Liver Destroys Toxins Stores Bile Responsible Biochemical Reactions Biology Essay

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The liver is as an organ in the body and its duty is to destroy toxin, store and produce bile and responsible for thousands of biochemical reaction. The liver is located in the upper right part of the abdomen, the colour of the liver is a dark brown tinted with red. Also known as the largest gland and the largest solid organ in the body, whose weight differs from both sex, in human the liver approximately weighs 1.4-1.6 kg (3.1-3.5 lb)

            Liver function test as known it carries out a thousands of function, the true function liver test is not the blood it is just the standard test used to detect cell damage in the liver and biliary obstruction (the sign and symptoms of biliary obstruction occurs when the bile fails to reach its proper destination). Serum bilirubin is considered as the true or real test of the liver function because it shows the ability to process and secret bilirubin into bile. There is most common test carried out when looking at the liver function test, which is going to be discussed in a brief note they are as follow, bilirubin, Albumin, Globulin, Ck (creatinine kinase), Gamma GT (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase), Total protein, Alanine Transferase, Aspartate Transferase and Alkaline Phosphatase.


            Bilirumbin is produced by the liver, it is found in bile and has a yellowish pigment . Bilirubin is the chemical and physical process of conversion of the breakdown of heme (the deep red, nonprotein ferrous component of hemoglobin (C34H32FeN4O4)), bilirubin as a cellular antioxidant serves as its physiological role , which enables haemoglobin in the red blood cell(Erythrocyte) to be broken into haem and back to unconjugated bilirubin It is in a lipid soluble form which is not soluble in water and in that case it has to be made soluble in the reticuloendothelial cell of the liver. The new produced bilibrubin is tightly bounded to albumin, this unconjugated bilibrubin formed is also called free bilirubin.

A bilibrubin that has not been conjugated by the liver is called an unconjugated bilibrubin. It produces an indirect reaction to the van den bergh test. When there is a high level of unconjugated bilibrubin in the blood it shows a lack of bilibrubin clearance by the liver. Unconjugated bilirubin is released from the carrier molecule of albumin in the process of moving some to the liver where it is converted to conjugated (water soluble) by an enzyme called glucurnosyltranseferase. During this process, the testing laboratory may be able to identify conjugate unconjugated when they react to certain dyes. And that's when you get to understand why so-called direct (conjugated) and indirect (conjugated).

Conjugated bilirubin is bilirubin, which were picked up by liver cells and conjugated to form water soluble (conjugated) can be excreted into the bile through the bile into the small intestine and then share combined with bacterial urobilinogen, some of these fabric is excrected in stool, and some absorbed and excreted in bile or urine. Several of urobilinogen absorbed is returned to the liver to be re-excreted in bile and eliminated some amountof urobilinogen excrete in the urine, lack of human urinary urobilinogen in the system causing obstructive jaundice.


           Jaundice is not a disease but a symptom that shows high accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the body, the yellow color of the skin and whites of the eyes. Jaundice becomes evident in a patient when the serum bilirubin exceeds the normal range. There are three main things that cause jaundice, which is pre-hepatic or hemolytic, hepatic and post hepatic or extrahepatic. Pre-hepatic jaundice is used when too many red blood cells break down and the liver is incapable of removing the excess


Albumin is a protein produced by the liver, serum albumin binding activity, and many include drugs such as bilirubin binding. Serum test the amount of protein in the clear liquid blood test to determine if the body is not absorbing enough protein. It also keeps the fluid leakage of blood, tissue, difficult piece of that injury, and blood capillaries, increasing capillary permeability caused by burns may be the loss of serum proteins. low albumin level may reflect disease, the kidneys can not prevent the leakage of albumin from the blood in the urine and is lost, the loss of albumin in the urine due to renal failure (nephotic syndrome) can cause human albumin. Protein in urine is a sign of kidney disease, and pre-eclampsia. Albumin indicate liver problems, the most common cause of liver failure caused by low albumin chronic liver cirrhosis (cirrhosis of the liver does not function properly as a result of chronic liver disease). Albumin concentration usually depends on the rate of synthesis, the volume and distribution and the rate of catabolism, so that the concentration is normal in chronic disease to cirrhosis and other serious damage occurs.



Aspartate transferase AST is also known as SGOT (serum glutamic oxolacetic), an enzyme that is often present in liver cells are damaged, this enzyme is mainly caused by the cell in the liver. High levels of this enzyme implicates the liver is damage, AST is released into the blood the amount of protein is proportional to the amount of damaged cells. The height of AST relies on how long the blood is tested after the accident, the results of correction of circulatory disorders often shows a very rapid decrease in levels of AST.


Serum alanine aminotransferase is also known as ALT, which measures the amount of the enzyme ALT in the blood. ALT is found in liver and muscle, ALT does not necessarily indicate the severity of liver damage. ALT tends to be slightly higher than the level of AST and this may be important in the detection of necroinflammatory activity in patients with chronic diseases hepatisis.


            Alkaline phosphate (ALP) is an enzyme found throughout the body like all enzymes, it is needed in small amount to trigger specific chemical reactions. ALP is measured by combining the person serum with a specific substance in which ALP is known to react. Different ALP produced by either the liver, bone and placenta is called isoenzymes, isoenzyme of the liver is located in the bile canalicular region of the hepatkovyte surface membrane. ALP accumulate and eventually escape into the bloodstream, in the presence of biliary it show the liver disease is primarily obstructive nature (cholestatic) ALP is used to differnciate what type of disease is present in the liver either cholestatic or hepato cellular. However the leakage of a pregnant woman during pregnancy is normal and ALP is produce in the placenta of a pregnant woman.