Introduction To Antispasmodic Drugs Biology Essay

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It is also the contraction amount that remains if a muscle is not working active. Hypertonia is not consciously controlled. We find skeletal , circulatory , nerve or inflammatory distress start with hypertonic muscle spasm, a condition caused by the interruption of nerve feedback loops between muscle and brain.

True hypertonic spasm is caused by a malfunction of the nerves feedback is much more serious, and it is permanent if not treated. In other words, the muscle is hypertonic muscle tone rage - the muscles are unable to relax.

Spasm is considered as a temporary burst of activity, energy and emotions.

A subtype of spasms is colic, an episodic pain due to spasms of smooth muscles in a particular organ (eg, biliary). A characteristic of colic is the sensation of having to move, and pain may cause nausea or vomiting in severe cases.

Series of spasms or permanent spasms are called spasmism.

In very severe cases, the spasm can cause muscle contractions that are stronger than the victim could generate under normal circumstances, which can cause lacerations of tendons and ligaments.

Hysterical strength is supported with a type of spasm induced by the brain in extreme circumstances.

Among the causes of spasms are inadequate hydration, muscle overload, and lack of electrolytes

Methods of treatment

Smooth muscle spasm

A type of antispasmodic used for smooth muscle contraction, particularly in the tubular gastrointestinal tract. The effect is to prevent bladder spasms stomach, intestine or urinary tract. Both drugs have systemic side effects and can aggravate the disease Gastroesophageal reflux

Skeletal muscle spasm

The drug can be used for acute musculoskeletal disorders when physical treatment is not available or has not been fully successful. Another class of antispasmodics for such treatment include cyclobenzaprine, carisoprodol, orphenadrine, and tizanidine.Effectiveness has not been clearly demonstrated for METAXALONE, methocarbamol, chlorzoxazone, baclofen, dantrolene or.

Applicable conditions are acute back or neck pain, or pain after an injury.

The spasms can also be seen in movement disorders with spasticity in neurological conditions such as cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord disease. The drugs are generally used for spastic movement disorders, but research showed no functional benefit for certain drugs.

Some studies have shown that the drugs were effective in reducing spasticity, but it was not accompanied by functional benefits.

Drugs such as baclofen, tizanidine and dantrolene have been used

Mechanism of action

Antispasmodics are medicines used for their relaxing effect on smooth muscle, either directly or by an antimuscarinic action on the parasympathetic innervation.

They play a role in the management of gastrointestinal spasm and irritable bowel syndrome and other disorders associated with smooth muscle spasm.

Those described in this site are mainly antimuscarinic drugs in other sites that can be used to smooth muscle relaxation include calcium channel blockers and nitrates, as well as mechanisms for setting less well-defined action such as papaverine.

Antispasmodic preparations containing volatile oil:

Colo-Gest Dosage Form: (soft capsules)

Herba gest Dosage Form : (capsules)

Calma baby Dosage Form : (capsules)

Rowatinex Dosage Form : (bottle)

Nono water Dosage Form : (bottle)

Herba gest

Volatile oil in Herba gest:

Peppermint oil

It gives at least 5% of esters major as menthyl acetate (C12H22O2), and not less than 50% of total menthol (C10H20O), free and as esters ..

Ginger oil

Ginger contains up to three percent of fragrant essential oils whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids

Wheat germ oil

Components: linoleic acid (omega-6), palmitic acid, oleic acid and linolenic acid (omega-3

Peppermint Oil (menthol oil)

Name:

Peppermint oil is the volatile oil steam distilled from aerial parts of the new flowering plant of Mentha piperitaLinné (family Labiatae)

Peppermint oil is used to reduce spasms of the muscles of the lower esophageal sphincter.

If you use this drug in individuals may aggravate the situation if a gastroesophageal reflux occurs.

However, enteric-coated capsules may help alleviate this problem.

Chemical composition & Structure of peppermint oil

The chemical components of peppermint oil are menthol, menthone, 1,8-cineole, methyl acetate, methofuran, isomenthone, limonene, b-pinene, a-pinene, germacrene-d, trans-hydrate sabinene and pulegone ..

Isolation of peppermint oil from its natural source

Peppermint leaf has been isolated by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 in the extraction which was followed by separation into two fractional steps. Chemical analysis revealed that the oils extracted under different conditions, SFE has a very different percentage composition.

The percentage of co-extracted cuticular waxes varied too.

Oil obtained by hydrodistillation was also compared with the oils extracted. Although virtually the same compounds were present in the oil hydrodistilled, its composition is similar to the SFE oil extracted under conditions not optimized.

Aroma qualitative tests showed that the oil obtained under optimum conditions EFS (p = 90 bar, T = 50 ° C) has a scent that best resembled the mint leaves used for oil extraction

As with many widely used natural products, demand for menthol greatly exceeds the supply from natural sources. Menthol is manufactured as a single enantiomer

Chemical test:

The oil gives a characteristic blue coloration fading to golden-yellow when 3 drops are added to 5 ml of glacial acetic acid containing 0.3% of nitric acid and the mixture heated in boiling water bath for 1-5 minutes.

Quantitative analysis of peppermint oil:

The menthol content-free peppermint oil is determined by refluxing a sample of oil with chloroacetyl chloride.

Hydrogen chloride, a byproduct of the reaction, was postponed to a solution of silver nitrate standard using nitrogen gas.

Silver nitrate in excess is determined with the ammonium thiocyanate standard.

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