Liver function test

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Introduction

The liver is located on the right side of the humans' body. A healthy liver performs many vital functions required to do. An example of the liver function is to produce cholesterol and other fat which is required in the body. The liver never takes a break and works around the clock in the body, it is the central organ in the metabolism which is covered by a solid skin. The structure of the liver consists mainly of connective tissue that divides the liver tissues into smaller units. The smallest of the subunit is a liver lobule, with its hexagonal structure.

The liver is found in the right upper abdomen and extends to the lower right of the ribcage. From the underside, the hepatic artery and the portal vein, deliver to the body via the blood oxygen substrate as well as nutrient and toxin absorbed from the small intestines, the blood will then pass through the hepatocytes, again released into the bloodstream, from the hepatic veins, the blood leaves the organ again, returns to the heart, and is ready to be pumped to the rest of the body. In addition, the liver is considered to be location of vitamins. The blood leaving the stomach carries carbon dioxide that the liver produced while cellular the respiration. The liver compiles within the gall bladder saccular, which evolves approximate half a litre of bile per day, and from whereas it is discharged into the duodenum. Having a contradictory appearance on cholesterol levels comes from the normal utilisation of fatty nourishment.

Accumulating glycogen is organised from sugars which is part of the livers roles, and it also consists of assisting towards procedure fats and proteins from digested food. Furthermore the liver also creates bile, this is a green-yellowish liquid that contains bile acids that contains bilirubin, and this is then transferred to the gallbladder where it is then stored until needed.

The bile is a substance in the gut which breaks down fats and also helps the liver get rid of waste products such as urea. When for example the nourishment and medicines are digested with in the low intestine, and soaked up via the small intestine, then the digested products will then be transferred to the liver for farther process. Every nutrient entering the small intestine will be turned into products, doing this will make it easy for the body to use.

The disease that may affect the liver may vary, this starts when the inflammation occurs and causes to damage the liver cell membranes. The inflammation in the liver occurs if a person is drinking a lot of alcohol, people who consume antibiotics over a period of time, other pain killers and hepatitis A, B and C; these are some of the examples causing the inflammation to occur.

An ongoing liver disease may lead to cirrhosis this is a progressive disease that causes cell death and scar formation as well as causing a permanent injury to the liver. Treatment that could get carried out is to reduce the injury which will prevent from the liver to decline in the function. Another disease causing the liver to get contaminated or damage is the liver cancer, this is caused by both of the diseases mentioned above, hepatitis and the cirrhosis. But also cancers caused from some parts of the body may get contacted the liver which then gets the liver to get infected. In addition to this, this may not be the case as the patients get regular checkups to prevent the liver cancer to occur.

A liver infection is a chronic injury caused to the liver; this is generally initiated by contamination, wound and exposure to toxic mixtures. One of the major diseases that affect the liver is for example, the hepatitis. This is divided into two main types of hepatitis, one which affects the liver and damages fast and on the other hand the other type will damage the liver bit by bit, which may take over time. There are 4 types of liver diseases with the same name but has different impact on the liver, these are hepatitis A,B,C and D. both the C and D type of the hepatitis are less rare than the both of the other type of hepatitis.

The first type is the hepatitis A, this can be caused by both the water and food you may eat, that are contaminated to the virus and the type of people that are commonly get infected are the children. The second type is the B type when in contact with somebody that has it through sexual relation or blood to blood or either from the mother to the baby. People who get the infection could get over the disease however this could get infected to people about 1-3%, and this infected person may be able to infect others.

People who are more in danger of getting the disease easily are the children and people with less immune system. Countries like Asia and Africa are more at risk and most common to this disease, following America and Europe who have the acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis C is the same as the hepatitis B however it is not as severe as the B type, this gets the people chronically infected and damages their liver. The liver produces bilirubin; it is a yellow colour pigment which makes the eyes and the skin of the human turn to yellow and for the urine to look dark coloured and also changes the colour of the stool.

Liver test is required when the practitioner has carried out many investigations such as checking medical history after that, the medical practitioner then carries out a reliable test to determine the diseases affecting the liver. The liver cell which is the hepatocytes, is the place where the diseases is usually contained, this might be the cause of the enzymes to become elevated. Therefore evaluating the liver enzyme is alone adept to notice liver injury and does not evaluate the liver function in an aware way. Tests carried out by the doctor are taking a few blood samples that includes test for liver function, these are easier and faster to conduct. Analysing blood tests of some enzymes in the blood stream and usually there are approx 5 to 6 which will be checked.

References used:

  • http://www.liverdoctor.com/index.php?page=liver-tests
  • http://www.labtestsonline.org.uk/understanding/conditions/liver_disease-2.html
  • http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2002_Groups/liver/webpage/NormalLiver.htm

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