Nanotechnology is the latest innovation that medical industry is experimenting and doing developments. Its about building and applying of atomic tools, atoms that are tiny as 1000 nanometres (A nanometre is one billionth of a meter) in dimension to cure deceases. The inspiring technology is connected to computer science as it can be used to make molecular computers, which could be less in size of a bacterial cell and capable of outperform the current technology in use.
Molecular technology is still in the experimental stage which needs further development and improvements. Many research findings and scientific papers have mentioned the physical rearrangement of atoms into a required structure, like the exercise of a scanning tunnellingÂ microscopeÂ by IBM (International BusinessÂ Machine) researcher John Foster to push xenon atoms around to spell "IBM". Further researches have described the atomic congregation of crude interlocking gears. Moreover, in 1999 a molecular experimentation team built a "molecular wire" circuit based on a polyphenylene polymer and a functional molecular switch.
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In coming days, it is feasible to position atoms (known as positional assembly) by using atomic assemblers-robotic arms comparable in function to construction crane. A standard should be followed to do this which is biological assemblers (are where Ribosome which position and link together amino acids in a particular sequence to form a specific protein).These assemblers are capable of assemble the atoms into three-dimensional configurations and put the atoms collectively by a variety of chemical means. Further, it has been proven theoretically that, these assemblers also capable of replicating themselves. Above theory was studied by John von NeumannÂ in the 1940's for the first time.
Molecular computers are used for enhancement techniques of molecular electronics. In this process chemistry is used to assemble the components of the circuit (e.g. the building of the polyphenylene circuit). Molecular electronics started when found out that the molecules which consist of long chains of atoms can carry electricity. In this process, what differs from conventional current is each electron jump from one molecule to the subsequent molecule in the shackle which results from the bulk movement of electron through the wire. Further to control this movement it is essential to have controllable "gates".
There are many gating designs in existence. One of the practicable design for such process is based on sliding rods which work to restrict/do not restrict one another's sliding process as they interact at specific sites. The information will be allowed by managed contact of the locks electrically or from rod to rod. Further it has been found out that the number of locks used to make a general purpose computer (4bit/8bit) would occupy only a little nanometres of room. Likewise a different design is to affix a molecular "side chain" to molecular wire. Scientifically a molecule is capable of both accept and donate electrons while managing of these course of actions would allow the controlled progression of electrons through the molecular gate. Such gating device has been developed in the Bell Labs.
A three-terminalÂ transistor enables the electricity to move in a pattern (web like) rather than in a direct line which will lead to make complex logic devices. So now the purpose is to look for a chemical means rather than use of atomic assemblers which can be used to develop such three-terminalÂ transistor.
Even though there are several advantages in using nanotechnology, in contrast there are drawbacks too as they tend to generate random defects. The reason is molecular structures self assemble perfectly when compared to human directed assemble processes. During human directed assembly, the exactness is impossible which may lead to produce defects in an unpredictable way. Molecular precision is mandatory for a molecular wire, so such defects cannot be accepted since they are hazardous to the function of the wire system. Now the major design requirement is how these defects can be tolerated. So the researchers' started focussing on designing circuit architectures which could work perfectly even when the defects are present. One of the solutions is, circuit can be designed to accommodate certain number of existence of defects or parallel redundant molecular wires could be used in biological systems to overcome the problem. Alternatively, perhaps molecular computers can be designed to function similarly to the human brain while networks of neurons permitting the information flow even when there are abnormal functions of neurons.
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The biggest challenge is shrinking computers to atomic size. Since such thing would allow computerized control of processes into areas which are currently inaccessible (e.g. human body). Moreover, molecular computers could become reality and make new innovations in medical cure if chemical reactions can be controlled to produce logical electrical pathways which are needed for computer functionality.
Nanomedicine is a latest innovation used in medical industry which is purely based on nanotechnology. Moreover, it uses molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body to discover, cure and prevent deceases and painful injury of human beings which will ultimately improve human health effectively. It can help to cure some serious deceases (e.g. diabetes) where medical industry is still finding hard to provide effective treatments. This became achievable with the use of nanoscale structured materials, simple nano devices and linking of nano structured materials with biological systems which have become actuality today. In future biotechnology (in relation to molecular medicine and bio robotics) will go through noticeable and benchmarking inventions and developments.
Perhaps in 10 to 20 years these inspiring innovations and inventions will join the medical industry as a stable system giving medical practitioners effective and efficient way of treating deceases, ill health, ageing etc.
The remarkable development stage of nanorobotics/nanomedicine-molecular nanotechnology (MNT) as its scope extends in the engineering of various aspects of nanomechanical systems for medical applications. While biotechnology increases its efficiency of treatment choices available from nanomaterials, the beginning of molecular and nanotechnology will further support the above treatment and improve the effectiveness, accuracy of medical application also taking care of risk and cost. Not only that, but if the researchers can build and deploy huge number of microscopic medical nanorobots, it will give a chance to doctors to execute direct in vivo (taking place in a living organism) operation on individual human cells.
3.2 Cure Septicemia Using Nanorobot (Microbivores)
This section summarizes one of the studies which were carried out in nanomedicine field which is known as "Microbivores". It comsist of potentially large class of nanorobots intended to be applied in human patients. The scope is wide range of antimicrobial therapeutic purposes (e.g. curing Septicemia). The study is about comparatively easy device an intravenous (I.V.) microbivore where the major function is to demolish microbiological pathogens which can be found in human bloodstream using the protocol which is known as "digest and discharge". The in-depth study of the above subject can be found in internet.
The Septicemia (widely known as blood poisoning) is the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the human blood. Allowing of this dangerous illness to progress can result in multiplying of microorganism and lead to devastating decease. Generally the healthy human bloodstream is categorized as germ-free atmosphere even though bacterial nutrients are ample in blood.Majorly antimicrobial is able to defend the flowing of neutrophils and monocytes/white cells which can phagocytosis (which is known as engulfing and digesting other cells) andthe related components of humoral immunity taking account of complement and immunoglobulins.
It's not abnormal to find bacteria in blood since it can be caused because of the regular activities like brushing, chewing and even flossing teeth which causes jerk in teeth sockets, pervading a rip open of commensal oral microbes in to the human bloodstream. Further, other causes which make the bacterial affect in the blood are lining of the gums or mouth, damage to the skin, and other insignificant infections in the skin and elsewhere. Bacteria can even come into the blood during medical surgeries such as heart valve replacement, supplying medications and insertion of viewing tube into the body. These bacteria can be removed by circulating leuocytes. But some bacteria can stay in the blood overwhelming these types of defences. According to US Centre for Decease Control, approximately 25000 US patients die every year because of bacterial sepsis. Present therapies often involve multiple antibiotics administered concurrently in multi-gram quantities per day. But healing of certain serious infectious microorganisms likeÂ Enterobacteria or Pseudomonas AeruginosaÂ such as Salmonella andÂ Escherichia coliÂ may take weeks and sometimes months.
Other than the physician's therapeutic armamentarium, a nanorobotic device which can use relatively low doses of devices may give total and careful curing of bloodborne pathogens. An example for such device is microbivore which is a mechanical phagocyte.
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610 billion perfectly arranged structural atoms and another 150 billion majorly gas or water molecules fully loaded oblate spheroidal nanomedical machine is called a microbivore. The typical size of the nanorobot is 2.0 microns in diameter (acroos the minor axis) and 3.4 microns in diameter (across major axis) which can go through the thinnest human capillaries (4 microns in diametre).
3.2.2 How the Nanorobot Works
During each and all cycle of operation, similar to how a fly is on flypaper, the targeted bacterium will be restricted to the shell of the micobivore through species-specific binding sites (which can be moved back). The telescoping Telescoping robotic snatches appear from silos in the appliance surface, form protected anchorage to the microbe's plasma membrane, and move the pathogen to the ingestion port which is situated in front of the device where the pathogen cell is jailed into a morcellation chamber (size 2 to 3 microns). Then adequate mechanical grinding, the morcellated remains of the cell are pistoned into a digestion chamber (size 2 micron3) where pre-programmed series of 40 engineered enzymes are sequentially inserted and extracted 6 times, progressively decreasing the morcellate sooner to mononucleotides, amino acids, free fatty acids , glycerol, and simple sugars. There is an exhaust port in front of the device which will be used to carefully discharge the above into the bloodstream, finishing the thirty second digestion cycle. A well made microbivore release only the biologically inactive sewage.
Whilst microbivores can completely wipe out septicemic infections within minutes to hours, natural phagocytic barricades - even when aided by antibiotics - may need weeks/months to accomplish total elimination of aimed bacteria from the bloodstream. Thus microbivores seems to be up to thousand times speeder acting than either unaided natural or antibiotic supported biological phagocytic defences.
Another helpful relative viewpoint is that the managing of antibacterial agents (e.g. againstÂ E. coli) typically may increase the LD50 of that pathogen by 500-fold using antibiotics or 850-fold with monoclonal antibodies. For an instance, the mammalian LD50 forÂ E. coliÂ is 0.1-1 x 106Â CFU/ml, increasing to 108Â CFU/ml with the control of antibiotics. By using a correct dose of microbivores, a bloodstream bacterial presence up to the theoretical highest of 1011CFU/ml (20% of blood volume believing 2 micron3Â organisms) could be limited, bringing another 1000-fold enhancement using nanomedicine and finally extending the therapeutic capability of the physician to the full range of potential bacterial threats, counting locally dense infections.
3.2.3 Other Applications of Microbivores
With small additions to the fundamental design, microbivores could be used to defend toxaemia which is known as circulation throughout the body of venomous products of bacteria rising in a local site or focal and also the biochemical squeal of sepsis. For an instance,Â E. coli-persuaded septicemic shock in verve monkeys took place at 425 x 106Â CFU/ml and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin rose from normal at 0.076 ng/ml to utmost of 1.130 ng/ml blood concentration. In another research, endotoxin intensity rose from 0.2 to 2 ng/ml in pig blood during a gram-negative bacterial infection. Eradicating a bloodstream quantity of 2 ng/ml of 8 kDa LPS endotoxin will need the drawing out and enzymatic digestion of 8 x 1014Â LPS molecules from the 5400 cm3Â human bloodstream, nearly 800 LPS molecules for each nanorobot believing a 1-terabot dose of modified microbivores.
The more death rate up to 30%-50% linked with gram-negative sepsis is suitable in great appraise to the patient's response to LPS, an endotoxin which persuade the creation of cytokines such as IL-1beta and IL-6 which direct to an unrestrained inflammatory outcome resulting in tissue harm and organ failure . We've already noted that little amounts (ng/ml) of LPS are put out by existing and emerging bacteria, but the destroying of bacteria with conventional antibiotic regimens frequently releases large quantities of further LPS, potentially up to 105Â ng/ml. Such huge releases as take place with the use of antibiotics will not go along with the use of microbivores, since all bacterial sections (including all cell-wall LPS) are internalized and completely digested into risk-free nonantigenic molecules prior to release from the device. Microbivores thus represent a total antimicrobial therapy without escalating the risk of sepsis or septic shock.
If the patient comes with a septic state before the microbivores are introduced, a considerable pre-existing measure of inflammatory cytokines will likely be in attendance and must be pulled out from the blood in concert with the initial antibacterial microbivore treatment. All not needed cytokine molecules may be quickly and systemically pulled out from the blood with a modest dose of respirocyte-class nanodeviceÂs such as pharmacytes, a combination-treatment approach formerly recommended elsewhere. Particularly, a 1-terabot intravenous dose of micron in size pharmacytes all having 105cytokine-specific molecular ordering rotors and 0.5 micron3Â of onboard space capability could decrease the blood concentration of 20 kDa IL-1beta and IL-6 cytokines as of LPS-elevated levels of 100 ng/ml) down to common serum levels of 10 pg/ml) after only 200 sec of diffusion-limited pumping, using just 0.1% of the obtainable onboard storage volume. (Extracting an extra 105Â ng/ml of LPS from the blood might take a comparable amount of period and use 100% of the accessible onboard storage volume).
Microbivores can also be helpful for curing diseases of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or meninges and respiratory illnesses involving the existence of bacteria in the sputum or lungs, and may also digest bacterial biofilms. These small in size nanorobots could rapidly rid the blood of nonbacterial pathogens such as fungus cells, viruses and parasites. Further, in the body surface, microbivore derivatives can also help clean up toxic bio chemicals, biohazards, or any other biological organic materials spills, similarly in bioremediation.
To sum up, theoretical scaling researches are used to measure basic concept feasibility. These preliminary studies would then be continued by more comprehensive computational simulations of particular nanorobot components and assemblies, and eventually full systems simulations, all carefully incorporated with additional simulations of largely parallel manufacturing processes from beginning to end consistent engineering philosophy with regard to design-for-assembly. When the molecular producing capabilities become obtainable, experimental hard work may step forward from component manufacture and experimenting, to component assembly, and eventually to prototypes and large production, at last making the way to clinical trials. Note that these studies are not anticipated to produce real engineering design for a upcoming nanomedical device. But, the point is merely to examine a set of suitable design restrictions, scaling problems, and reference designs to measure whether or not the primary idea might be feasible, and to decide key limitations of such designs. Issues related to biocompatibility of medical nanorobots are widely spoken elsewhere.