-Hypoglycemic Potency of Dried Fruits of Eucalyptus globules and Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria. Abstract: The Comparative study on hypoglycemic potency of the petroleum ether extract, alcoholic extract and aqueous extract of the powder mixture of dried fruits of Eucalyptus globules and rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria in a ratio of 10:1 was investigated using normal albino rats. The extract produced a significant hypoglycemic activity in dose dependant manner. The highest oral dose tested (600mg/kg, aqueous extract) produced significant hypoglycemic activity when compared with that of standard Glibenclamide (180µg/kg). The results of biochemical estimation were reported as mean ± S.E.M. The total variation present in the data was analyzed by one way Analysis of Variance (ANNOVA). It may be concluded that from these studies the extract prepared from the above mentioned formulation possess potential hypoglycemic activity.
Key words: Anti diabetic, Eucalyptus globules, Curcuma zedoaria, rats.
The Diabetes mellitus is a silent killer, the prevalence of diabetes increases with age in both sexes and is consistently higher in men than in women of 20-49 year of age.1 It is a syndrome associated with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, polyuria, polyphagia, polydypsia, ketosis, nephropathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular disorders.2 Diabetes mellitus has tremendous impact on health and is one of the leading causes of death in developed and in developing countries. As on date about 1.7% of the world population has been estimated to suffer from diabetes mellitus and is expected to rise to 3.6% by the year 20253 and in many places like United States, India, the number of cases may double by 2030.
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In uncontrolled diabetic subjects, the major problem is secondary complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, ketoacidosis and foot ulcers etc4. Hence there is very much need to keep tight glycomic control to prevent many secondary complications. In modern medicine, there is a treatment but with lot of complications. Though insulin therapy is used for the management of diabetes mellitus but there are several drawbacks like insulin resistance5, anorexia, nervosa, brain atrophy and fatty liver.6 chronic treatment with sulfonylureas and biguanides are also with side effects.7
Hence, there is a need to explore other alternative therapies like Ayurveda, Unani and Homeopathic formulations which are believed to be effective, safe and economical.
Eucalyptus globules is a big tree, though indigenous to Tasmania it is also found densely in sub tropical countries including India. The biological activities reported contained in the different parts of this plant are mainly the leaves, flowers and bark. However, no literature is available about any biological activity contained in the fruits of this plant. The literature survey about biological activity of this plant mainly highlights the anti diabetic activity contained in leaves. Hence it is also probable that the fruits may also contain the proposed activity.
Curcuma zedoaria is a dried rhizome and its plant is a small deciduous which has its stem grown under soil commonly known as rhizomes. The other varieties of this plant are used as condiments, flavoring agent and colouring agent. The essential oil contained in the rhizome processes antimicrobial and antifungal activity.
In this context an effort has been proposed to evaluate the anti-diabetic potency of mixture of powders of Eucalyptus globules fruits and Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes (10:1). It is one of the most widely used remedy for diabetes mellitus in unani practice, but no scientific validation has been attempted as on date. In view of this, the present study was taken up for the evaluation of hypoglycemic activity in normal rats.
Materials and Methods
Glibenclamide was a gift sample procured from Zydus Cadila, Ahmedabad. Ethanol, petroleum ether and Gum Acacia powder were procured from Sd fine-chemicals, Mumbai. The fruits of Eucalyptus globules and rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria were collected locally and authenticated by Prof. Veda Vyas, Dept. of Botany, L.V.D. College, Raichur, Karnataka. The coarse powder mixture of the dried fruits and rhizomes was subjected to exhaustive continuous hot extraction using Soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether, alcohol and Water. The obtained masses were dried and stored in an airtight container in refrigerator for further use.
About 30 albino rats (either sex) of mean weight 150-200g were used for each extract in these experiments. The animals identified to be used in any particular study were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for one week and then included in the experimental groups. During the period, the animals were allowed free access to food and water. Rats were randomly allocated to groups of 6 animals each. The animal experiments were approved by the ethics committee of the institute.
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The rats were divided into 5 groups with minimum 6 rats in each.
Group-I: Normal control (receives only 2% of Gum acacia)
Group-II: Standard (receives Glibenclamide 180µg/kg)
Group-III: Petroleum ether extract treated group (300mg/kg orally)
Group-IV: Alcoholic extract treated group (500mg/kg orally)
Group-V: Aqueous extract treated group (600mg/kg orally)
After the administration of drugs blood samples were withdrawn at regular intervals till 24 h for determining blood glucose levels.
All values were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. The total variation present in the data was analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANNOVA) followed by student T-test. P values less than 0.05 were considered as significant.
Results and Discussion
Table 1: Combined data of % blood glucose reduction of all the extracts, standard (Glibenclamide) and Gum acacia in Normal albino rats:
Pet. Ether Extract (300mg/kg)
Alcoholic Extract (500mg/kg)
Aqueous Extract (600mg/kg)
2% of Gum acacia.
All values were expressed as mean ± S.E.M.
*P<0.01, highly significant when compared with Normal control.
Figure 1: Comparison of % blood glucose reduction produced by different drugs with Normal albino rats.
After stabilizing the blood-glucose concentration of fasted animals for 18 h, the concentration of glucose in blood was found in between the range of 70-85 mg/dl and was considered as hypoglycemic and was selected for experiment. Blood was withdrawn and blood glucose was estimated at time 0 h. Then the animals were administered with standard and different doses of petroleum ether, alcoholic and aqueous extract then subsequently blood was withdrawn at regular intervals i.e. 1h, 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h, 18h and 24h and blood glucose was estimated. The results produced by aqueous extract at a dose of 600mg/kg (high dose) were very near to the standard (Glibenclamide). The combined values are shown in table 1 and graphically represented in figure 1.
In this experiment five groups of animals were selected and fasted prior to the experiment. After completion of the fasting period one group is kept aside which receives only 2%Gum acacia suspension, the second, third, fourth and the fifth groups receives Glibenclamide (standard), petroleum ether, alcoholic and aqueous extracts respectively at a dose of 300mg/kg body weight, 500mg/kg body weight and 600mg/kg body weight. After the administration of the drugs blood was withdrawn at regular intervals and estimated for glucose concentration. The results produced by the aqueous extract at a dose of 600mg/kg were found very near to the standard Glibenclamide and the results are shown in the tables 1. From the above discussion it can be attributed that the hypoglycemic activity of the extracts are associated with pancreatic and extra pancreatic effects in animals8. The pancreatic effects may result because of stimulation of islets of langerhans and which results in the release of Insulin into the blood stream as that of sulfonyl ureas, the second possible mechanism may be that they delay the uptake of the glucose from the intestine as that of Biguanides, or the other possible mechanism is that it sensitizes the Insulin which enhances the action in liver and muscles as that of the Thiazolidinediones derivatives, etc. The literature survey reveals that Eucalyptus globules possess antihyperglycemic8, antibacterial9, antiinflammatory10 and Curcuma zedoaria possesses antifungal11, antiallergic12 and antitumor13 activities. Phytoconstituents which reduces the blood glucose levels were not known clearly in the test extract. Our results have shown that the crude extracts of 10:1 ratio powders mixture of fruits of Eucalyptus globules and rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria possess blood glucose lowering effect in normoglycemic rats.