Importance Of Parasitic Zoonoses Biology Essay


Recently, Parasitic Zoonoses have become the most important in many parts of the world. These infections are now spreading globally and increasing every year regarding to the interaction between human and animal, migration, intensification of agriculture, habitat devastation, and changes in world trade patterns. McCarthy and Moore (2000) pointed that the possible reasons for emergence of Helminth zoonoses is "the social and environmental change, variety of dietary or culture, advancing in diagnostic laboratory can recognized the neglected infectious agent" An outbreak of parasitic zoonoses have many impacts on public health as well as economy in developing countries especially in tropical countries. Some zoonotic parasites can cause the production losses in livestock production in most countries of the world leading to the global economic problems.

Parasitic zoonoses are associated with human dietary, behavior and relationships with different animal species. These zoonotic infections represent significant problems in public health, animal agriculture and conservation, and the meat industry (Graczyk, 2005). Parasitic zoonoses include protozoa infection, helminthic infections and arthropod infestation. The most significant parasitic zoonoses are shown in the table 1.

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The risks of zoonotic infection are related with immune response of each individual. Immune responses for different organism are different in individual due to personal factors like age, sex, ethic group, genetic and frequencies of contact with pathogen. Healthy adult with normal immune response can acquire zoonotic infectious disease every time exposing to the pathogen. In many cases, their immunological response would eliminate the infection, preventing any clinical signs of disease depending on the virulence of organisms (Carithers 2002).

People with high frequency contact with infected animal such as animal handles and food industry operatives are a greater risk of infections, they seem to have low resistance to infections than those of the hygiene group. Children and elderly people with infirmly are more likely susceptible for infections due to incomplete function of their immune system (Shakespeare, 2002).

The most risk group of infection and transmitted disease are the patients with problem of immune response. Both of immunosuppressed and immunocompromised patients are more risk from a wide range of zoonotic infection disease as well as patients associated with organ failure, organ transplants and patient under chemotherapeutics treatments (Wilson et al. 1996). Another risk group, pregnant women are a risk group of acquiring specific virulence zoonotic parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii which can transmit through placenta to infect unborn baby (congenital transmission).

Although, the risk group could not carry out all of pathogen but people in all most risk group would be screened regularly for any infection to reduce the chance in carries zoonotic infectious disease.

Parasitic Zoonoses of Domestic Animal

Recently, pets have played important roles in human daily life, they have been kept as friend and also offer many benefits such as improve development in children (Endenburg and Baarda 1995) as well as therapeutic assistant in elderly people (Hart 1995). Moreover Pets can be trained for develop a good habit and provide help in an emergency condition. Cats and dogs are the most popular companion animals with their faithful and playful characteristics. Many family keep cats and dogs as a family members.

Although pets have many advantages to human, there are health impacts associated with owning a pet, for instance, animal bites and allergy to pets. However, they have been reported as a reservoir host of a wide range of zoonotic infectious agents (Schantz, 1989). Around 30-40% of zoonotic pathogens have been found in dogs and cats (Greene and Levy 2006). Schantz had also reported that the potential health risk to humans of zoonotic infectious disease carried by pet dogs and cats remains a significant problem in most parts of the world.

Several species of parasite in pets are identified as a zoonotic parasite, it can be transmitted to human host accidentally when contacting with infective stages (Glickman and Magnaval 1993; Smyth 1995). Lack understanding of zoonotic diseases and potential risk from pets causes pet owners unaware of the risk of parasitic zoonoses transmissible from their pets (Schantz 1989).

Parasitic Zoonoses of Cats

Toxocariasis and Toxoplasmosis are the most significant recognised as parasitic zoonoses in cats, these diseases have a higher incidence in children and pregnant women. Cat Scratch disease is also a serious problem in immunocompromised individual (Shakespeare, 2002).

Cat Scratch disease

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Bartonella spp. have been identified as an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing cat scratch disease. This disease was recognized as a vector borne disease associated with rat fleas. Infected rat can carry the pathogen without any clinical sign, viable organisms are shed in rat urine. Cats are the main reservoir of this pathogen which transmission from cat to cat causes by fleas and subsequent bites (Chomel, 1996). This organism can be transmitted to human by cat scratch or bite infected animal (Chomel, 2004). There is no recent report on incidence rate of cat scratch disease. According to the survey in the United States, in 1992 found that approximately 22,000 to 24,000 humans developed cat scratch disease, of whom 2,000 were hospitalized (Jackson, 1993). These observations suggest that several thousand cases of cat scratch disease may occur every year in many countries (Chomel, 2004). This disease can be found more likely in children and immunocompromised individual with worldwide distribution.

Disease in Human

The initial primary lesion with round pink along the scratch appears at the injury site or after 10 days. Temporary tenderness and swelling of lymph node with some discomfort may develop. More serious disease approximately 15% can be found which central nervous system damage, osteomyelitis and involvement respiratory system. Symptom includes chronic or clinical fever joint and muscular pain and severe headache. Long term infection could be found viable organism in urine specimen.