Commonly, individuals often thought that animals do not have significant roles which could be beneficial for them. In fact, Animals are advantageous for life. Around the world, animals are used in laboratories to analyse household products for example in industrial materials, agricultural and weaponry. In addition, animals also used in cosmetic industry especially done for make up and soaps. The use of animals on cosmetics is perhaps one of the most contentious areas of animal testing. Apart from its use on cosmetics, animals are also favorable for medical research by means of animal testing. Essentially, the underlying principle which leads the idea to start the practice of animal testing was originated from the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin in 1859 to obtain more knowledge about human (Lauri, n.d). It has been proven that animals have certain similarities with human beings, and for this reason, they played a significant role in medical and scientific research. According to Trust (2008), it has been approximate that 115 million animals are used in laboratory experiments around the world each year.
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For over nineteen years, individuals have been observing a controversial issue regarding the significant of using animal testing in medical and scientific testing, research and education. Medical research is basically performed in order to assist and maintain the understanding in relation to medicine. Currently, numerous diseases have been discovering without cured. By introducing animal testing, majority of treatment for diseases could be observed. Emily Craven (n.d) claims that antibiotics, HIV drugs, insulin and cancer treatment completely depend on animal testing after considering the fact that other testing technique are not precisely sophisticated. However, several animal activists claim that animals are also living creatures that have senses and emotions. Hence, they are able to feel the pain of the experiments and often experienced physical, mental and psychological stress (Lauri, n.d). As a result, scientists and animal activists are trying to come up with an alternative ways to conduct research on animals without harming them. Practically, researchers are able to test numerous compounds of drugs and vaccines for medical treatments on human instead of using animal. However, it would be harmful and inefficient since most of the compounds might be fatal and could affect physical condition or cause death. It would also take longer time to see the results as human live longer compared to laboratory animals. Therefore, it could be seen that animal testing would be the best solution for scientists to help them discover medical research in the future.
Unfortunately, animal testing is often mistrust by individuals. They often questioned on how does animal testing benefit future medical research?
A closer look on the issue reveals that animal testing is the best way for future medical research, as it contributes to medical advances, aids in biomedical research and advancing veterinary science and medicine.
2.0 Body of Report
2.1 Its contribution to medical advances
Animal testing is often misunderstood by individuals. People in opposition of animal testing argue that the animal records and data can be misleading when it employed to human. According to Barnard and Kaufman (1997), animal testing are not suitable and have a very small predictive power to deal with the critical health problems these days such as cancer, heart diseases, AIDs and birth defects. They further state that the use of animal testing for medical advances might contribute to disease or even deaths by unsuccessfully to expect the toxic effects on drugs. Apart from that, scientists believed that animal testing does not guarantee the safety of drugs. This could be proven in view of the fact that humans and animals have physiological differences, which prevent the accuracy of the outcomes of animal testing on human.
Wiebers and his colleagues (1990) expresses a study proving that, it has been found out that from 25 compounds and mixtures that are used to minimized the harm of ischemic stroke ( due to the deficiency of the flow of the blood to the brain) in cats, rodents and other animals, all failed when it applied in human tryouts. These experiments have shown the differences on how strokes physically strike humans and how they experimentally react in animals. Moreover, some drugs produced through animal testing that have been authorized could also affect health and lead to serious and shocking side effects to humans. PETA.org (n.d) declare that, a detail in the Record of the American Medical Association in 2002 discovered that for the last 25 years, more than 50 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drugs which have been authorized, had to be eliminated from the shop or reconsidered since they caused "harmful effects". Therefore, it would be immoral to release drugs to the community without understanding the likely side effects that the drugs might have.
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In 2000, the prescription drugs removed from the market were the popular heartburn drug Propulsid (removed because it caused "fatal heart rhythm abnormalities"), the diabetes drug Rezulin ("removed after causing liver failure"), and the irritable-bowel-syndrome treatment Lotronex ("removed for causing fatal constipation and colitis"). Millions of people are uncovered to possible insecure drugs each year". -PETA.ORG -
Even though it might be true that the results of animal testing are not applicable to humans and some drugs had to be distrust and eliminated, however, the alternative methods of testing has not advanced enough, and testing on animals are more applicable to humans. Through out the year, animal testing has been beneficial for medical advances, and future medical development will still rely on the continued of animal research. The use of animals in research is one of several analytical technique used in science these days, and has played a vital role in the development of modern medical therapy. Many significant medical explorations from the last century could be discovered due to animal testing. Some of them are recorded here:
â€¢ Kidney transplants
â€¢ Replacement heart valves
â€¢ Polio vaccine
â€¢ Hip replacement surgery
â€¢ Heart bypass operations
â€¢ Drugs to treat mental illness
â€¢ Drugs to treat stomach ulcers, asthma and leukaemia
â€¢ Drugs to control transplant rejection
â€¢ Life-support systems for premature babies
â€¢ Cloning of Dolly
Animal experimentation not only it used in the development of diseases, it also plays a significant role in the advancement of vaccines and drugs against diseases. According to Botting and Morrison (1997), scientists have found the causes of vaccines and infectious diseases such as rabies, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, measles, mumps and rubella. The analysis of these diseases definitely depends on animal testing. Generally, in order to carry out the experiments, researchers need to identify the microorganisms and conducted the operation of the microbes to animals to see if they actually go well with the illness. Apart from the production of new vaccines, the advancement of HIV drugs, antibiotic, cancer treatment and insulin also relied on animal testing. One of the successful results of animal experimentation is the development of vaccine against Hemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), a main cause of meningitis, which could lead to death or awful brain injure in more than 800 children annually in the US. The vaccine is set up and tested on rabbits and mice that has been confirm to be effectively immunogenic and is now in regular use (Botting and Morrison, 1997).
The accuracy of the results of the vaccines and drugs from animal testing should not be doubt, for the reason that the safety of medication are ensured. When drugs are being progressed, the safety and efficiency needs to be guarantee. They also need to be checked for the possibility to affect reproductive functioning negatively. Therefore, each and every medication used by humans are first tested on animals before the drugs are distributed to the public for consumption. Furthermore, it is necessary for scientists to get maximum knowledge about the animals that they used in experiments to avoid misleading of the information. Therefore, misconception regarding the possible side effects of the drugs should be eliminated.