Hypothetical Detection Procedures Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr Biology Essay



A human life could get affected by many infections that can further cause ailment and are referred to as the most frequent and known disorders. Micro organisms are being one of the major causes for suffering for humans from a long time.

There is a huge rise in the percentage that has caused deadly penalties to human lives with respect to the infectious illness or disorders. Estimates show that 50percent of the deaths were among those people that possessed infectious diseases. At an initial stage, the indication of such infections are more alike than flu with anaemia and ruthless body pain accompanying with laziness; but, as the time passes and the affected subject enters in the superior stages, the indications changes like weight loss, having a severe fever, which after some months causes the subject a sudden death. The indication which has been viewed from all samples of the infection shows that the major factor beyond its spreading is the physical contact that rapidly damages the human's defence system and receives a quick response as well - overall it is the resistant network of a human body or in other works the immune system that protects the human body.

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet


Essay Writers

Lady Using Tablet

Get your grade
or your money back

using our Essay Writing Service!

Essay Writing Service

1976 was the year when we witnessed an extreme increase in a disease in Africa that affected the human body. This was known as Ebola; the virus first found in two areas in the same year - the countries were Zaire and Sudan, according to an in-depth research of Jennifer L. Wilson (2000) and Victoria Wahl-Jensen et al (2004). The transfer of millions of lives to death that occurred between 1981 and 2000 were due to the presence of two major diseases - HIV and Aids. According to the analysis of Michael Madigan et al. (2002), there were 56 million lives that were found to be affected by HIV.

The disease is found in all human beings present in that particular region, as stated in epidemiological studies. However, the disease is hardly examined in the Afro-Caribbean, but it affects the lives of those who were having cultural similarities. The disease did not exist in people like children, middle aged and old fellows, and those were those who did not lie in the scope of teenage. This disease included those who were sexually attracted to either similar (homosexual) or the opposite gender (heterosexual). In contrast, the less percentage of affected people with this disease was found in the same sex attracted males.

Hypothetical Detection Procedures

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

The nature of the technique of polymerase chain reaction is referred as simple and has been applied all over in the laboratories globally as it is viewed with appropriate progress in the community of the biological science. However, it is referred as a simple technique, although it has a greater influence on the technique as well. It has also been considered that it is not complex when analysis was done on the variation of the pathogen sequence.

The intensification of the DNA fragments is a major part of the method on which the PCR technique depends upon, and the DNA fragments are collected from a set in which the samples of our interest can be found. The RNA viruses repeat with many viruses; hence, which is advantageous for this technique on gathered sample of the virus. The thing which should be remembered to get the RNA from its sample need to be changed to DNA; and this could be done by consuming transcriptase enzyme. This transcriptase enzyme was created by some firms, which depicted 100% correctness as it was customized from the real origination of the enzyme, which is much helpful in copying of the DNA for an RNA genome, as according Trent et al (2005).

The significance of the series, for say Magnesium demanded some reagents for the intensification methods. According to Erlich et al (1991), the entail circumstances for the PCR technique prepared, so that the recognition of pathogen can move on.

Analysing on Basis of Phenotypic and Genotypic Tests

For either phenotypic or genetic methods for the diagnostic techniques of such exams could be sorted in accordance. Furthermore, after the origination of genotypic tests by molecular scientists, the ordinary method has been drifted away by this test as it is a rapid procedure and is opted by all laboratories globally due to this fact. Nevertheless, the most highlighted con is its huge cost that is incurred as compared to the other techniques.

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet


Writing Services

Lady Using Tablet

Always on Time

Marked to Standard

Order Now

Many years had witnessed phenotypic tests as a paradigm route for many laboratories in many incidents. In addition, it has been viewed as a less cost bearing technique, which became a main factor for its significance all over the world. On the contrary, there were also some matters that depict many disadvantages of this method as well, by which consideration could also get affected. According to the analysis of disadvantages by Trent et al (2005), this technique demands for a very well known person with full experience and skills for its operation, the results seemed to be very complex, much more time is required in accordance and for pathogens; let us say viruses has been growing for a big time span, is a nurturing culture, that may cause a physiological variation in their characteristics in comparison with the real aspects in the lifecycle.

DNA Analysing Testing

Humans are controlled by DNA. Deoxyribonucleic Acid controls everything, from the colour of one's skin to the fluttering of one's eye lids. This tendency for the DNA to control is quite obvious in viruses. In viruses, DNA controls everything, be it reproduction or viral attachment. This has enabled researchers to study the genetic makeup of viruses. This study provides researchers with an insight to the nature of a viral disease. Figuratively speaking, scientists can effectively breakdown and dissect the genetic material of the viral disease to glean an understanding of the "mechanism of action" of the disease. The DNA testing is now possible by various techniques, like hybridisation of the nucleic acid (Glick et al., 2003).

Hybridization of the nucleic acid (Glick et al., 2003) is one of the several techniques for the DNA testing. The recognition of the DNA binding technique has been instrumental in increasing men's health, autoimmunity, and the antibodies of each person.

Technology of Microarray

One bio molecular technique in particular developed in haste. This rapid development has not hampered the importance, effectiveness, or usefulness of the technique in question. The essential point to be pondered about this technique is that it is capable enough to analyse oligonucleotides (nucleic acid polymers), that may go up to the range of one million oligonucleotides per cm2.

The technique procedure is detailed as follows. The bounded DNA structure is spread on a solid smooth surface such as glass. There is no liquid penetration. For the best results, the actual DNA detection is performed in the computer (Trent et al., 2005).

The DNA probe that acts complimentary to the DNA sample on the glass is a set of oligonucleotides or cDNA. Radioactive labels have already been banded to the probe, thus, a result may be observed. Fluorescein is an alternative method to radioactive labels for analysis. This is considered as the more effective of the two methods for it yields instant results and pristine illustrations.

This technique is particularly useful in the current scenario. A sample is taken from both, a healthy and an infected person, hence, making it effective. A greater versatility is achieved by the freedom to select individual genes or a particular group of them on the Microarray slide. Analysis of the two samples provides a basis for comparison by ensuring that the definite genes are expressed (Trent et al., 2009).

A suitable interference is generated by the results of the collected information regarding genes expression; therefore, the disease's mechanisms first move would be provided.

Cell Culturing Techniques

Cell culturing has been in use since the 19th century and is now considered common. It was often the first step in diagnosing infections. However, there is an exception as some cultures allow the growth of viruses especially if the infectious agent was a virus. Mediums are vastly different in relation to one another. The growth nutrient is perfect example as several mediums contain more than one. On the other hand, this is not present in other mediums, making medium configuration very important. Post-decisions of the correct medium optioned cells are grown, before which, the decision regarding the right medium has been taken. Thereafter the involved virus is analyzed and identified. Certain psychological factors affect cell in particular ways, particularly their growth. Examples being pH scale in the media and salt concentration are some of the pondered upon (Warrell et al., 2005).

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

This Essay is

a Student's Work

Lady Using Tablet

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Examples of our work

However, this technique is accompanied with a lot of disadvantage that has been stated below:

We see a reduction in the number of growth

It will take considerable time to grow the culture

This technique involves using equipments, materials, and proper and frequent maintenance that is not economical, rather quite expensive.

It is not easy to identify some of the viruses instantly, for instance, Chlamydia virus can be instantly identified (Zareen et al., 2009)

Immunological Testing Procedures

This technique is useful as pathogens display an exception in their structure. It is dependent on the natural tendency for antigen's and antibody's formation in the presence of a pathogen (Glick et al., 2003). The pathogen existence can be only evidenced in the spectrophotometer device seeking the complex attached to the definite substrate. These are identified when production of complex is followed with the absorption of this compounded.

ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) is the smoothest technique in immunological properties improvement. Many laboratories apply this technique as it is regarded as a reliable technique. To succeed, the site of the attachment must be known for, otherwise, it doesn't work. Furthermore, secondary banding which is vital for the banding between the main antibody and another antibody to the enzyme, like Alkaline Phosphates enzyme. The secondary banding follows the washing process. The reaction during banding is easily seen. Scientists simply identify such kind of reaction that is occurring when branding procedure is undertaken. (Zackrisson G et al., 1986)

Treating Process

Eradication of the causes of the disease that may be due to a parasite, virus or bacteria and treating the appearing symptoms during the infection period would be the most preferred manner of curing this scenario disease. Furthermore, procedures which are graded under the molecular biology research such as genotypic methods and bioinformatics method (a comparison of the obtained sequences with the database sequence) aid in the treating process (Warrell et al., 2005).

Other factors, in addition to those mentioned above that may affect the developing of the treatment are as follows:

A way devised to interrupt the functioning of the regulatory cellular development, would prevent the spreading of the disease

Identify the involved pathogenic sequence in transcription and modify it in some way

Once the host cell has been identified, the infectious receptors should be blocked

If the bacteria causes the replication of the pathogens in the host cell then frustrate it. In this way the damage that has been caused to the host cell can be reduced. Nonetheless, if we can attribute pathogen to a virus infection, then it is very important to prevent the virus that is connected with the host cell.

A sequence for the pathogen genome should be constructed.

Several expectations of the diseases that might cause the appeared symptoms

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

Definition of Disease

Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic disease as well as an inflammatory infection. It causes several disabilities in a patient since it has a direct impact on the movement of the patient affects their everyday activities (Royal College of physicians, 2009).

Disease Symptoms

This disease that affects women more than men is usually found in middle aged people. The symptoms that appear include pain in the body and joints in specific, especially, in the wrist joints and finger joints. The impact of the disease is equal on the left and the right side of the body; for example, if the right foot is infected, the left foot will have the same magnitude of pain as the right one. Also, because Rheumatoid Arthritis is believed to be an autoimmune disease, there are additional symptoms such as exhaustion and tenuousness fever. Other symptoms may also appear in some patients such as breathing difficulties caused by some problem in the lungs - another organ likely to be infected is the heart (Rheumatoid Arthritis and CAM, 2009).

Diagnosing of Disease

For the best diagnosis of the disease, its identification should be done in the early stages. In addition, some of the methods of treatment have an affect only after the early observation is made since some methods interrupt the disease procedures (Royal College of physicians, 2009; SIGN, 2000).

The diagnosis will aid in identifying if the infection is in the early stage or the later stages of infection (SIGN, 2000).

The blood samples that are received from a patient are used for the laboratory diagnostic tests. Either the testing of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) with an elevated rate result, or whether there is an infection by the rheumatoid arthritis disease or not or the testing of the C-Reactive Protein (CRP) with a high rate result as well. In the blood sample, the above test depends on the occurrence of the rheumatoid factors (SIGN, 2000).

Taking the example of the joints pain that might give some clues which proved the existence of the disease is by the clinical examination for the disease which would be on the appearing symptoms on the patient. For the presence of the disease, evidence is considered for the ulcers that come out in radiological examination (SIGN, 2000).

Treating Disease

We also see the fact about early identification of the disease as the disease develops to a higher stage; it would influence the disease treating process. The physical function and wellbeing along with reducing the joint swelling to prevent the joint damage is the treatment designed to relieve the symptoms of pain. Through a diversity of combine, the designing of treatment was proceeding. "Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), biological response modifiers, and corticosteroids are some of the drugs which are included in the conventional treatment that have been used against the rheumatoid arthritis. Basically, there are some programs that comprise of a number of exercises that may give the patient a good control. The physical devices that would alleviate the pressure on the joints are some of the other types of treatments that involve a physical therapy. Patients also have to adjust their daily eating habits to a prepared nutrition diet that not affects their health along with lessen the stress that affect their emotional as well as change their life activity Rheumatoid Arthritis and CAM, 2009).


Definition of Disease

Leukaemia has an effect on the bone marrow and would start in the blood - it is also considered as one of the types of cancers. One of the essential groups of malignant bone marrow neoplasm's of myeloid precursors of white blood cells is acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML), AML-M5 is basically the popular type of leukaemia and this is usually observed in children who are below 2 years of age (Arnauld C. Verschuur, 2004).

Disease Symptoms

Fever, paleness in the colure of the skin, dizziness and the symptoms of respiratory are some of the symptoms which are related to the disease that usually take place. The appearing disorder in the coagulation process along with bleeding, some neurological confusion and gingival hyperplasia are some of the disease symptoms which are thought to be more accurate and adamant (Arnauld C. Verschuur, 2004).

Diagnosing of Disease

We can see that the sample was observed with a positive cancer existence where the number of the white blood cells would be abnormally increased where the laboratories diagnostic tests will be on the patient blood sample analysing, which would gradually determine the number of the white blood cells where it is also seen that when analysing anaemia, most of the patients shows in their blood. Where the aspirate of the bone marrow is involved, there is another diagnostic method - including the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), there is another diagnostic procedure. Tests are thought to the falling rates of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (Arnauld C. Verschuur, 2004).

Treating Disease

Via a concentrated multidrug chemotherapy treatment, the treating procedures are treated in the same way as other cancer diseases. As of a well-matched donor, a number of cases might require a transplantation of an allogeneic bone marrow (Arnauld C. Verschuur, 2004).