INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY COURSE WORK
Intercell is an innovative biotechnology company focused on the design and development of novel vaccines for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Intercell mainly focuses on the unmet medical needs and helps in the improvement of health conditions worldwide. Intercell is located in three different places where the headquarters is placed in Vienna, the intercell manufacturing facility is located in Livingston, Scotland and they have a site in Gaithersburg, USA.(intercell).
Intercell is a very famous and a reputed company they were the SCRIPS award winner in 2008 for the biotech company of the year. Gerd Zettimeissi is the CEO of Intercell and Greco is the chair person of the Supervisory board. Intercell is a leading company in the preparation of novel vaccines. Out of the total members 73.5% are working research, development and manufacturing and the remaining in sales and administration. The projects of Intercell include (I) Vaccines against Japanese Encephalitis, Hepatitis C (ii) Antigen Identification Program and adjuvant technologies (iii) Vaccine Enhancement Patch for prevention against pandemic Influenza.This Company is famous for the manufacture of Japanese Encephalitis vaccine. Intercell has its headquarters at Vienna these facility seas to the development and administration, finance, marketing and sales .It consists of 220 member’s .Its main concentration is on the discovery and development of vaccines and antigens for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Intercell USA ltd its main concentration is to develop and discover of vaccines and immune systems simulation using needle free methods. Intercell biomedical LTD this plant is dedicated to the production of the Japanese Encephalitis vaccine. This facility also has a full in-house GMP facility. In the beginning of 2008 this manufacturing site received manufacturing license from the British Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency.
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Marketing can make or break a brand or a specific product. For most of the biotech companies, defining a product's uniqueness and superiority is the most important thing. The marketing, exporting and the product effectiveness are the main characteristics for the development of the product and the company itself .The Company was formed in 1998 this company were formed as a university spin-off. The company started off by producing vaccine for Japanese Encephalitis and now it produces vaccines against Travellers Diarrhea, Hepatitis C, Tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus some of the are in pre-clinical phase.
The company has a supervisory board that governs the entire company .this supervisory board monitors the management board. The share holders are the ones who elect the members of the supervisory board. Out of the total employees, 60% are women and 40% are men and 655 of its employees are university graduates. Intercell currently has nearly 400 colleagues from more than 30 countries and there are 220 employees work at Vienna, more than 100 at Intercell USA and nearly 80 employees work for Intercell Biomedical Ltd, Scotland. As of Dec 31, 2008, 73.55 of its employees work in research, development and manufacturing. 26.6% deal with selling, general and administrative activities. This company is the only manufacturer of JEV for USA and Australia.
Intercell is tied up with Biological E limited in India. Intercell gives scientific and technical support to this company for the production of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine. In Feb 2005, Intercell went public on Vienna Stock Exchange and raised €52.5 million. Intercell has a common stock of 47,503,895 shares. The market potential of Japanese Encephalitis vaccine is estimated between €250 million.
Intercell uses three main technologies platforms these are antigen identification program (AIP), the Adjuvant IC31 and needle free vaccine patch. These innovation technologies help the Intercell to develop a new generation of vaccines called “smart vaccines “ ,what these vaccines do is they stimulate both B-cells and T-cell. These smart vaccines are easily administered and manufactured, they are effective and safe.
Antigen Identification Program (AIP):
the design of vaccines depends on characterization identification of the proper antigens. With the help of AIP Intercell has identified and refined large antigens of several bacterial pathogens. What the AIP does is it takes the antibodies from the infected individual and it directly mirrors the presence, antigen city and accessibility of relevant proteins from microorganisms in human host. The first step in AIP it randomly fragments the DNA isolated from the microorganism of interest. These peptides are displayed on the E.coli by a set of outer membrane protein this is called bacterial surface display. By this the antibodies are added to the E.coli cell population. Finally with the help of paramagnetic beads the antibiotic cells are captured. There are about 100 to 200 antigens out of which they analyze and Select the best candidates for vaccine development.
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Adjuvants these are needed to tell the immune system to recognize and eliminate pathogens efficiently. Intercell uses these IC31 adjutants and combines them with antigens, induces both T-cell and B-cell to get responses. Intercell uses unique synthetic formulations that combine the anti-microbial peptide, KLK and an immunostimulatory oligodeoxynocleotide, ODN1a.these two can simply be mixed with antigens or conjunction is required. This Adjuvant IC31 forms a highly specific immune response by inducing specific T-cells and stimulating strong response.
This vaccine patch is a new technology this helps in the enhancement of injected vaccines. This vaccine patch is used when other routes of administration are not safe. This vaccine patch helps in delivery of vaccines in new and effective ways which are faster and require low or few doses. What this vaccine patch does is it boosts cellular immunity and stimulates both B and T cells. These vaccine patches are put on the skin surface. The langerhans cells present on the skin get activated and carry the antigen vaccine and they take it to the lymph nodes .this is how the vaccine patch helps in the immune response.
Japanese encephalitis is a viral disease caused by a flavivirus which is a type of virus. It is spread through an infected mosquito. In most cases, the illness is mild; with symptoms such as high temperature and headaches .There are also serious cases like seizures and encephalitis which can be developed. After human immunodeficiency virus infection, Japanese encephalitis may be the leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. The first outbreak of this virus was reported in 1924 in Japan and Korea. (http://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/p0000008/p0000008.asp)
Since Japanese encephalitis is caused by a flavivirus it can affect both animals and humans. This virus is mostly transferred from animals to humans .this virus cannot be passed from person to person. The following diagram shows the transmission cycle of Japanese encephalitis virus.
The vaccine produced for Japanese encephalitis by intercell is approved in USA, Canada, Australia and Europe. The vaccine consists of a purified inactivated JE virus strain .the vaccine is purified and formulated using Vero cells .This vaccine does not contain gelatin or any other stabilizers and it is also in a liquid form which is ready to use.
In the clinical trials JE vaccine showed overall clinical safety, higher potency, a higher persistency and patient convenience. This vaccine was also a success in the prevention of JE virus in children. Intercell produces the Japanese Encephalitis vaccine, IXIARO.