the experiment the rate of reaction did not increase at all. Thus these shows that in this experiment temperature did not play any key importance in the rate of reaction.

2.5.4 Pressure

Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a perpendicular direction to the surface of the object. An increase in pressure will cater to an increase in rate of reaction. This is because the particles are now closer to each other hence the particles are able to collide more frequently which will in turn increase the rate of reaction. Pressure can only affect gas particles so if there is pressure acting on a liquid particle or a solid particle the rate of reaction will not be affected.

In this experiment the particles are in liquid state therefore pressure will not cater to an increase in the rate of reaction if it is introduced. The only thing it will cause is danger to the surrounding as we are afraid the pressure might escape causing injuries.

2.5.5 Catalyst

A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of reaction with itself being chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. There is a positive catalyst and a negative catalyst. In a positive catalyst, the activation energy is kept to the minimum to force the reaction to undergo the path in which more particles are present. Since there are now more particles available the collision rate will increase causing an increase in the rate of reaction. In a negative catalyst, the activation energy is kept to the maximum to force the reaction to undergo the path in which fewer particles are present. Since there are now fewer particles in the reaction, the chances of collision are decreased catering to a decrease in the rate of reaction.

(The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright© 2004, Columbia University Press.)

In this experiment no catalyst was introduced therefore catalyst did play a part in increasing the rate of reaction.

After viewing the factors, in this experiment only the concentration and surface area affect the rate of reaction.

2.6 Conductivity

Conductivity value is an easy way to determine how fast the concentration is depleting. This can be done by taking reading at different time intervals and by plotting a graph to fully understand the depletion rate. Usually this is determined by a single reactant as the rest usually have negligible values.

In this experiment sodium hydroxide was read so as to determine the conductivity values and the depletion rate. The reason as to why sodium hydroxide was chosen is because the ethyl acetate and ethanol have negligible values.

All in all the theory stated above is applied in this experiment.

Procedure

How to Prepare the Starting Reactants?

The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) of sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate should be read through. The safety hazard and health hazard including the proper handling and disposal of chemicals should be reinforced during the experiment. Goggles and gloves should be used for extra safety precaution and pouring of chemicals should be done in the fume hood so as to prevent the people from breathing in harmful gas. 500ml of 0.01M sodium hydroxide and 500ml of 0.01M ethyl acetate is the concentration needed to be prepared for this experiment.

A volume needed from the stock sodium hydroxide with 0.01M is measured with a measuring cylinder and then it is transferred into a 500ml of volumetric flask and then diluted with deionised water up to the 500ml value. Once it is added the stopper is place and the solutions are mixed together. It can be inverted and shaken as long the stopper prevents any leakage from happening.

For the ethyl acetate, 250ml of deionised water is added into the 500ml volumetric flask. This volume can be measured using the 500ml cylinder given. The micropipette is used to obtain 0.49ml of ethyl acetate then it is transferred into the volumetric flask. It is then filled up with deionised water again up till the 500ml mark. Then a stopper is placed to prevent leakage as the flask is inverted to ensure that it is mixed properly. The steps above should be done in a fume hood. This step is used to obtain 0.001M of ethyl acetate.

For the second set of the reaction the preparation of sodium hydroxide must be followed according to step 2. As for the ethyl acetate, the micropipette is used to obtain a value of 0.98ml of ethyl acetate of stock solution. Then it is transferred into a volumetric flask and diluted up to the 500ml mark. The stopper should be placed once the dilution is done. The flask is then inverted. It is important that these steps are done in a fume hood. This reactants are used only for the second reaction.

What Is The Experimental Setup?

Figure 3.2.1 is the setup of the experiment. The exact same thing need to be done to ensure the experiment operate smoothly. Before operating it permission should be obtained. (CP 5047 Lab Manual)

Figure3.2. 1: Experimental setup

Conductivity meter

1-litre reaction beaker

Magnetic stirring device

Conductivity probe

Reacting mixture

Retort stand

What Is The Procedure In Carrying Out The Experiment?

The prepared sodium hydroxide is poured into the reactor. Then the reaction conditions are adjusted to the predetermined levels. The reactions conditions are recorded some of the examples are temperature, stirring speed, concentrations and volumes of reactants. The conductivity meter probe is positioned into the reacting mixture.

The timer is started immediately as soon as the ethyl acetate solution is poured in. The conductivity values ( are recorded at a regular interval of 1 minute for 30 minutes of the reaction time.

The stirring device is stopped after 30 minutes of the reaction. The magnetic stir bar from the mixture is removed by using the magnetic rod.

Once the conductivity probe is removed, it is rinsed thoroughly with de-ionised water.

The reaction product mixture is poured into the plastic waste container.

The glass ware is then rinsed and the experiment is repeated base on the discussed value for the second set which is discussed with the lecture.

Once the experiment has ended, the conductivity probe is removed from the reacting mixture and rinse thoroughly with de-ionised water. All chemicals are then disposed into the plastic waste container. The waste and unused reactants are then brought to the next lab for proper treatment and disposal.

The final step is to rinse all used glass wares and to tidy up the work space.

Results And Calculations

4.1 Raw Data

The tables showed below 4.1 and 4.1.1shows the tabulated data of the values that were recorded during the experiment.

Results for reaction of NaOH with Ethyl acetate (diluted from 0.49cm 3)

Time (min)

Conductivity value (µS/cm)

Concentration of NaOH(M)

Temperature(0C)

1

1013

0.0027

25.6

2

992

0.0026

25.6

3

970

0.00249

25.6

4

957

0.00241

25.6

5

933

0.00230

25.6

6

916

0.00222

25.6

7

902

0.00214

25.5

8

886

0.00206

25.5

9

874

0.00202

25.5

10

860

0.00192

25.5

11

848

0.00184

25.5

12

836

0.00177

25.5

13

825

0.00170

25.5

14

813

0.00163

25.4

15

803

0.00156

25.4

16

793

0.00139

25.4

17

783

0.00134

25.4

18

773

0.00131

25.4

19

765

0.00127

25.3

20

758

0.00124

25.3

(Table 4.1)

Results for reaction of NaOH with Ethyl acetate (diluted from 0.98cm 3) (twice the concentration)

Time (min)

Conductivity value (µS)

Concentration Of NaOH(M)

Temperature (°C)

1

1026

0.00278

24.9

2

1004

0.00267

25.1

3

988

0.00259

25.1

4

966

0.00248

25.1

5

950

0.00239

25.1

6

932

0.00231

25.1

7

914

0.00222

25.1

8

900

0.00215

25.1

9

889

0.00208

25.1

10

875

0.00201

25.1

11

863

0.00193

25.0

12

848

0.00184

25.0

13

837

0.00177

25.0

14

831

0.00175

24.9

15

824

0.00170

24.9

16

808

0.00157

25.0

17

797

0.00140

25.0

18

784

0.00134

25.0

19

781

0.00133

25.0

20

770

0.00131

25.0

(Table 4.1.1)

4.2 How Is Yield Of Sodium Acetate Determined At 15 Minutes?

It is determine by using the sodium hydroxide present in the solution. Its conductivity value is used and it is compared to a graph which is shown at figure 4.2.1 Once the concentration of the sodium hydroxide is determined a table can be tabulated. Hence by using the molar ratio of the reactants and products the amount of moles can be determined. With this information the yield formula can be applied to determine the yield of the sodium acetate formed.

Chart of Conductivity vs Concentration of NaOH

Figure 5.2.

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

0

0.001

0.002

0.003

0.004

0.005

0.006

Concentration of NaOH (M)

Figure 4.2.1

Conductivity (uS)

4.3 What Is The Yield And Conversion Rate When 0.01M Of Ethyl Acetate Was Used At 15 Minutes?

Concentration of sodium hydroxide at every minute is shown on table 4.3.1.

Time (min)

Concentration of NaOH(M)

1

0.0027

2

0.0026

3

0.00249

4

0.00241

5

0.00230

6

0.00222

7

0.00214

8

0.00206

9

0.00202

10

0.00192

11

0.00184

12

0.00177

13

0.00170

14

0.00163

15

0.00156

16

0.00139

17

0.00134

18

0.00131

19

0.00127

20

0.00124

(Table 4.3.1)

Figure4.3.2 Graph showing concentration of sodium hydroxide against time (0.01M of ethyl acetate used)

NaOH + CH3COOC2H5 à C2H5OH + CH3COONa

Theoretical Mole of NaOH = 0.01 X 0.5L = 0.005 mol

Actual Mole of NaOH = 0.00156 X 0.5L = 0.00078mol

Number of moles reacted = 0.005 - 0.00078 = 0.00422mol

Conversion of NaOH= 0.00422/0.005 X 100%

= 84.4%

Theoretically, since 1 mole of NaOH react and form 1 mole of CH3COONa, actual mole of CH3COONa= 0.00078

Yield of CH3COONa= 0.00078/0.005

=0.156

4.4 What Is The Yield And Conversion Rate When 0.02M Of Ethyl Acetate Was Used At 15 Minutes?

Concentration of sodium hydroxide at every minute is shown on table 4.4.1.

Time (min)

Concentration Of NaOH(M)

1

0.00278

2

0.00267

3

0.00259

4

0.00248

5

0.00239

6

0.00231

7

0.00222

8

0.00215

9

0.00208

10

0.00201

11

0.00193

12

0.00184

13

0.00177

14

0.00175

15

0.00170

16

0.00157

17

0.00140

18

0.00134

19

0.00133

20

0.00131

(Table 4.4.1)

Figure4.4.2 Graph showing concentration of sodium hydroxide against time (0.02M of ethyl acetate used)

NaOH + CH3COOC2H5 à C2H5OH + CH3COONa

Set 2

Theoretical mole of NaOH = 0.02 X 0.5L = 0.01 mol

Actual mole of NaOH = 0.0017 X 0.5L = 0.00085mol

Number of moles reacted = 0.01 - 0.00085 = 0.00915mol

Conversion of NaOH= 0.00915/0.01 X 100%

= 91.5%

Theoretically, since 1 mole of NaOH react and form 1 mole of CH3COONa, actual mole of CH3COONa= 0.00085

Yield of CH3COONa= 0.00085/0.01

=0.085

4.5 What Is The Rate Of Reaction When 0.01M Of Ethyl Acetate Is Used?

Graph 4.5.1 Shows the rate of reaction of sodium hydroxide when 0.01M of ethyl acetate was added.

Graph shown above is straight line. Gradient= 0.00265-0.0012 ÷ 20 - 1 = 0.0000763 (From the graph). The gradient is also known as the how fast is the rate of reaction.

4.6 What Is The Rate Of Reaction When 0.02M Of Ethyl Acetate Is Used?

Graph 4.6.1.Shows the rate of reaction of sodium hydroxide when 0.02M of ethyl acetate was added.

Graph shown above is straight line.

Gradient= 0.00275 - 0.00125 ÷ 20 - 1 = 0.0000789 (From the graph). The gradient is also known as how fast is the rate of reaction.

Discussion

Factors Affecting The Rate Of Reaction

Out of the factors listed in the theory section only the differences in concentration affected the rate of reaction. As the volume and concentration increases the rate of reaction will also increase as there are now more particles present in the solution. Hence the particles have a higher chance to collide into each other which in turn will increase the rate of reaction.

In the graph below 5.1.1 it is shown that black line which contains 0.02M of ethyl acetate has a slower rate of reaction as compared to the one with the red colour line which contains 0.01M of ethyl acetate. The rate of reaction is determined by the steepness of the graph.

This is an incorrect data as the black line should be much steeper than the red line indicating a faster rate of reaction.

There are two reasons as to how we obtain this data. Firstly this may be due to serious contamination as we were not sure if we had washed our apparatus properly. Secondly since we were running out of time the lecture told us to take reading up till the 20minute interval.

(Graph 5.1.1)

The reasons as to why the presence of catalyst, temperature and pressure does not affect the rate of reaction is because some of them remain the same throughout the experiment or some of them had been omitted from the experiment.

Factors Affecting Rate Of Conversion And Yield

The rate of conversion and yield will never be 100%. This is due to the human error as sight is not a good gauge to stop an experiment. If machine were to be used it will not achieve 100% due to lag between the computer and the machine operating. The factors that were just stated can be called as human and machine limitations.

Factors Affecting The Conductivity Value

Since ethyl acetate has negligible values the conductivity values will be obtain from the sodium hydroxide. In the first set of the experiment when 0.01M of ethyl acetate was added, the value decreased at a constant rate when the reading was taken at minute interval. This shows that at the moles of sodium hydroxide is being depleted causing the conductivity value to decrease.

In the second set of experiment when 0.02M of ethyl acetate was added, the value decreased at the same rate as the first set up till the 14th minute. After the 14th minute the rate decreased drastically. This could be an error due to the machine as it shut down at the 10th minute and due to the poor housekeeping which caused the second set reactants to be seriously contaminated.

Precaution In The Experiment

When adding ethyl acetate into the volume metric flask, it should be done in the fume hood to prevent the user from breathing harmful gas and to prevent decomposition which will affect the concentration value. Safety goggles and rubber gloves should be worn at all times to prevent user from having skin irritations on their skin if spillage occurs.

Comparing the Yields of Two Different Concentration of Ethyl Acetate.

The yield of 0.01M ethyl acetate used is 0.156 and the yield of 0.02M ethyl acetate is 0.085. Theoretically the yield of the 0.02M of ethyl acetate should be higher due to an increase concentration. This will cause more reactants to be present causing more products to be formed. The yield will not be at 100% due to errors. In our data since there were serious contaminations occurring causing the results to differ by a huge significance.

Comparing The Conversion Rate

The reasons as to determine the conversion rate is to ensure all costly products are well used. The results with the 0.01M of ethyl acetate added has a conversion rate of 84.4% and the results with the 0.02m of ethyl acetate is 91.5%. This results obtained is correct as the concentration increase the rate of reaction increases causing more products to be formed at a faster rate.

Effects When Catalyst Is Added.

When a catalyst is added all it does is increase the rate of reaction causing it the reaction to end at a faster rate. Therefore the yield will not be affected as the yield is affected only when additional amount of reactants is added into the reaction causing an increase in products formed. The same concept can be applied for the conversion rate as the factors determining it is only the products. Sine adding a catalyst does not increase the products, it does not cater to an increase in the rate of conversion.

Thus the conclusion is that only the rate of reaction is affected by the presence of a catalyst.

Conclusion

Overall what can be concluded from this experiment is that the higher the concentration of ethyl acetate, the faster the rate of reaction and conversion. The yield is also affected by it. As for the conductivity values it depends on the sodium hydroxide. If the value of sodium hydroxide is higher the conductivity value will also be high and vice versa.

Thus the aim and hypothesis are all met to a certain extent as it was partially proven that the concentration affects the rate of reaction, yield and the conversion rate. The main cause as to why it was not fully proven was due to the serious contamination which occurred in the second sets of results. With further precaution in place the results obtained can be further improved to obtain a very little margin of error in the results.