Investigation Of The Effect Of Fertiliser Biology Essay

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The bean plant will grow well in fertile, crumbly soil in presence of good sun and even better with fertiliser NPK 5:10:10 or similar, therefore this investigation aimed to find out the correlation between the growths of the bean plant without and with the use of fertiliser NPK 20:10:10 in the loosely packed Ibeju-Lekki, Lagos, Nigeria soil. The research question is "which is better to plant Phaseolus Vulgaris (the common bean) with or without fertiliser (NPK 20:10:10) in Ibeju -Lekki, Lagos."

The investigation was carried out by collection of soil sample into ten labelled containers, to five, fertiliser was added and to the other five no fertiliser was added. Five bean seeds were planted in all containers and their growth was closely monitored for 15 days, the plants were allowed germinate for the first five days to a reasonable heights before been measured every day for another ten days. The assessment criterion for the investigation was height.

After the investigation, it was found out that it is better to grow Phaseolus Vulgaris without fertiliser in Ibeju-Lekki, Lagos. This finding disproved the hypothesis of the research which indicated that 'the use of fertiliser will enhance the growth and the plants sowed with fertiliser will grow better.' For further investigations, different other fertilisers can be investigated under various conditions including in a green house

Contents

Introduction

Nutrition is a function of life necessary for all living things. This is not to say that nutrition is the most important of the functions of life, it just drives other functions like metabolism, growth and homeostasis. Nutrition is simply the obtaining of food, to make available energy and the materials required for growth [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] .

Nutrition is carried out differently in organisms. While some organisms are able to manufacture their food, others have to depend on other organisms for their nutrition; these are two examples of the forms of nutrition and there are others. Organisms that are able to manufacture their food from inorganic sources of carbon are referred to as autotrophs while those that have to depend on other organisms for their organic molecules are referred to as heterotrophs.

Humans are heterotrophs, and an essential part of their nutrition is the consumption of proteins. Plants on the other hand are autotrophs and an essential part of their nutrition is the uptake of the nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Plants have to obtain these nutrients from the soil but certain plants form a symbiotic relationship with a micro organism called Rhizobium. This relationship enables these plants to obtain nitrogen from the soil as the bacteria, Rhizobium has nitrogen-fixing ability, and in return the plant provides a carbon source for the bacteria.

The best known examples of plants able to form this relationship belong to the Papilionaceae (Leguminosae) they include peas, beans and clover [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] . Beans which are a source of food worldwide exist in various species but one of the most common is the Phaseolus Vulgaris L. (the common bean) and it is a source of food in Nigeria, West Africa.

Regardless of the relationship, the other necessary nutrient for growth need to be obtained by the plant and in cases where nutrients are lacking fertilisers can be used. For this research, I intend to investigate and determine the better growing condition for the common bean between the use of and without the use of fertiliser in my locality in Ibeju-Awoyaya, Lekki, Lagos; which is of very close proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and therefore has a loose and fertile soil. Thus my research question, 'which is better to plant Phaseolus Vulgaris (the common bean) with or without fertiliser (NPK 20:10:10) in Ibeju -Lekki, Lagos.'

Biological Approach

Some autotrophs are photosynthetic in nature i.e. they obtain their own organic molecules by combining an external supply of Carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sun light and chlorophyll. Green plants are photosynthetic in nature and the equation for the reaction that takes place during photosynthesis is given below:

6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy chlorophyll in chloroplast C6H12O6 + 6O2

The nutrients obtained from photosynthesis facilitates other life functions of the autotrophs but it is important to know that this is in fact the beginning the process of nutrition in any ecosystem. This is because green plants are producers, for other organisms in the ecosystem to obtain their nutrients they have to feeds on plant. Animals are heterotrophic in nature; therefore, it is safe to indicate that animal nutrition is reliant on plant nutrition either directly or indirectly [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] . Animals that consume plants as a main source of food are referred to as herbivores, those that consume meat as a main source of food are referred to as carnivores, and those that are able to consume both are referred to as omnivores.

Human beings are omnivores; they have need of a regular supply of vital nutrients in balanced proportions in order to sustain themselves in a healthy state [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] . The essential nutrients for humans put together in equal proportion are generally referred to as balanced diet. The essential nutrients that make up the balanced diet are:

Fats

Carbohydrates

Proteins

Vitamins

Minerals

Water

Dietary fibre

While carbohydrates and fats act as sources of energy needed in relatively large amounts by humans, proteins are necessitated in large amounts for growth and repair. Vitamins and minerals are called for in much smaller quantities for a range of specific functions. Water is an important constituent for many reasons and Dietary fibre aids digestion [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] .

Proteins are generally needed by humans because they facilitate growth, which is a function of life; as a matter of fact most of the body structure is made of proteins e.g. collagen in skin; proteins are used by the body in the performance of biochemical processes e.g. antibodies in defence and enzymes during digestion [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] . Although carbohydrates and fats are the principal sources of energy for humans, in cases where they are lacking the body may respire proteins to make energy available [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] . Therefore, proteins are very important constituents of the human diet.

Consumed proteins act as a supply of amino acids which are used to manufacture new proteins. The human body needs twenty amino acids, eleven of which can be manufactured by the body and the remaining nine have to be consumed in diet. The nine which have to be obtained in diet are known as essential amino acids. Different proteins have different proportions of the twenty amino acids so proteins with more essential amino acids are of larger value than those with less [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] .

While it is very essential for human beings to consume protein, the proteins needs and consumption vary between different people. A general daily requirement of protein has however being drawn up in order to improve healthy living. A general protein daily requirement table is given below:

Table

To meet the daily requirements, there are some plants and animal sources that can be considered; they are given below:

Cheese

Meat

Fish

Beans

Eggs

Yogurt and milk

Nuts

Animal protein sources include all the essential amino acids while eating a wide variety of plant protein sources can provide the essential amino acids. Due to the availability of all the essential amino acids in animal protein sources, it is often a better option to pick in order to meet protein requirements but their consumption has some negative side effects [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] , and they include:

High Cholesterol content

Requires more energy to digest

Becomes Toxic

Acidifying

To avoid these, plant sources can be used as replacement and research has shown that it is possible to obtain all nutrients from a plant protein sources [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] , here are some advantages of consuming plant sources:

High fibre content

Lower risk of food poisoning

Low cholesterol and

More essential vitamins

With these advantages, it is possible to improve healthy living through the consumption of plant protein but in order to improve the supply of plant protein; the best for growing conditions for the plants have to be investigated.

Statement of Problem

A research by Andohol Jerome (Dept. of Economics, Benue State University, Markurdi, Nigeria) in May, 2012 showed that the major staple foods in Nigeria are Yam, Cassava, corn and rice. In the research he indicated that one of the constraints to improving agricultural productivity in Nigeria is low fertiliser use. While Nigeria is a United Nations country and has joined in the commitment to actualise the millennium development goals by 2015, it might still be of essence to consider how much food security and eradication of extreme hunger has been addressed. Recently in the Nigerian news, was the issue of high beans prices in Lagos and general complaints from the farmers were on the destruction of the plants by flooding. [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] The governor of Lagos state, Nigeria Babatunde Raji Fashola indicated that Lagos will deliver for the millennium development goals in 2015 [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] .These now brings out the statement of problem considered for this investigation:

No source of protein was indicated a major staple food in Nigeria and with this, target 1C of the millennium development goals which indicates that "Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary consumption will be halved" can be found wanting.

If Lagos state government of Nigeria must ensure that the millennium development goals are achieved by 2015 then it might be important to ensure the adequate supply of food such that minimum level of dietary consumption is met. Besides, a indication by the UN states that with the fast growing economy of Lagos state, it would be the third largest mega city in the world by 2015 with the indication to a threat on urban sustainability [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] , If this threat must be well adverted then the food security is an important factor that has to be achieved. This why an investigation on the best growing conditions for Phaseolus Vulgaris L., a food with high protein is being carried out.

Literature Review

The Phaseolus Vulgaris is a common bean classified as a dicotyledonous plant; it is an herbaceous annual plant grown globally for its edible bean. In 2007, 18.3 million tonnes of dry common bean and 6.6 million tonnes of green bean were grown globally. The bean is a highly variable species having both Bush and running varieties. The colours and shapes of pods and seeds of these varieties vary enormously and the variation for study, which is the brown bean is a pea closely related to the kidney bean. The brown beans alongside its closely related cousin, black eyed pea are a popular dish in Lagos, Nigeria.

According to Rosie Lerner, the application of fertiliser (NPK 5:10:10) in moderate quantities (1cup/50 feet of row) is best for growing beans. She indicated that beans grow well in full sun and well drained, fertile, crumbly soil. She stated in her paper (Growing Beans in the Home Vegetable garden) that the best watering techniques for the beans plant was an adequate application of moisture as too much water or too little water causes blossom and pod drop. She indicated that improper water and heat conditions can lead to ill-formed pods in which only few seeds develop. To prevent disease, she stated that the best watering time was early in the morning in order to allow the plants to dry quickly.

Biological Information [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] 

Variation for study: The brown bean

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Magnoliophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Fabales

Family

Fabaceae

Genus

Phaseolus

Species

Vulgaris L.

Nutritional Value per 100g (3.5 oz) [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] 

Energy

1393KJ

Carbohydrate

60g

Fat

1g

Protein

24g

Aim of study

The main aim of this study is to find out the more effective way to grow Phaseolus vulgaris (the common bean) in my locality which is Lekki, Lagos.

At the end of the study, the following objectives will have been achieved.

Determination of the effect of the fertilizer (NPK 20:10:10) on the growth of Phaseolus Vulgaris.

Determination of the better option between the usage of fertiliser or growing naturally.

Hypothesis

The fertiliser will enhance the growth of the bean plant.

The plants with fertiliser will grow taller than the plants without fertilisers.

Methods of Investigation

In this investigation, the plant heights will be used as the assessing criteria to examine the hypotheses. Using bean yield would be rather farfetched due to the long harvesting period of the beans which about 100-120 days.

Apparatus

Fertilizer (NPK 20:10:10)

Measuring balance (+0.01g)

1 Crucible

10 plastic containers

50 viable seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris(the common bean)

30.00 + 0.05cm ruler

1 Plastic cup

1 plastic bucket to collect the soil

1 shovel/spade

1 Spatula

About 10kg of soil (collected from around the school)

Oven

1 Measuring cylinder (50.00 + 0.05cm3)

Variables

Independent Variables

Addition of Fertiliser

Mass of fertilizer added

Dependent Variables

Height of seedlings

Constant Variables

Mass of soil

Volume of water

Number of seeds in each container

Soil

Control of Variables

Mass of Soil: In order to ensure that the same mass of soil was used in all containers, a measuring cylinder was used.

Volume of Water: A measuring cylinder (50.00 + 0.05cm3) was used to measure the required amount of water to water the plants.

Number of Seeds in each container: Five seeds were planted in each container to ensure adequate collection of data.

Mass of fertiliser added: A weighing balance (+0.01g) was used to ensure that the same amount (1.00g +0.01g) of fertiliser was added to the containers.

Addition of Fertiliser: The containers were separated using tape labels to avoid confusion and to five out of ten containers fertiliser was added and to the other five, fertiliser was not added.

Soil: It was ensured that the soil was collected from the same location which was around the school.

Method for measuring the moisture content of the used soil

In order to determine the amount of water to be used to water the plants i.e. an attempt to keep the moisture content stable and suitable for the plants, the moisture content of the used soil was measured.

The initial mass of the crucible was weighed and recorded.

100g (+0.01g) of the used soil (before planting the seeds) was measured and transferred into the crucible, the mass of the crucible + soil was measured and recorded.

The crucible containing the used soil was kept in the laboratory oven.

The weight was checked of three hours until the mass became constant

Then the final mass of the crucible + soil was recorded.

The mass of water loss was used as a parameter to water the plants. The data for this is entered in the table below.

Soil Moisture

Mass of crucible

49.4g

Mass of Soil

100g

Mass of soil + crucible

149.4g

Final mass of soil + crucible

139.1g

Soil Moisture

10.3g

NOTE: I used 50cm3 (+0.5cm3) of water to water the plants regularly. This is because I assumed that 1g of water = 1cm3 of water; so if 100g of soil requires about 10cm3 of water, then 500g of soil requires about 50cm3 of soil (this is not an assertive statement, it is only an assumption).

Method for planting

500g (+0.01g) of soil was measured into ten transparent plastic containers.

Five bean seeds were planted with equal spacing into each of the containers and the containers were labelled i.e. Pot 1...10.

The containers were kept under the same conditions in area where they were exposed to equal amount of sunlight and atmospheric moisture.

Five days after the plants started to germinate (the plants were watered everyday), the height of each seedling was measured with a 30cm ruler each day for ten days.

The plants were watered every two days after the first five days to prevent the plants from wilting (this was also done to prevent the soil from getting water-logged as the time the experiment was performed was during the raining season; the containers were also pierced at the base to prevent water-logging).

To first five pots, about 5.00 + 0.01g of fertiliser was added and the remaining pots were left without fertiliser i.e. 0g of fertiliser.

Quantitative Data

All data are available in Appendix 1. It shows the height of each plant in each container. The summary of the data collected is given below:

Average Plants Heights in each pot (in cm)

Average Heights of Plants (in cm)

Days

Pot 1

Pot 2

Pot 3

Pot 4

Pot 5

1

13.7

16.3

13.0

12.3

11.7

13.4

2

13.8

16.6

13.5

13.2

12.1

13.9

3

13.9

16.8

13.6

13.3

12.3

14.0

4

14.2

16.9

14.0

13.5

12.5

14.2

5

14.3

17.0

14.1

13.5

12.5

14.3

6

13.4

17.1

16.1

13.6

12.6

14.5

7

13.5

17.1

16.2

13.7

13.0

14.7

8

13.5

17.7

15.9

13.7

13.1

14.8

9

13.7

17.8

16.0

13.8

12.6

14.7

10

13.8

17.8

16.1

13.9

12.7

14.8

Average Plants Heights in each pot (in cm)

Average Heights of Plants (in cm)

Days

Pot 6

Pot 7

Pot 8

Pot 9

Pot 10

1

14.5

18.7

17.4

16.7

18.4

17.1

2

15.4

19.3

19.1

18.3

19.9

18.4

3

16.3

20.4

19.9

18.6

20.6

19.2

4

16.5

21.1

20.3

19.5

21.0

19.7

5

16.9

21.5

20.7

19.9

21.3

20.1

6

17.3

22.0

20.9

20.2

21.7

20.4

7

17.6

22.3

21.0

20.5

22.2

20.7

8

17.8

22.6

21.2

20.9

22.8

21.1

9

18.4

22.6

21.6

20.9

22.8

21.3

10

18.7

23.0

21.9

21.1

22.9

21.5

Data Presentation

Average Heights of Plants per day for plants without fertiliser (0g)

Average Heights of Plants per day for plants with fertiliser 20:10:10 (1g)

Days

Heights(in cm)

Days

Heights(in cm)

1

 17.1

1

13.4

2

 18.4

2

13.9

3

 19.2

3

14.0

4

 19.7

4

14.2

5

 21.3

5

14.3

6

 20.1

6

14.5

7

 20.7

7

14.7

8

 21.1

8

14.8

9

 21.3

9

14.7

10

 21.5

10

14.8

Figure

Figure

From the above graphs, both sets of data show a positive correlation and so with increasing number of days the heights of the plants are increasing. This makes it hard to determine which condition is better as it is possible that the data trends are as a result of chance. In order to ascertain whether or not the data collected is as a result of chance further analysis are carried out.

Method of Analysis for Quantitative data

Hypothesis addressed: The plants with fertiliser will grow taller than the plants without fertilisers.

Different methods of analysis were carried out on the above data to find out the trends, patterns and significance of the data [CITATION Too99 \l 1033] . The methods assess the strength of the evidence in relation to the hypothesis for each test. In each test, the following hypothesis will be used:

H0 : The null hypothesis which indicates that there is no difference in the mean heights of the plants treated with fertiliser and those treated with none.

H1 : The alternate hypothesis which indicates that there is a difference in the mean heights of the plants treated with fertiliser and those treated with none.

Method 1: Statistical Hypothesis Test

DAYS

WITHOUT FERTILISER 0G

WITH 5G FERTILISER20:10:10

1

17.1

13.4

2

18.4

13.9

3

19.2

14.0

4

19.7

14.2

5

20.1

14.3

6

20.4

14.5

7

20.7

14.7

8

21.1

14.8

9

21.3

14.7

10

21.5

14.8

Sum

199.5

143.3

Mean

19.95

14.33

Count

10.0

10.0

Maximum Value

21.5

14.8

Minimum Value

17.1

13.4

Range (Max - Min)

4.40

1.40

Max-Mean

1.55

0.47

Mean-Min

2.85

0.93

Part 1: Error bars of range

Figure

As seen above, there is no overlap in the errors bars of range of the data which indicates that the data collected are significantly different. Regardless, using range is a measure of central tendency and can be unreliable. Further analysis is done to ensure accuracy of analysis.

Part 2: Standard Deviation

Without Fertiliser

With fertiliser

DAYS

Deviation from mean

Square of deviation

Deviation from mean

Square of deviation

1

17.1

-2.85

8.1225

13.4

-0.93

0.8649

2

18.4

-1.55

2.4025

13.9

-0.43

0.1849

3

19.2

-0.75

0.5625

14.0

-0.33

0.1089

4

19.7

-0.25

0.0625

14.2

-0.13

0.0169

5

20.1

+0.15

0.0225

14.3

-0.03

0.0009

6

20.4

+0.45

0.2025

14.5

+0.17

0.0289

7

20.7

+0.75

0.5625

14.7

+0.37

0.1369

8

21.1

+1.15

1.3225

14.8

+0.47

0.2209

9

21.3

+1.35

1.8225

14.7

+0.37

0.1369

10

21.5

+1.55

2.4025

14.8

+0.47

0.2209

Sum of squares of deviation

17.485

Sum of squares of deviation

1.921

Standard deviation:

1.39

Standard deviation :

0.46

Figure

From the above graph above, it is seen that there is no overlap in the errors bars of standard deviation of the data which indicates that the data collected are significantly different. Regardless, using standard deviation can be reliable.

Conclusion for statistical analysis test: From the above graphs, both range and standard deviation error bars show that the data collected are significantly different therefore the alternate hypothesis (H1) is accepted.

Method 2: The t-test

The t-test is used in order to verify that the data collected are significantly in order to accept the alternate hypothesis (H1).

Degree of freedom - (n1 + n2) -2

= 10 + 10 - 2 = 18

Standard deviation already calculated above but is indicated below:

 

Without Fertiliser

With 1g Fertiliser

Mean

19.95

14.33

Standard Deviation

1.39

0.46

Where x1= mean of data set without fertiliser, x2= mean for data set with fertiliser, s1= standard deviation of plants without fertiliser, s2= standard deviation of plants with fertiliser, n1= count of data set without fertiliser and n2= count of data set with fertiliser.

Critical value for t corresponding to the probability value of 5% or 0.05 = 2.10

Since t is greater than critical value then there is a significant difference between the means and so the alternate hypothesis (H1) is accepted.

Qualitative Data

While the plants were growing, it was observed that the plants with fertiliser had bigger leafs than those without fertiliser but the plants without fertiliser were taller and clearly from the data obtained this hypothesis is disproved as the fertiliser did not aid the growth of the plants based on the assessment criteria for growth in this research.

Evaluation

From the data collected, an expected general trend of growth is observed indicating that the general experimental procedure was correct regardless some errors may have still affected the results observed. The major source of error in this research was a random error. The random came about by the consistency of the plants measurement; the plants were not checked at exactly the same time everyday and uncertainty value of +2hours accounts for this. Aside from this random error, other forms of errors were carefully avoided in order to obtain accurate results.

Some problems were observed in the designing of the experiment, initially the containers were not pierced and so the plants were water-logged but further research (Lerner, 2002) was carried out and the containers were modified by piercing to allow excess water to drain out. Also, the application of fertiliser posed to be a problem as the containers used for the research were quite small and so even with much research the proper way to apply the fertiliser to the soil still proved difficult eventually the fertilisers were applied to the soil 24hrs prior to planting. Also, the right amount of fertiliser to use was difficult to determine due to the small size of soil and container; so the fertiliser used was based on an educated guess considering the size of the pot for planting and the amount of soil to be needed. Determination of method of application of fertiliser and amount of fertiliser used might have in fact being a source of random error and for further research purposes the application of fertiliser can be done in a large growing container or better still in the ground; with this, it would be easier to determine the amount and method of application of fertiliser that will be most effective.

Also while attempting to design this experiment, an initial experiment was carried out using the fertiliser NPK 15:15:15, the results showed very low growth of the beans plants and as a matter of fact some of the plants died; the area of the stem right above the soil shrivelled, for this reason a new experiment was designed using the fertiliser NPK 20:10:10. The redesigned experiment would have being carried out using the recommended fertiliser for the growth of bean i.e. NPK 5:10:10 but due to its scarcity, the research couldn't be carried out with it. The results for the application of the fertiliser NPK 15:15:15 is shown in appendix 3.

Further investigation can be carried out in a green house where all necessary conditions can be set for the growth of the bean plants. Also, another research can be carried out using the recommended fertiliser (NPK 5:10:10) and a determination of the better condition can be determined. This research may hindered by some or all of the factors mentioned above.

Conclusion

From the analysis of the data collected, it is seen that the alternate hypothesis (H1) was accepted which indicates that it is better to plant the bean naturally with no soil addition than to use fertiliser, this finding disproves both hypothesis and the fertiliser did not in any way enhance the growth of the plants, reasons for this findings have been given above in the evaluation section. A recommendation is that in place of where the option to plant with or without fertiliser (NPK 20:10:10) in Ibeju-Awoyaya Lekki, the better option is without.

Bibliography

2005, L. S. (n.d.). Population. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from Lagos State Government: http://www.lagosstate.gov.ng/pagelinks.php?p=6

24.com. (2012, September 14). Scarcity of beans hit Lagos and its Environs. Retrieved March 11, 2013, from news 24 nigeria: http://m.news24.com/nigeria/National/News/Scarcity-of-beans-hits-Lagos-and-its-environs-20120914

Allott, A., & Mindorff, D. (2007). IB DIPLOMA PROGRAMME Biology Course Companion. Oxford University Press.

C.J.Glegg. (2007). Biology for the IB Diploma. London: Hodder Education.

Lerner, B. R. (2002, November 01). Growing Beans in the Home Vegetable garden. West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.

Osterweil, N. (2013). The Benefits of Protein. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from WebMD: http://men.webmd.com/features/benefits-protein

Toole, G., & Toole, S. (1999). NEW UNDERSTANDING Biology For Advanced Level. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Stanley Thornes Ltd.

Zavial. (2013). Know your Beans. Retrieved March 11, 2013, from Easy Bean: http://www.easybean.co.uk/know-your-beans.html

Appendix 1

Data for Plants with fertiliser (1g)

Plants with fertiliser (1g)

 

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 1

12.2

13.5

13.8

14.0

15.0

13.7

Pot 2

14.5

15.2

16.5

17.0

18.5

16.3

Pot 3

8.5

12.5

13.9

14.3

15.7

13.0

Pot 4

0.0

12.8

14.5

15.3

18.9

12.3

Pot 5

0.0

12.0

14.0

14.7

17.8

11.7

Day 1

 

 

 

 

 

13.4

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 1

12.5

13.5

14.0

14.0

15.2

13.8

Pot 2

15.0

15.8

16.5

17.2

18.7

16.6

Pot 3

9.0

13.5

13.9

14.5

16.5

13.5

Pot 4

0.0

13.2

15.7

18.0

19.2

13.2

Pot 5

0.0

12.5

14.5

15.3

18.2

12.1

Day 2

 

 

 

 

 

13.9

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 1

12.6

13.5

14.0

14.2

15.3

13.9

Pot 2

15.5

15.8

16.7

17.3

18.7

16.8

Pot 3

9.0

13.7

14.0

14.5

16.8

13.6

Pot 4

0.0

13.4

15.8

18.2

19.3

13.3

Pot 5

0.0

12.8

14.6

15.4

18.5

12.3

Day 3

 

 

 

 

 

14.0

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 1

12.7

13.8

14.1

14.8

15.4

14.2

Pot 2

15.5

15.8

16.8

17.3

19.3

16.9

Pot 3

9.2

14.0

14.6

14.8

17.2

14.0

Pot 4

0.0

13.5

16.0

18.5

19.4

13.5

Pot 5

0.0

13.0

15.3

15.5

18.5

12.5

Day 4

 

 

 

 

 

14.2

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 1

12.8

14.0

14.4

14.6

15.5

14.3

Pot 2

15.6

16.0

16.8

17.4

19.5

17.1

Pot 3

9.4

14.0

14.8

14.8

17.3

14.1

Pot 4

0.0

13.5

16.2

18.5

19.5

13.5

Pot 5

0.0

13.0

15.3

15.5

18.6

12.5

Day 5

 

 

 

 

 

14.3

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 1

12.8

n/a

n/a

n/a

14.0

13.4

Pot 2

15.6

16.0

16.8

17.3

19.3

17.0

Pot 3

n/a

14.0

15.0

17.5

17.8

16.1

Pot 4

0.0

n/a

16.2

18.5

19.5

13.6

Pot 5

0.0

13.0

15.4

15.8

18.6

12.6

Day 6

 

 

 

 

 

14.5

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 1

13.0

n/a

n/a

n/a

14.0

13.5

Pot 2

15.6

16.0

16.8

17.5

19.8

17.1

Pot 3

n/a

14.2

15.0

17.6

18.1

16.2

Pot 4

0.0

n/a

16.3

18.8

19.5

13.7

Pot 5

0.0

13.0

15.8

17.3

18.8

13.0

Day 7

 

 

 

 

 

14.7

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 1

13.0

n/a

n/a

n/a

14.0

13.5

Pot 2

n/a

16.2

17.0

17.7

19.8

17.7

Pot 3

n/a

14.8

15.1

17.7

n/a

15.9

Pot 4

0.0

n/a

16.3

19.0

19.6

13.7

Pot 5

0.0

13.4

15.8

17.5

19.0

13.1

Day 8

 

 

 

 

 

14.8

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 1

13.2

n/a

n/a

n/a

14.2

13.7

Pot 2

n/a

16.4

17.0

17.7

19.9

17.8

Pot 3

n/a

15.0

15.1

17.8

n/a

16.0

Pot 4

0.0

n/a

16.4

19.0

19.6

13.8

Pot 5

0.0

15.4

15.8

n/a

19.0

12.6

Day 9

 

 

 

 

 

14.7

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 1

13.2

n/a

n/a

n/a

14.3

13.8

Pot 2

n/a

16.4

17.0

17.9

20.0

17.8

Pot 3

n/a

15.0

15.3

17.9

n/a

16.1

Pot 4

0.0

n/a

16.6

19.2

19.6

13.9

Pot 5

0.0

15.4

16.0

n/a

19.2

12.7

Day 10

 

 

 

 

 

14.8

Data for plants without fertiliser (0g).

Plants without fertiliser (in cm)

 

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 6

11.3

13.8

14.3

16.3

16.9

14.5

Pot 7

17.0

18.0

18.6

19.9

20.1

18.7

Pot 8

14.0

16.7

16.9

19.0

20.4

17.4

Pot 9

10.7

16.0

17.2

18.7

20.7

16.7

Pot 10

16.9

17.0

18.2

18.7

21.0

18.4

Day 1

 

 

 

 

 

17.1

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 6

11.3

14.3

14.7

17.0

19.9

15.4

Pot 7

18.3

18.7

18.9

20.3

20.5

19.3

Pot 8

17.1

17.4

18.7

20.8

21.4

19.1

Pot 9

14.9

17.4

17.9

19.9

21.5

18.3

Pot 10

18.5

19.0

19.5

19.5

23.2

19.9

Day 2

 

 

 

 

 

18.4

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 6

11.9

14.5

14.9

19.0

21.2

16.3

Pot 7

19.5

19.7

20.6

20.8

21.4

20.4

Pot 8

17.4

17.7

21.0

21.0

22.4

19.9

Pot 9

15.5

17.5

18.5

19.9

21.8

18.6

Pot 10

19.0

19.0

20.2

21.2

23.7

20.6

Day 3

 

 

 

 

 

19.2

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 6

12.5

14.5

15.2

19.0

21.5

16.5

Pot 7

20.5

20.5

21.0

21.0

22.5

21.1

Pot 8

17.5

17.9

21.5

22.4

22.4

20.3

Pot 9

16.3

17.5

19.5

21.5

22.6

19.5

Pot 10

19.0

19.5

20.5

22.0

24.0

21.0

Day 4

 

 

 

 

 

19.7

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 6

13.4

15.3

15.3

18.7

22.0

16.9

Pot 7

20.7

21.0

21.5

21.5

22.7

21.5

Pot 8

17.0

17.8

22.5

23.0

23.0

20.7

Pot 9

16.5

18.0

19.7

22.3

22.8

19.9

Pot 10

19.0

19.8

20.5

23.0

24.3

21.3

Day 5

 

 

 

 

 

20.1

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 6

13.7

15.3

16.2

19.0

22.2

17.3

Pot 7

21.0

21.7

22.1

22.3

22.7

22.0

Pot 8

17.8

18.2

22.5

22.5

23.7

20.9

Pot 9

16.9

18.2

19.9

22.5

23.5

20.2

Pot 10

19.9

20.0

20.2

23.2

25.2

21.7

Day 6

 

 

 

 

 

20.4

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 6

14.0

15.8

16.2

19.5

22.3

17.6

Pot 7

21.7

22.2

22.4

22.5

22.8

22.3

Pot 8

18.0

18.3

22.5

22.8

23.3

21.0

Pot 9

17.0

18.3

19.9

23.5

24.0

20.5

Pot 10

20.0

20.2

21.8

23.8

25.3

22.2

Day 7

 

 

 

 

 

20.7

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 6

14.3

16.0

16.8

19.5

22.5

17.8

Pot 7

22.0

22.3

22.6

22.9

23.2

22.6

Pot 8

18.0

18.4

22.5

23.0

24.0

21.2

Pot 9

17.5

18.6

20.1

23.9

24.2

20.9

Pot 10

20.2

20.6

23.4

23.9

26.0

22.8

Day 8

 

 

 

 

 

21.1

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 6

15.3

16.8

17.0

20.4

22.5

18.4

Pot 7

22.0

22.3

22.7

23.0

23.2

22.6

Pot 8

18.0

19.0

22.8

23.9

24.5

21.6

Pot 9

17.4

18.7

20.3

24.0

24.3

20.9

Pot 10

20.4

20.7

22.0

24.3

26.5

22.8

Day 9

 

 

 

 

 

21.3

 

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Plant 4

Plant5

Average

Pot 6

15.4

16.8

17.5

20.9

22.7

18.7

Pot 7

22.1

22.4

23.2

23.5

24.0

23.0

Pot 8

18.3

19.5

23.0

24.2

24.7

21.9

Pot 9

17.5

18.7

20.9

24.0

24.4

21.1

Pot 10

20.4

21.0

22.0

24.5

26.5

22.9

Day 10

 

 

 

 

 

21.5

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