Hyper Thermia Means A Temperature Higher Biology Essay

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Hyper thermia means a temperature higher than the normal body temperature. The temperatures can be up to 113 F .Its application is a therapy used in medical field in this therapy the body tissues are exposed to high temperatures ranges at which the (hyper mitotic) tumor cells are destroyed or made more sensitive to the other cancer treatments e.g. radiation or chemotherapy etc. It is mostly used as an adjuvant therapy.

"It has been shown that increased heat has made cancer cells more responsive to radiation," says Theodore L. DeWeese, MD, professor and chairman of the department of radiation oncology and molecular radiation sciences at The Sydney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore, Maryland.

TYPES: 1. EXTERNAL: heat applied from outside body e.g. by microwaves, ultrasound, radiofrequencies etc.

2. INTERNAL: substances acting as heat source for body are inserted in the body.

Other 3 major Types are:

Local hyperthermia ( external, intraluminal and interstitial)

regional hyperthermia (DEEPTISSUE ,regional perfusion, continuous hyperthermia peritoneal perfusion )

whole-body hyperthermia

BENEFITS :

synergy with chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation

low host toxicity

ease of control (heating precisions in the range of ±0.1°C and specific definable localized areas)

low resistance (chemotherapeutic and hyperthermic resistance).

Here are some views of scientists regarding benefits of hyperthermia:

"The patients receiving the targeted heat therapy fared better on all outcome measurements," Prof Issels said. "Almost three years after starting treatment, they were 42% less likely to experience a recurrence of their cancer at the same site or to die than those who were getting chemotherapy alone, surviving an estimated 120 months before local progression of their disease, compared with an estimated 75 months. Similarly, the average length of time that patients remained disease free was 32 months in the group that got both treatments, compared with 18 months in the group that got chemotherapy alone - an improvement of 30%." http://www.bichercancerinstitute.com/hyperthermia_resources.html

A new article in Current Option in Oncology Current Option in Oncology 2008, 20: pages 438-443.has highlighted the use of BSD Medical's BSD-2000 hyperthermia system in treating patients with high risk soft tissue sarcomas.

The article entitled "Regional hyperthermia in high-risk soft tissue sarcomas" was authored by Rolf D Issels, MD, PhD of the University Hospital Medical Center Grosshadern and Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich, Germany. The author stated that, "The rationale for the combination of cytotoxic drugs with hyperthermia (increase of temperature in the range of 40 to 44 degrees C) is based on experimental and clinical evidence that heat increases killing of cells by direct thermal toxicity and shows thermal enhancement of drug efficacy."

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4121773&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4121773

ADVERSE EFFECTS;

One of the challenges in this therapy is delivering the appropriate amount of heat to the correct part of the patient's body and controlling the temperature

Externally applied may have following risks: blisters heal quickly and burns which do not. Pain, fatigue, blood clots, swelling, bleeding etc.

Whole body hyperthermia may cause severe conditions like diarrhea, CVD (cardiovascular diseases) vomiting nausea sunburn etc. overheating may result into damage to surrounding tissues and if ruptures then toxicity.

If used conscientiously it has no serious side effects.

Everyone's Guide to Cancer Therapy; Revised 5th Edition: How Cancer Is Diagnosed, Treated, and Managed Day to Day. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing. pp. 98-100.

Dr med Peter Wolf, 2008, Innovations in biological cancer therapy, a guide for patients and their relatives, page 33

Gian F. Baronzio (2006). "Introduction". Hyperthermia In Cancer Treatment: A Primer (Medical Intelligence Unit). Berlin: Springer.

MECHANISM :

Over heating of cancer cells causes lack of oxygen leading to overcalcification of heated tumor cells and causing lack of nutrients lading to disruption of metabolic process of cells resulting in apoptosis (cell death). When used with other therapies it slows down the cell process and causes alteration in cell wall by heatshockproteins and so cancer cells react effectively to the therapies.

Increase in heat causes increase in blood flow to warmed area doubling the perfusion in tumor cells by many folds enhancing the effect of medication to these areas Carolyn Freeman; Halperin, Edward C.; Brady, Luther W.; David E. Wazer (2008). Perez and Brady's Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 637-644.

Dollinger, Malin (2008). Everyone's Guide to Cancer Therapy; Revised 5th Edition: How Cancer Is Diagnosed, Treated, and Managed Day to Day. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing. pp. 98-100.

USE OF GLODINIUM IN HYPERTHERMIA THERAPY:

IN article

Gadolinium(3+)-doped mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a potential magnetic resonance tracer for monitoring the migration of stem cells in vivo. By Shen Y, Shao Y, He H, Tan Y, Tian X, Xie F, Li L.

The scientists investigated the tracking potential of MRI probe made of gadolinium-doped mesoporous silica MCM-41 (Gd(2)O(3) @ MCM-41) nanoparticles in vivo.

This study confirmed that these particles can be the ideal vector for long term MRI tracking of mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells.

Application of nanoparticles in hyperthermia http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/24593/InTech-Cancer_treatment_with_hyperthermia.pdf

The use of magnetic nanoparticles can overcome the difficulty in spatial adjusting of power absorption by cancerous tissue. Use of magnetic materials in hyperthermia was first proposed in 1957 (Gilchrist R. K., et al. 1957)

Magnetic Hyperthermia :

Magnetic field is used in this technique for killing cancer cells. The temperature range is 42-46 C. Magnetic materials used are ferro-, ferri- magnetic and super paramagnetic. The magnetic materials are made with nanometer size so called Magnetic Nanoparticle (MNP) these can enter the cancerous cells (diameter range 10 to 100 micrometers). Their heat capacity depends on; magnetocrytalline anisotropy, particle size and microstructure.

Ne´ el explained it as: Magnetic nanoparticles are designed to selectively be absorbed in tumor. Once the materials are in the tumor, they agitate under an alternating magnetic field generating heat within tumor. Heat generation is because of moment relaxatiomechanical rotation, leading to the destruction of tumor cells.

Supraparamagnetic nanoparticles are ideal for hyperthermia cancer treatments so they do not aggregate and so do not hinder to remove nanoparticles from body.

MOREOVER according to a scientist Koziara nanoparticles also significantly cross the BBB so used in treating Brain tumors.

Nano particles can also be combined with viruses 20-450nm in size, proteins 5-50nm in size and genes 10-100nm long. (Pankhurst).

MAGNETIC FLUID HYPERTHERMIA is technique in which the fluid with nanoparticles is injected in the body.

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