Human Sexuality And Genetic Reproduction Biology Essay

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Human sexuality involves many things. It cover the physical , biological and social aspect a person sexual behaviors. The sexual information and education council of the United States defines it as "encompassing the sexual knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors of individuals. Its various dimensions include, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry of the sexual response system; identity, orientation roles, and personality; and thoughts and feelings, and relationships. The expression of sexuality is influenced by ethical, spiritual, cultural and moral concern. (SIECUS 2005). Human sexuality is a very broad subject. It affects every single person differently. It changes they way they dress or the types of partners they choose. Certain people act a certain way to attract a certain type of partner and discourage ones they do not prefer. Physiologically and biologically we all feel arousal but how we act on that arousal is depends on your moral, culture and ethical values.

      The vagina is a part of the female reproductive genitalia.  It connects the external genitalia to the internal genitalia. It is a tube 8 to 10cm long that allows for the insertion of the penis during intercourse, discharge of menstrual fluid and pathway for delivering a baby.  It is located between the urethra and the rectum.  It has no gland but is lubricated by mucus through its walls and fluid from the cervix.  The vagina extends beyond the cervix and forms blind-ended spaces called fornices.  The lower end of the vagina has transverse friction ridges called vaginal rugae, which are there to stimulate the penis and help induce ejaculation.  At the opening of the vagina the mucosa folds inward and makes a membrane called the hymen, which stretches across the opening.   The hymen has one more opening to allow menstrual flow to pass through but it must be ruptured to allow the penis in it for intercourse. There is bleeding associated with the rupturing of the hymen.  The hymen can be ruptured by the insertion of tampons, intercourse, medical examination, and strenuous exercise.   

      The testes are the primary sex organs of males.  They are exocrine and endocrine glands.  They produce testosterone and sperm.  All healthy males have two testes.  They are held in a skin sack called the scrotum. Sperm are produced, stored, and delivered by the male reproductive system. The male reproductive system includes the testes, urethra, vas deferens, prostate gland, seminal vesicle, and penis. The testes contain coiled structures called seminiferous tubules, which are the sites of sperm production. They produce over 12 billion sperm per month. The epididymis lies on top of the seminiferous tubules. Immature sperm migrate from the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis to mature and be stored.

The mature sperm travel from the epididymis through the vas deferens. The vas deferens is a narrow, muscular tube about 18 inches long. Its smooth muscle contractions propel the sperm forward. They arrive first at the ampulla, the widest part of the vas deferens, and then pass into the ejaculatory ducts. In the ejaculatory ducts, a liquid secretion from the seminal vesicles mixes with the sperm. Seminal fluid contains fructose sugar, which the sperm use as fuel as well as alkalines, which help to counteract the naturally acidic environment of the vagina and uterus providing the sperm a better chance for survival. The liquid mixture is propelled forward through the ejaculatory ducts toward the urethra, passing first through the prostate gland, where milky prostatic fluid is added, forming the substance we call semen. The prostatic fluid helps the sperm swim faster, which is important for getting to the egg cell. Finally, about a teaspoon of semen is ejected out through the far end of the urethra at the end of the penis. From the time the sperm leave the man's body, they have between 12 and 48 hours to find and fertilize the egg cell, assuming an egg is available. Of the 300 million sperm ejaculated, only about 200 or so will survive to reach the egg cell and only one will succeed in fertilizing it. 

The secondary sex organ of a male is the penis.  The functions of the penis are to deposit semen in to vagina and to urinate.   It is usually eight to ten cm in length and three cm in diameter when it not erect.  When erect the penis is thirteen to eighteen cm long and four cm in diameter.   


 Prepuce also known as foreskin is a double-layered retractable piece of skin that hangs over the tip of the penis to protect the urinary opening when the penis is not erect.   Circumcision in Latin means to cut around. A circumcision is a surgical procedure that removes the foreskin covering the glans of the penis. Circumcision may be performed for religious ,cultural, or for health reasons. Newborn circumcision is thought to diminish the risk for cancer of the penis and lower the risk for cancer of the cervix in sexual partners. It is also believed to decrease the risk of urinary tract infections in infants and lower the risk of certain sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV. Some cons facing circumcision are that it prevents phimosis (the inability to retract the foreskin at an age when it should normally be retractable), paraphimosis (the painful inability to return the foreskin to its original location), and balanoposthitis (inflammation of the glans and foreskin). Also it increases the chance of meatitis (inflammation of the opening of the penis). Some of the benefits of circumcisons are decreased incidence of urinary tract infections, lower incidence of sexually-transmitted diseases and may reduce HIV transmission, lowers the risk for cancer of the cervix in sexual partners, decreases the risk for cancer of the penis.



      The function of the prostate is to store and secrete a slightly alkaline white in appearance that usually constitutes 25-30% of the volume of the semen along with spermatozoa and seminal vesicle fluid. The alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the acidity of the vaginal tract, prolonging the lifespan of sperm.  The prostatic fluid is expelled in the first ejaculate fractions together with most of the spermatozoa. In comparison with the few spermatozoa expelled together with mainly seminal vesicular fluid those expelled in prostatic fluid have better motility, longer survival and better protection of the genetic material.

      Prostatitis is a disease of the prostate gland that causes pain in the groin, painful urination, difficulty urinating and related symptoms. Prostatitis isn't a single condition but a group of disorders with related symptoms. Some forms of prostatitis are generally well understood those clearly related to bacterial infections and can usually be treated effectively. These types of prostatitis account for about 5 to 10 percent of all cases. There are four different types of Prostatitis but they have some common symptoms the all share which are pain or burning sensation when urinating, difficulty urinating, such as dribbling or hesitant urination, frequent urination, particularly at night, urgent need to urinate, pain in the abdomen, groin or lower back, pain in the area between the penis and rectum, pain or discomfort of the penis or testicles and painful ejaculations. 

      Prostate cancer is a cancer of the prostate symptoms related to it are urinary hesitancy, urinary dribbling, especially immediately after urinating, urinary retention, pain with urination pain with ejaculation, lower back pain, pain with bowel movement.   The major contributing factor for prostate cancer is age.  It is rare for a male under the age of forty to have it but once you pass the age of fifty the odds of acquiring it increase rapidly.  Race also plays factor African American males are at higher risk then others.  Family history plays a role also twenty five percent of males who have prostate cancer have a history of it in their family.  Diets high in animal fats which are found in red meat may be a contributing factor but further research is needed to prove it. 


I agree smegma must be washed away daily especially if you are not very sexually active. Smegma is there basically to help lubricate the foreskin to retract during an erection. If there were no smegma the foreskin would have to be retracted against other dry harsh skin causing pain. If not cleaned smegma collects under the foreskin and causes bad smell, inflammation and irritation. Just enough can smegma can be healthy. Smegma contains anti viral anti bacterial properties.

It is recommended that men between the ages of 15 to 40 start self examining there testes once a month for abnormal lumps or enlarged testicles. Self examinations are best performed after showers or bath when the scrotal muscles are relaxed. Standing with one leg on the ground and the other on an elevated surface roll each testicle between thumb and other fingers; feel the skin on top of each testicle making sure it rolls smoothly. Performing this every month familiarizes you with your testicles so it will be easy to feel for changes.

Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that begins within the testicles. The cancer cells no longer follow normal growth patterns. Although testicular cancer is rare, it is the most common type of cancer in men aged 15 to 35. It is much more common in Caucasians than in African Americans and usually is diagnosed when a man is in his teens to mid-30s. Thanks to advances in diagnosis and treatment, testicular cancer is among the most curable of cancers, even in an advanced stage, and it is rarely fatal. Over 90% of patients are diagnosed with small, localized cancers that are highly treatable. Improved detection and treatment techniques have raised the overall five-year survival rate above 95% for most of these cancers. Even if cancer has spread to nearby organs at diagnosis, patients have an excellent chance of long term survival. Men who have undescended testicles are at a higher risk for testicular cancer. Also men who have a family history of testicular cancer in their family have a greater risk of developing it.