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Nanotechnology is an emerged filed of research with potential of applications in biomolecular detection (Shedbalkar et al., 2014), catalysis (Kim et al., 2003), optical devices (Kamat, 2002), cancer treatments (Dobson, 2006; Cai et al., 2008), crop preservation (Mohammed Fayaz et al., 2010), bioremediation (Grazyna Bystrzejewska–Piotrowska et al., 2009) and in textile industries for cotton finishing (Hebeish et al., 2011). The varieties of the physical and chemical methods have been used in the synthesis of the NPs (Narayanan and Sakthivel, 2010). Although, ultraviolet radiation, laser ablation, ultrasonic, chemical reduction techniques are extremely used in the NPs production. They are expensive and involve the use of hazardous chemicals are toxic to the environment. Therefore, the biological synthesis is a growing concern to the eco-friendly and sustainable technique (Narayanan and Sakthivel, 2010). In addition, the formulation of the specific methods for the synthesis the nobel NPs with particular shape and size is still spares. It revel the needs of a new methods for the synthesis of the NPs for the different compositions, size, shapes, and controlled dispersion is important in the advanced biological applications. Microbial synthesis is a green chemistry approach interconnection of microbes and nanotechnology. Molecular genomic mechanisms, intera or extracelluar metabolites, biochmical compositions of the marine floral mediates the synthesis of the biological NPs. of The marine flora such as aquatic plants, bacteria,cyanobacteria, actinomycetus, marine fungi, yeasts, and algae are known to synthesyis the inorganic NPs such as gold, slver, silver-gold alloy, calcium, selenium, silicon, tellurium, platium, palladium, titania, zirconia, quantum dots, magnetic, uranite, iron, gypsum, and lead, The invlovement of microbial mehanisms and genes are extrimelry varied accroding the genomic group and the stuides on the gentic role of the micrbes on production of NPs are limited. However, The gentic function of the marine microorganisams in the NPs synthesis is largly unknown. Hence, this chapter approaches the possible genetic role of the marine flora and microorganisams on the NPs synthesis.
Unlikely marine region, biological synthesis of NPs through several organisms has been reported: bacteria (Joerger et al., 2000), yeasts (Kowshik et al., 2003), fungi (Mandal et al., 2006; Mohammed Fayaz et al., 2009; Monali Gajbhiye et al., 2009; Javed Musarrat et al., 2010; Castro-Longoria et al., 2011), plants (Bali, et al., 2006; Sharma et al., 2007; Vilchis-Nestor et al., 2008; Amarendra Dhar Dwivedi et al., 201`0). But, limited studies are available on synthesis of NPs through marine organisams, However, Marine resoures are biologically deserves for the synthesis of the NPs with the higher potenical use of drug delvery due to their distinctive features such as ease of use and good functions and biocompatability and ability to target the cancer cells (Asmathunisha and Kathiresan, 2013). The chemical, Physical and green synthesis are not attend the large scale production due to their draw backs such as presence of the toxic compounds and hazarded materials as the byproduct in the synthesis of the metal NPs. Currently, many researhers focused on synthesis of the nanomaterials by using various marine resources due to marine resoures owing rich biodiversity (Table.1.). Many organisams are prodcued the inorganic NPs eithr intea or extracellularly (Ahmad et al. 2005).
Marine florea Suaeda monoica is extensivelly produce the gold NPs with higher free radical scavenging property (Rajathi et al., 2014).
Marine algae such as C. calcitrans, C.salina, I. galbana and T. gracilis are significantly used in the NPs synthesis. Interestingly the marine microalgae is reduced the sliver iron and produced the NPs but it not produced the NPs in the dark incubation due to the correlation of the algae growth with the light intensity. The size of the NPs produced by microalgae is reported as 53.2-71.9nm. The results revels that the relation of secondary metabolites produced by the microalgae. Those unknown secondary metabolites have extensive role in the NPs production (Merin et al., 2010). The mechanisms and role of secondary metabolism and enzymes involvement is need to elucidate for the advanced production of NPs in the microalgae nanotechnology. The molecular comples of the carbohydrates, lipids, DNA, proteins are involved in the BioNPs are synthesis (Kiran et al., 2014).
The marine seaweed are excellent source for the synthesis of the zinc, the seaweeds extracts such as caulerpa peltata, red Hypnea Valencia and brown sargassum myriocystum are used as the reducing and stabilizing agent for the NPs synthesis. The possible mechanism consider as the seaweed extracts contain the lipids and phenol as the sole compound in the NPs synthesis. Furthermore the phenolic substances have considerable role in the NPs synthesis. Among the three seaweeds sargassum myriocystum extract shows the significant synthesis of ZnO NPs with the size of 36nm. The seaweed derived NPs have significant antimicrobial activity against the human pathogens (Nagarajan et al., 2013). Sargassum swartzii is known to produce the silver NPs with higher cytotoxc activity against the Human cervical carcinoma Hela cell line (Dhas et al., 2014). Inbakandan et al (2010) reported the potential of marine sponge Acanthella elongate on synthesis of the gold NPS with the size of the 7-20nm. Brown alga, Stoechospermum marginatum showed the remarkable synthesis of the gold NPs with higher antimicrobial potential (Rajathi et al., 2012). Recently the marine seaweeds Turbinaria conoides extracts is known to produce the antimicrofouling silver and gold NPs (Vijayan et al., 2014). Sargassum plagiophyllum is known to synthesis the silver chloride NPs with antibacterial activity (Dhas et al., 2014).
The polysaccharides aqueous extract of S.muticum showed the significant synthesis of the zinc oxide NPs (Azizi et al., 2014). Marine Galaxaura elongata has been used as the source for the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles with higher antibacterial activity (Raouf et al., 2013). the polysaccharides of Marine macro-algae, Pterocladia Capillacae,Jania rubins, Ulva faciata, Colpmenia sinusa and Porphyra vietnamensis are extensively produced the antibacterial silver NPs (Venkatpurwar and Pokharkar, 2011; Rafie et al., 2013). Marine diatom Amphora sp. is identified as a source for the synthesis of the silver NPs with antimicrobial activity (Jena et al., 2013). Marine seaweed extracts of Codium capitatum P.C. Silva and Chaetomorpha linum is known the environmentally friendly synthesis of Silver NPs (Kannan et al., 2013; 2013).
Prokaryotes of marine bacteria are the extremely reached the great attention in the field of the metal NPs synthesis. Probably some bacterial cells are resistant to the environmental stresses, and have ability to grow in presence of the high metal concentrations (Sharma et al., 2012). However, the synthesis, structure, stability and aggregation of the particles are varied based on the nature of bacteria due to marine microorganisms are exist in the bottom of the sea. Recently, deep sea bacteria also reported as excellent source for the biological synthesis of the NPs. The marine bacteria Marinobactor peagius has been reported as the richest source for the synthesis of gold NPs from HAuCl4 with the size of the 10nm size (Sharma et al., 2012).
Mangroves associated bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginasa isolated from the mangrove ecosystem and marine sediments is known to produce the antimicrobial silver NPs (Boopathi et al., 2012; Shivakrishna et al., 2013). The deep sea bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is potentially produced the silver NPs size between the 13-76nm with the microbial activity of the antimicrobial, antibiofilm and cytotoxic activity. The possible mechanism of the NPs synthesized by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa is attributed as high protein and secondary metabolites are involved as reducing agent for production of the NPs (Ramalingam et al., 2013).
The marine bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus is produced the silver NPs size of the 50-100nm (Rajeshkumar et al., 2013). The marine derived silver resistant bacteria isolate MER1 is known to produce the NPs with antimicrobial effect against gram positive and gram negative, yeasts and fungus (Youssef et al., 2013). Recently the exopolysaccharide derived from the marine bacterium Bacillus megaterium are used as the reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of the gold NPs with significant antibacterial activity against clinical human pathogens (Sathiyanarayanan et al., 2014).
The marine actinomycetes, Streptomyces sp. VITSTK7 and Streptomyces sp LK-3 are known to produce the silver NPs with antifungal activity and gold NPs with antimalarial activity respectivily (Thenmozhi et al., 2013; Karthik et al., 2013). Mangrove Streptomyces sp. BDUKAS10 is known to produce the bactericidal silver NPs (Sivalingam et al., 2012). The polysaccharide bioflocculant of marine sponge-associated Bacillus subtilis MSBN17 is produced the silver NPs as the environmental greener production (Sathiyanarayanan et al., 2013). Biosurfactent, Glycolipid of Marine Brevibacterium casei MSA19 is known to produce the stable silver NPs (Kiran et al., 2010). Halotolerant Bacillus megaterium is produce the selenite NPs (Mishra et al., 2011). Marine cyanobacteria, Phormidium tenue NTDM05 is known to produce the Cd NPs as biolabel (MubarakAli et al., 2012).
The fungal community is richest sources in the marine environment are involved in the nutrient cycles and reduction of the metal pollution in the marine environments. The marine fungus reached the remarkable attention in the various researches due to their unique properties and enzyme activity. Currently the marine fungus received the due attention in area of nano technology research. Several researchers are reported the efficiency of the marine fungus on the NPs synthesis with high pharmaceutical applications. Kathiresan et al., (2009) reported the synthesis of the silver NPs from the marine fungus is first time from the marine Penicillium fellutanum. Followed by few researchers reported the NPs synthesis by using Marine fungus. The marine derived fungus Aspergillus flavus are known to produce the silver NPs (Vala et al., 2014). Aspergillus terreus showed the significant synthesis of the lead NPs (Jacob et al., 2014). Interestingly the Vala (2014) reported the efficiency of the Aspergillus sydowii on synthesis of gold NPs.
Pharmacology and toxicology of nanoparticles
Increasing use of metal and metal oxide NPs in products means many will inevitably find their way into marine systems. Their likely fate here is sedimentation following hetero aggregation with natural organic matter and/or free anions, putting benthic, sediment-dwelling and filter feeding organisms most at risk. In aquatic animals, uptake of the NPs affects respiratory processes and ion transport. Currently, environmentally realistic NPs concentrations are unlikely to cause significant adverse acute health problems. However, sub-lethal effects e.g. oxidative stresses have been noted in many organisms, often deriving from dissolution of Ag, Cu or Zn ions, and this could result in chronic health impacts (Doiron et al., 2012; Baker et al., 2014).
The prediction of the potential consequences of the environmental pollution and emerging application of ENPs on bioremediation is needed to extrapolate. The NPs is not increase the antibiotic resistance to the naturally occurring bacteria in estuarine environment. This revels that the release of the NPs into the environment suppress the chemical behavior and the abiotic function of bacteria (Mühling et al., 2009; Bradford et al.,2009). The increase usage of the NPs in the wide range of the applications especially, pharmaceutical research as carrier for the drug delivery and dispersion is still need the proper understanding NPs toxicity. Since their wide use makes them likely to be released to the ecosystem and may affect the natural microbial communities (Fabrega et al., 2011). The artificially produced nanomaterials are largely used in the many applications in medical products, household products including sunscreens, cosmetics, and bottle coating (Woodrow Wilson, 2009; (Klaine et al., 2008;Lee et al., 2010). Furthermore, the NPs are also used as the antifouling agent in the civil contraction materials (Keller et al., 2013). The remarkable bactericide and low cost effective of the silver NPs increased the interest to use in the food preservation and prevent the bacterial spoilage in the consumer goods of market products (Mueller and Nowack, 2008; Bradford et al., 2009; Fabrega et al., 2011). These kind of enormous usages increase the higher release and accumulation NPs in environment, which is harmful to the human health as well as NPs discharge leads the significant loss of the bacterial community in the environment (Cauerhff and Castro, 2013).. Bacteria are primarily present in the nature involves in the range of the environmental process such as biogeochemical cycling (Fabrega et al., 2011). Microbial capping agents are added as the stabilizer in to the reaction of the NPs synthesis to ensure the prevention of the aggregation and uniform morphology of the NPs and prevent the extraordinary issue of NPs research in chemical syntheses.
The toxicity of the Fe NPs has been assessed by incorporated in the solid state culture of marine actinobacterium Nocardiopsis sp in the biosurfactant production process. Remarkably the The incorporation of the NPs reduces the impact of the non metallic irons and metals salts on fermentation process. These NPs are ultimately achieving the green production of the biosurfactant without any toxicity (Kiran et al., 2014).
Increasing interest on usage of the engineered NPs is directly or indirectly influences the aquatic biota. Several researchers reported the biological and toxicity of the metal NPs on the aquatic biota (Adams et al., 2006; Franklin et al., 2007; Perreault et al., 2010; Saisonet al., 2010; Miller et al., 2010, 2012; Gong et al., 2011;Zhu et al., 2009; Hanna et al., 2013; Griffitt et al., 2007; Lin et al., 2011; Cedervall et al., 2012; Buffet et al., 2012; Galloway et al.,2010; García-Negrete et al., 2013; Gomes et al., 2012, 2011; Hanna et al., 2013; Zhu et al., 2011; Canesi et al., 2013; Zhu et al., 2011; Long et al., 2014; Hu et al., 2014; Montes et al., 2012; Falugi et al., 2012; Kadar et al., 2012). Hanna et al., (2013) has been assessed the toxic effect of the engineered NPs such as zinc oxide, copper oxide, and nickel oxide (NiO) on the aquatic estuarine amphipod L. plumulosus and found the ENPs zinc oxide, copper oxide are higher toxicity to the estuarine amphipod L. plumulosus.
The toxic effect of the Silver NPs on aquatic endobenthic species and bivalve mollusc has been assessed by exposing the endobenthic species Hediste diversicolor and bivalve mollusc Scrobicularia plana. The silver NPs are induce the oxidative stress, detoxification, apoptosis,
genotoxicity and immunomodulation (Buffet et al., 2013; Buffet et al., 2014). However, on the other hand the Silver NPs used as the signaling molecule to detect the biotoxin (Domoic acid) concentration in the seawater (Muller et al., 2014). ZnO nanoparticles are used in the biological treatment wastewater. This NPs removes the higher contaminates of the nitrogen and phosphorous in the waste water after the treatment the NPs successfully absorbed from the sludge to prevent the anonymous reduction of the bacteria in environment (Puay et al., 2014). NPs are significantly used as novel delivery system for vitamin C administration to the aquaculture forms (Fernández et al., 2014).
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene (PAHs) is a group of the hydrophopic organic chemical is toxic to the aquatic animals and ubiquitous in the environment. Normally the PAHs are not accumulated in aquatic animals. The hydrophobicity nature of chemicals enhances the bind with NPs particles. PAHs are adsorbed by ENPs in aquatic environment. The comples of the PAHs-NPs easily accumulated in the aquatic biota, and induce the higher toxicity (Tian et al., 2014). Copper oxide and silver nanoparticles are causing the genotoxicity through oxidative stress in the mussel of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Gomes et al., 2013). Copper oxide NPs are being employed the antimicrobial properties and widely used as the antifouling agent in the paint, its toxicity in the environment is poorly understood. However, Melegari et al., (2013) reported the toxicity effect of the copper oxide NPs on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The exposes of the Cu NPs on green alga significantly influence the biochemical and antioxidant activity.
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