In The Human Skull Biology Essay

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In the human skull and at the base of the brain, are the locations of the pituitary gland which is small gland that look like a bean shaped. It's sits behind the bridge of the nose. (Mayfield clinic, 2009) These glands are divided into three sections which are known as anterior lobe, intermediate lobe and the last one is posterior lobe. These entire three lobes secreted different type of hormones that will controls different type of function in human body. (Regina Bailey, nd) Pituitary gland is responsible to control the functions of entire other endocrine glands in the body and that's why this gland known or called as a master gland. (Alice Brown, 2011)

There are six major hormones that are secreted by the anterior lobe. Every type of hormones secreted produces different type of functions which affects our body.

Growth hormone (GH)

Helps to control body growth in human body as well as for maintaining the composition of a healthy body especially for the bone mass and the muscle mass. (Alice Brown, 2011)

Prolactin hormone

Stimulate breast development to produce milk for nursing purposes. It is also affects the sex hormone level for sexual satisfactions and relaxation in man and women, which is being an indicator. (Wikipedia, nd)

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

TSH stimulate the thyroid gland to make the Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) to control body metabolism.(Dr.Joshua Bederson,nd)

TSH playing a role in converting the food to use as energy in human body.(Jennifer A.Philips, 2001)

TSH also are responsible for regulating our body temperature. (Jennifer A.Philips, 2001)

Luitenizing hormone (LH)

Stimulation of the ovulation and also corpus luteum development are produced from this hormone. Other than that it is also responsible for stimulation of the Leydig Cell production of testosterone in men. (Rajin Singha,2011)

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

According to Mayo clinic,2011, FSH that released from the anterior lobe of pituitary gland are responsible for stimulating growth of the ovarian follicle including the pubertal maturation and also reproductive process of the body. When the follicle getting bigger or develop the estrogen hormones will be increased and automatically transfer to the bloodstream. Then the function of the estrogen is to thicken the endometrium before the ovulation occurs.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

This hormone stimulating the adrenal cortex to stimulate the formation of steroid hormones in the adrenal gland like cortisol hormone which is responsible to control homeostasis such as blood sugar level,immune response,central nervous system activation, blood pressure, and also anti-inflammatory actions.( University of California San Franscisco UCSF,2012) , (Dr. james L .wilson, 2011)

Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that called neurohypophysis and known to secreted two types of hormones:

Oxytocin hormone (OT)

OT hormone function is for uterine contractions which is use after distension of the cervix of vagina during labor. Other than that this hormone are responsible for lactation acting to Stimulating the nipples to produce milk for breast feeding that very important for the new born. (Rajib Singha, 2011)

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Another name is vasopressin that is important for regulating water balance in human body which will increase the absorption of water into the blood by kidneys. In addition, this hormone also effect the vascular spasm by causing the widespread constriction of arterioles that result in increased arterial pressure. The raises blood pressure in arterioles affected by the high concentrations of ADH. (R.Bowen, 2006) , (Wikipedia, nd)

Intermediate lobe is the lobe that being a boundary between the posterior lobe and also the anterior lobe. Other names of this lobes is pars intermedia. This lobe are responsible only for the melanocyte formation or melanocyte stimulating hormone which is skin cells that contain the black pigment. Unfortunately, pars intermedia is exist only during the fetal development that is recognized in earliest stage of adulthood. After that the posterior lobe and the anterior lobe will responsible for every hormone that secreted from the connection between hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (Rajib Singha, 2011)

The third lobe is posterior lobe that also known as neurohypophysis. Compared to the anterior lobe, this lobe only responsible to secretes two type of hormones, which is antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin. (Rajib Singha, 2011) Oxytocin hormone functions are for stimulation of the nipples for breast feeding and also important for distension of the cervix or allow the musle of the uterus to contract and help the baby out during labor. (Rajib Singha, 2011) ADH hormone, responsible for decreasing amount of urine that excreted and at the same time will work to increase the absorption of water into the blood by the kidneys. (Rajib Singha, 2011)

Definition of Pituitary adenoma

Pituitary adenoma is a tumour that grows from the pituitary gland and the tumour is called an adenoma which is a benign tumour. Mostly this tumour arises or grows from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and disturbs its normal function. The larger the tumour growth at the lobe the more its change the production of the hormones. (Mayoclinic,2011) Pituitary tumour can be divided into two categories, which is functional tumours and non-functional tumours. Functional tumours, is a tumour that interfere with the normal hormone regulation process and also secrete abnormal amount of hormones. If the tumour disturbing the prolactin hormone secretions, then we called it prolactinoma. The second category which is non-functional tumours do not secreting hormones. But, the tumour getting bigger and larger that will causing vision loss because the tumour suppress the optic nerves. Besides that, it is also can give us headache, nausea, vomiting or more serious will fatigue. (Mayfield clinic, 2009)

Causes of pituitary adenoma

The causes of uncontrolled cell in the pituitary gland are still unidentified and remain unknown. (Krisha,2012) Research that was done until now, only showing that these disease are not inherited for common pituitary adenomas. However, there are cases that known as familial pituitary tumours which is high probability in getting pituitary adenoma. Even though some research said that these disease may be inherited, but it is rare happen. The common pathology from the familial pituitary tumours types are gigantism and acromegaly. (UCLA, 2012)

Symptoms of pituitary adenoma

The symptoms of pituitary adenoma are divided to two categories, whether the tumours are functional tumour (hormone producing) or non-functional tumour (clinically non-functioning). (UCLA, 2012)

Functional tumours occur when there are abnormal secretions of the hormone whether excessive or low that will disturbing the normal function of the hormone process. According to Mayfield clinic, 2009, state that the tumour is named according to the part or origin of the tumour produce. For instance, prolactinoma disease is coming from abnormal secretions of prolactin hormones.

However non-functional tumours affect the normal process by the size of the tumour. The bigger the tumours the more its compress or suppress the others organ near it. Larger tumour can give a big problem to the eyes by pressing the optic nerves and can lead to vision loss or in simple word blind. (UCLA, 2012)

The functional tumour

Prolactin-producing tumours. This is the most common type of pituitary tumour known as prolactinoma. Prolactinoma occur because of excessive production of prolactin hormone. In women it may cause menstruation process to stop or irregular periods time occur, and at the same time lead to loss of milk production for breast feeding purposes. Because of this disease too, they may loss of libido or loss interest in sex. (medicinenet.com, nd) Very high production of prolactin hormone in men may cause enlarged breast and erectile dysfunction. If this hormone production continuously secreted in abnormal level, they will face infertility problems. Same with women, men also having low sex drive, which is one of the symptoms having a prolactinoma disease.(Mayfieldclinic,2012)

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