Leukemia Definition And Diagnosis Biology Essay

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This report will review the basic information for Leukaemia. First of all it is necessary to explain what Leukaemia is. Leukemia (American English) or leukaemia (British English) can be defined as the cancer of blood cells. Cancer refers to a group of 100 diseases in which abnormal cells divided and they are invading to nearby tissues. [1] Further to make sense what actually is Leukaemia it is necessary to provide the blood component which is the plasma, the fluid in which there are the red cells, (which are responsible to transfer the oxygen with the bloodstream to the whole body) the white cells (which is are responsible for the defence of bacteria and diseases) and the platelets (which are responsible for the blood clotting). [2] Leukaemia is the abnormal increased of the white cells of the blood (leukocytes). So in this report refers to the kinds of leukaemia, how is diagnosed, the causes, symptoms what does happen in leukaemia and the treatment of that disease. Also the report provides some statics of leukaemia.

There are many types of leukaemia but the major subtypes of the disease are four. The types of leukaemia are classified into chronic form (the cancer is developed slowly) and acute form (the cancer is developed rapidly). [3] All the types have in common the uncontrolled growth of one of the many types of white blood cells. [4] Leukaemia seems to start by genetic events and is occurring in the stem cell at a particular stage in development. So the distinguish to the four subtypes based on the exact nature of the genetic event and the cell in which the event occurs. These types are described with more details below. The first type of leukaemia is the Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) in which the malignant transformation occurs in a neutrophil precursor. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is starting from the stem cells of the marrow bone (the place where all the cells produced). This disease is developed very slowly and that is the reason that is called chronic. [5] Another type is the Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) in which immature lymphocytic (a kind of white blood cells) produced very fast. [6] Finally the fourth type of leukaemia is the Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), there is abnormal producing of lymphocytes (a kind of white blood cells) and is usually occurred in people over 60 also the disease developed very slowly. [7] 

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) described as a cancer of the white blood cells which is growing very fast. Lymphocytes are a particular type of white blood cell, which are used to fight infections. The bone marrow in this type makes lot of unformed cells which called as blasts and they developed into lymphocytes. The blasts are abnormal cells which are not developed and they are unable to fight infections. However these cells crowd out the normal blood cells (red and white cells and platelets) that the body needs. [8] Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can be defined as the type of cancer where abnormal myeloblastes (type of white blood cell), platelets or red blood cells are made by the bone marrow. This type occurred more frequent in adults and gets worse very quick if it is not treated immediately. This type also called acute myelogenous leukaemia, acute myeloblastic leukaemia, acute nonlymphotic leukaemia and acute granulocytic leukaemia. [9] Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) is the type of leukaemia where observed a myloproliferative disorder and its characteristic is the increased of proliferation of the cell line (granulocytic) but they still have the capacity to differentiate. [10] Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia is the type in which observed change (mutation) to the DNA of lymphocyte which is a single cell. [11] 

Furthermore diagnosis of leukaemia can be with a perform of several blood tests as are the Full blood count, Differential blood count, Hematocrit assay, Henoglobin level test, Blood coagulation, Blood morphology and staining and Blood chemistry. These all blood tests performed to present the number of the type and the quality of blood cells. [12] Normally the number of white blood cells in the blood ranges from 3.5 to 10Ã-10 L. Patient with leukaemia frequently, through not always have increased white blood cells, usually in the range of 20 to 200Ã-10 L.

The symptoms of leukaemia can observed earlier and the patient might not be especially concerned. First of the person has experiences of fatigue, headaches, fever, chills and lack of "the well-being". During the processing of the disease the signs become more difficult to ignore and concerning. The patient has surely night sweats during his sleeping. Also easy bruising appeared on his body. Another main symptom is the easy bleeding (nose bleeding).Further the gums and lymph node are swollen and observed shortness of breath and weight loss. Additionally frequent infections, the liver and the spleen enlarged, are some of the diseases symptoms. Finally symptoms which cause more concerning are: the bone pain, the abdominal swelling and the joint pain. [13] The most of leukaemia's physical symptoms, due to the loss of normal blood cells. For example the inadequate supply of the red cells of the blood which are responsible to carry the oxygen in the blood can cause anaemic and quite fatigued. Also the dysfunction of the white cells, which are responsible for fighting infection that due the person gets sick more often. Eventually the production of platelets which are responsible for the blood clotting can be disrupted from leukaemia. So the reduction platelets cause the easy bruising and bleeding. [14] 

Likewise every disease that appeared in the word due to some reason, so the major causes of leukaemia are described below. Several risks and factors may be responsible for the damage of DNA with in the blood cells. There is a high risk for leukaemia for people who had been exposed in high energy radiation. Additionally the exposure to benzene and certain other chemicals is clearly linked to development of acute leukaemia. Also the exposure to herbicides and for pesticides can causes the deadly disease leukaemia. Adult T-cell leukaemia is caused by infection with the human thymus- derived T-cell leukaemia virus (HTLV-1). [15] Chemotherapy the treatment for cancer patient with certain cancer fighting drugs (alkylating agents) are related with the development of leukaemia. [16] Estimated that the 25% of acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), is result of cigarette smoking. The tobacco smoke includes chemicals as benzene, polonium-210 and polycyclic aromatic hyndrocarbons (PHAs). So those carcinogens are absorbed by the lungs and they are spreading via the bloodstream. Leukaemia can due to genetics reasons as the Down's syndrome which is genetically associated with the abnormal chromosome (there is an extra chromosome the 21). This abnormality may cause Leukaemia. [17] 

Leukaemia can treated following one of the three standard types of treatment which are: radiation, chemotherapy and stem cell transplant. In chemotherapy are used drugs which can stop the growth of cancer cells, in some circumstances these drugs are killing the cell and in other circumstances stopping the dividing of the cells. The other method which is using for the treated of leukaemia is the radiation therapy in which High- energy, X-rays are used to kill the cancer cells or keep the cells from growing. Also to be sense what is steam cell transplant, it must be explain that in the bone morrow there are steam cells which turn to white cells platelet and red cells to help the body to be healthy. So when the bone marrow damaged as in chemotherapy the bone marrow can no longer create blood cells. Thus in steam cell transplant doctors place healthy steam cell into the body to help the normal function of the bone marrow. [18] There are two kinds of steam cell transplant. The first type is the autologous transplant where the doctors take the patient's marrow and freeze it in case those high doses of chemotherapy planned to be given to the patient, because those high doses can destroy the bone marrow. So after chemotherapy the stem cells given back to the patient. The second type of transplant is called allogeneic where the marrow which is given to the patient is from other person. [19] Allogeneic bone marrow transplant is a process in which 5 percent of marrow taken from the donor and given to the patient. This process required a general anesthesia and it lasts one hour. [20] 

Nowadays cancer is the highest cause of dead next to accidents. The most frequent type of cancer in children is acute leukaemia among children ages 1-14. Nearly the 50% of childhood cancer in children is leukaemia. Research showed that more boys than girls have the disease and more Whites than non- Whites. [21] St. Jude Research Hospital in Memphis Tennessee in Unite States referred to its reports that released in 1972 and 1973 that they established the program "total therapy". In "total therapy" they used a very heavy multiple-drug, assaults, coupled with radiation of the child's head and spinal cord, followed by maintenance doses of multiple drugs for a three year period. [22] 

Furthermore statistics that became about leukaemia showed that is occurring most frequently in whites (12.9 per 100,000) and rarest among American Indians/Alaskan natives that is estimated 6.5 per 100,000 [23] 

In conclusion, nowadays medical is most developed as it has never been more developed. The medical methods that used, achieve to survive more lives from many diseases. Leukaemia is a type of cancer that can be treated either with chemotherapy, either with radiation or with steam cell transplant. Despite of the fact that mortality increased that does not mean that leukaemia cannot threat because is depend on the type of the blood cancer that the patient has. Chronic leukaemia is the most difficult type of the disease. Also leukaemia can prevented as can prevented more diseases with the change of lifestyle and with the diet. That can reduce the risk factors of Leukaemia. Although the risk factor are unknown and that makes the prevention more difficult. Nevertheless the management of the disease needs belief in God and patience because everything that happened to us is a "test" form God.