House And Swimming Pool Building Biology Essay

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My previous report covers detailed design of the house and swimming pool building and this report covers some of the important aspects of design and construction of house and swimming pool building. Which includes deliberation of construction sequence, programme material take off, specification and communication of technical design and construction issues with client. The proposed house and swimming pool building floor plan shown on Fig 1.

Careful project sequence and scheduling improves efficiency, reduces cost, and lowers the potential for environmental problems. By developing construction sequence, we can coordinate building construction with other development activities so that all work can take place in an orderly manner and on schedule. A Description Break down of the Construction Sequence of proposed house and swimming pool building project are as follows:

Hoarding & temporary sign posting. The builder arranges for temporary electrical panel box. The water excess will be the plumber's responsibility. If you are in an area that requires septic systems, the county inspectors may be required by code to determine the location of these.

c) Clearing:

This involves clearing trees, roots, rocks, and debris from where the building will sit and usually ten feet around the site allowing space for tractors and trucks working at the site. Some or all of the dirt removed from the basement might be put out of the way for later backfilling and landscaping.

2) Construction

Swimming Pool Building

a.) Excavation

Excavation

The swimming pool hole should be excavated 2-3 meters wider than the swimming pool (min. 1m on each side) itself in order that enough space is insured for building and supoporting the formwork later on. When calculating the effective depth of the swimming pool it is important to add and to dig some extra 300 mm to the required pool's depth - this is for applying of both the laid concrete underneath the pool's bottom (usually around 50-70 mm) and the concrete pool bottom which is around 200 mm.

Excavation & Installation of Steel Strut : The soil is excavated to the first strut level. The first level strut is installed before the excavation proceeds further. The soil is excavated to the next strut level and the second level strut is installed. It continues till the excavation reaches the final depth or formation level. The number of strut levels depends on the depth of excavation.

Once the foundation is in and backfilled and tamped and possibly soil treated, the plumber needs to install the sewer line and water pipes that will be under the concrete. After completion of the excavation retaining wall and the basement slab will be kick off. The detail methods of excavations are as follows:

b) Swimming Pool Construction

The top of the slab should be at least 150 mm above the finish grade. There will be a base for the slab, gravel or crushed stone to form a layer 150 mm in depth. If poly goes down it is just prior to pouring the concrete. Sometimes it is recommended and expansion joints of fiber board are installed around the perimeter are subject to extreme temperature changes and concrete expands and contracts with those changes. The expansion joint permits this expansion without cracking the concrete.

In swimming pool tank construction watertight partial contraction joints incorporating a cast in dumb-bell water stop should be included and provide the natural breaks for -day work joints for the contractor. Tiles are applied direct to the concrete face. The latter will require a greater degree of accuracy by the contractor. Before commencing tiling work the concrete surface need to be prepared to provide adequate key for the adhesive.

c) M & E work

All electrical, plumbing, heating, air conditioning, phone pre-wires, stereo, intercom, and security systems should be installed as per M& E consultants drawings and specification.

d) Wall Construction

e) Roofing

f) Finishers

The finishing work (dry wall, Ceiling, skimming and painting)will start after finishing structural works.

g) Clean Up:

Internal and external clean up will occur during all phases of the building process.

House

a.) Piling

Position of Bored Pile

Wooden pegs are used to mark out the center position of each bored pile. The gap between two bored piles is typically between 100 to 200 millimetres.

Installation of Casing

The vibro-hammer drives a casing into the ground, leaving about 1 metre length of the casing protruding from the ground.

Augering of Borehole

The auger, a drilling tool, cuts and removes the soil within the casing to form a borehole. The soil surrounding the borehole is supported by the casing. If the casing is not long enough to reach the required depth in the ground, bentonite slurry is used to support the soil below the

Installation of Steel Cage

The crane lifts up the steel cage and places it within the borehole.

Concreting of Borehole

Concrete is poured into the borehole to form the bored pile.

Extraction of Casing

The vibro-hammer extracts the casing from the ground.

Repetition of Process

The same above process are repeated till the entire bored piles are completed.

b) M & E work

All electrical, plumbing, heating, air conditioning, phone pre-wires, stereo, intercom, and security systems should be installed as per M& E consultants drawings and specification.

c) Wall Construction

d) Precast flooring

e) Roofing

f) Finishers

The finishing work (dry wall, Ceiling, skimming and painting)will start after finishing structural works.

g) Clean Up:

Internal and external clean up will occur during and after all phases of the building process.

Based on this breakdown construction sequence, the construction programme been developed. The figure 3 shows construction programme.

3: MATERIAL TAKE OFF

A material takeoff is a list of building materials needed to construct the building. This list driven from a variety of sources and have varying degrees of accuracy. I have prepared material take off using drawings and specification. These lists can be used to get materials quote for different supplier and ordering of material on due time.

Swimming Pool

Building Element

Materials

Quantity

1

Retaining Wall - swimming pool

a

Form work

73.5 m2

b

Reinforcement

26.13 tones

c

Pudlo- water proof concrete

25.8 m2

2

Raft Slab-

a

Water proofing layer- Vandex

134.5 m2

b

Form work

19 m2

c

Reinforcement

48.17 tones

d

Pudlo-water proof concrete

47.5m3

3

Cavity Wall

a

Bricks

153.5 m2(18420 No's)

b

Concrete Blocks

152.6 m2 (1526 Nos )

c

DPC

50.4 m

d

Insulation

153.5 m2

e

Lintels

9 Nos

4

Metal Stud wall

a

Metal stud

73 m2

b

Insulation

73 m2

c

Plaster Board

150 m2

5

Ceiling

a

Timber Battens/ bearers

100 m

b

Plaster Board

134.5 m2

6

Roof

a

Roof Tiles

139.5 m2

b

Battens -25x38

450 m

c

Timber Joist -200 x 50mm @ 300 c/c C16 grade.

615 m

d

Insulation- CelotexXR 3000

130.5 m2

e

Roofing felt

30 L

f

Gutter - UPVC Half round Gutter.

51.5 m

House

Building Element

Materials

Quantity

1

Pile Foundation

Pile (450 dia)

a

Reinforcement

221.5 tones

b

Concrete

215 m3

2

Retaining Wall - Basement

a

Form work

97.5 m2

b

Reinforcement

35.2 tones

c

Pudlo- water proof concrete

32.5 m3

3

Raft Slab- Basement

a

Water proofing layer- Vandex

55.7 m2

b

Form work

11 m2

c

Reinforcement

27.5 tones

d

Pudlo-water proof concrete

19.5 m3

2

Pile cap and ground beam

a

Form work

220 m2

b

Reinforcement

91.5 tones

c

Concrete - Grade C30/37

88 m3

4

Hollow core precast slabs

a

Form work

265 m2

3

Cavity Wall

a

Bricks

425 m2

(51000 no's)

b

Concrete Blocks

425 m2

(4250 no's)

c

DPC

65.3 m

d

Insulation

425 m2

e

Lintels

55 Nos

5

Metal Stud wall

a

Metal stud

250 m2

b

Insulation

250 m2

c

Plaster Board

500 m2

6

Ceiling

a

Timber Battens/ bearers

100 m

b

Plaster Board

260 m2

7

Roof

a

Roof Tiles

285 m2

b

Battens -25x38

450 m

c

Timber Joist -200 x 50mm @ 300 c/c C16 grade.

615 m

d

Insulation- CelotexXR 3000

315 m2

f

Gutter - UPVC Half round Gutter.

67.5 m

4: STRUCTURAL SPECIFICATION

Structural Specification for Excavation

Desk top studies indicate that the underlying soil is clay.

Inspect all available drawings and make enquiries about existing services on site. Verify positions and depth of all services before commencement of work on site. Services which are being retained during any phase of the works are to be protected.

Before starting work verify with the Architect which existing fences, gates, walls, paved areas, trees, shrubs, hedges, bushes and any other site features are to be removed. Materials arising are to be removed from site.

Workmanship for excavating to comply with 8000: Part 1, sections 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3.

Where an excavation encroaches below a line drawn at an angle of 45° from the horizontal from the nearest formation level of another higher excavation, the lower excavation, all work within it and backfilling thereto must be completed before the higher excavation is made.

Make advance arrangements with the Building Control officer and/or Architect for inspection of

foundations and trenches requested at the beginning of the works

Remove the last 150mm of excavations just before inspection. Trim excavations to required profiles and levels, and remove all loose materials.

Unless otherwise instructed seal formations within four hours of inspection with concrete or other specified fill.

Backfill any excavations for foundations taken deeper than required with lean mix concrete.

Excavations other than foundations taken deeper than required may be backfilled with well graded granular material.

Hardcore to be granular material, free from harmful matter, well graded, passing a 75mm BS sieve and one of the following:

Crushed concrete, brick or tile, free from plaster or gravels. Spread and level both backfilling and general filling in layers not exceeding 150mm. Thoroughly compact each layer with a vibratory roller, vibrating plate compactor, vibro-tamper, power rammer or other suitable means appropriate to the area being worked.

Hardcore under ground bearing concrete slabs to be as above and not less than 150mm thick, unless noted otherwise on the drawings.

Excavate extra material as necessary. Increase thickness of hardcore as necessary to make up levels from stripped site levels to underside of slabs.

Surfaces over hardcore to receive sheet overlays or concrete to be blinded with sufficient sand or fine gravel to fill interstices and provide a close smooth surface (50mm min thickness), unless noted otherwise on the drawings.

Permissible deviations on surface level to be +0 -15mm.

Minimum void under suspended ground floors to be 225mm for precast concrete and 300mm for timber floors. Suspended in-situ concrete floors shall be cast over a suitable void former to provide a void of 150mm under the slab, unless noted otherwise on the drawings.

Structural Specification for Concrete

Materials and Workmanship are to comply with EC 2

Concrete for new foundations is to be designated mix FND 2 to BS 5328. "Suitable for Class 2

Sulphate conditions"

Concrete for reinforced concrete structures, including ground bearing slabs, is to be designated mix RC35 to BS 5328, unless noted otherwise on the drawings.

Ready mix concrete is to be used unless otherwise allowed by the Structural Engineer. This must be obtained from a plant which holds a current Certificate of Accreditation under the Quality Scheme for Ready Mix Concrete. Details of cement type, aggregate grading and sources, with chloride and sulphate content of mixes to be submitted to the Structural Engineer for his approval prior to ordering any concrete.

The use of site mixed concrete for structural elements may only be used following the written approval of the Structural Engineer. Batching and mixing equipment will need to comply with BS 1305 and BS 4251.

The Contractor is responsible for the design and installation of all formwork. Design and striking of the formwork is to be in accordance with BS 8110.

Do not place concrete when the ambient air temperature is less than 5°C.

All holes shall be formed and all inserts cast in at the time of pouring concrete. No part of the concrete works shall be drilled or cut away without the approval of the Structural Engineer.

Reinforcement shall be:

(i) plain bars to BS 4449, grade 250 (mild steel), prefix R on drawings and schedule. or

(ii) deformed bars to BS 4449, or BS 4461, grade 460 (high yield) type 2, prefix T on

drawings and schedules.

(iii) mesh to BS 4483. Reinforcement shall be fixed adequately using tying wire or steel clips. Concrete cover is to be as specified on the drawings. Chairs and spacers are to be provided by the Contractor as necessary to maintain the specified cover.

Unless noted otherwise on drawings, all reinforcement is to be lapped 50d (where d is diameter of the smaller bar).

The rate of sampling for compressive testing of concrete is to be agreed with the Structural Engineer prior to commencement of any concrete works.

Use mechanical vibration to fully compact concrete for structural elements. Compact concrete to full depth (until air bubbles cease to appear on the top surface), especially around reinforcement, cast-in accessories, into corners of formwork and at joints.

Before placing structural concrete (not blinding) on hardcore or other absorbent substrates lay building paper to BS 1521 class 3 or polythene sheet 250 microns thick. Lap edges 150mm. This is not a DPM - see architect's details for this.

Specification for Waterproof Concrete

All concrete (specify sections) shall be waterproofed by the addition of Cementaid EVERDURE CALTITE SYSTEM ingredients including CALTITE at the rate of 30 litres per cubic metre (or 6 US gallons per cubic yard) and SUPTERPLASTET at the manufacturer's recommended rate. The cement content of EVERDURE CALTITE concrete shall not be less than 350 kgs per cubic metre (or 595 lbs per cubic yard). The water content shall be reduced to adjust for the CALTITE and SUPERPLASTET and maintain the required workability, however the water/cement ratio must not exceed 0.45. A trial mix must be conducted prior to construction. Cement content is to be stated on the premix concrete dockets.

Performance Specification for Waterproof Concrete

All concrete (specify areas) shall conform with all specified requirements and also the following:

The cement content of the concrete shall be no less than 350 kilograms per cubic metre.

• The concrete shall contain Cementaid SUPERPLASTET or proven equal and approved high

range water reducer such that the free water/cement ratio shall not exceed 0-45 and the

concrete will be of adequate workability for placement.

• The concrete shall contain Cementaid CALTITE or proven equal and approved in writing, time

prove hydrophobic pore-blocking ingredient at the rate of 30 litres per cubic metre such that

the concrete shall have a corrected 30 minute water absorption of not greater than 1.0% as

measured by BS 1881 : Part 122 : 1983 except that the age at test shall be 7 days.

• Any admixture or ingredient other than cement, aggregate or approved water-reducing

admixture, used by the contractor to comply with the absorption requirement must be shown

by independent authority to have had no reduction in water-repellency after field exposure for a minimum of 15 years.

• Admixture must contain no chlorides. The supplier shall satisfy the Engineer that any

admixture or ingredient used, or their combination, does not detrimentally affect the strength or other properties of the concrete.

5: CLIENT LETTER

Client Question

While excavation of swimming pool, it is been hit solid rock above bottom of swimming pool. Write a letter to the client explaining how to overcome this problem.

Date: 03/03/11

Dear Sir,

Re: Proposed house and swimming pool building

I would like to bring you attention that on 02/03/11, when we carried out excavation for swimming pool we have hit the solid rock at 1.8 m below ground level, but required depth of swimming pool is 2.1 m below ground level. The excavation for swimming pool work is suspended till we agree to a potential solution.

It becomes clear that the depth of the rock is well above the required level, we have to decide how we will proceed further. After the excavator has finished working (the machine can only excavate earth), there are two options to continue.

We can try to continue to drill in the rock e.g. with a Kangoo or something more powerful like a hydraulic compressor or we can just raise the level of the pool's walls to achieve the same depth as with deeper digging. Drilling in rock in such scale will increase the cost of the building works and respectively the total price of the swimming pool to a level that is in acceptably.

However, I would like to suggest that we need to carry out extensive further site investigation to confirm existence of rock, type of rock etc. This will help us chose appropriate cost effective solution to overcome this issue.

I hope above information unambiguous to you to make a decision to overcome this issue. However if you have any further assistant required on this please do not hesitate to contact me.

Regards

ALEXANDROS KAKOGIANNIS

6: HEALTH WELFARE ISSUES CONNECTED WITH A SWIMMING POOL IN USE.

Introduction:

All across the world, people engage in various recreational activities that are dangerous and potentially life threatening - skydiving, rock climbing, mountain biking, whitewater river rafting and skiing. One activity that is supposed to be fun and safe, recreational bathing, has become a health risk. Recreational bathing includes swimming in pools, spas and hot tubs or wading/swimming in lakes, ponds, rivers, oceans or water parks. People become ill due to consumption of contaminated water, sometimes even when this water has been adequately chlorinated or sanitized. There are several communicable diseases of concern that are commonly associated with recreational swimming pools.

Diseases related to swimming pool in use

Swimming pools are exposed bodies of water and are thus subject to contamination. The contamination can be carried into the pool water by the environment (e.g. wind, rain) or by swimmers. There has been a dramatic increase in infections and infectious diseases from swimming pools. Some strains of bacteria and viruses have built up resistance to the chlorine we use as a sanitiser in our swimming pools. Others are destroyed very slowly. Consequently, there has been an increasing demand for alternative sanitisers able to quickly and effectively destroy the disease carrying organisms.

Unfortunately, it is impossible to prevent bacteria and viruses from entering the pool water. In swimming pools with a high swimmer load, the level of contaminants entering the water are especially high. Chlorine breaks down very fast in the presence of high contamination and swimmer load and due to the effects of the sun's UV rays and heat. With these factors in mind, many swimming pool maintainers over-chlorinate the pool water in the hope that illness can be prevented.

This creates another dilemma - chlorine, too, can cause health problems and overuse should be avoided at all costs. Mineral water sanitisers such as the Pool Wizard can reduce chlorine consumption by 75%, thus creating a safer and healthier swimming environment. The Pool Wizard also effectively destroys potentially harmful bacteria, viruses and algae before they can strike.

A total reliance on chlorine for swimming pool disinfection is illogical in the light of research results. There is unequivocal proof of the efficacy of non-chlorine additives or pool water treatments that can supplement chlorine to create safer pool water. Elements such as copper and silver have become widely accepted as potent anti-bacterial and anti-viral agents. Patented products like the Pool Wizard make good use of this knowledge in producing swimming pool disinfectants able to cope with the micro-organisms that chlorine cannot destroy.

These are some of the diseases that can result from infected pool water:

Shigellosis - Also called bacillary dysentery, this is an acute bacterial disease characterized by fever, nausea, vomiting, cramps and diarrhea caused by Shigella species. In most cases, the stools contain blood and mucus. Shigella is transmitted directly or indirectly via the fecal-oral route and may occur due to the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Of great significance is the low infective dose of between 10-100 organisms. This disease may be acquired by swimming in contaminated surface waters or pools and spas.

E. coli - Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serious disease causing organism that causes diarrhea ranging from mild, nonbloody stools to those that are virtually all blood. E. coli O157:H7 produces a toxin that damages the lining of the intestines resulting in hemorrhagic colitis. This organism has a very low infectious dose and is thought to cause over 90% of all cases of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a condition that causes acute renal failure, especially in young children, in North America. Waterborne transmission occurs from contaminated drinking water and from swimming in contaminated recreational waters.

Leptospirosis - Also called Weil disease, Canicola fever, Hemorrhagic jaundice, Mud fever or Swineherd disease, leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease characterized by fever, chills, severe myalgia, jaundice, rash and hemorrhage into the skin or mucous membranes. This disease is an occupational hazard for people that work on agricultural farms, fish farms, dairies, abattoirs and as sewer workers. Outbreaks may also occur among those exposed to surface waters such as rivers, streams, canals and lakes that have been contaminated by the urine of domestic and wild animals. This disease is a recreational hazard for bathers, campers and sportsmen in infected areas, but also has been attributed to wading or swimming in contaminated floodwaters.

Giardiasis - Also known as Giardia enteritis, is a protozoan infection primarily of the small intestine. It is of particular concern as this infection has the ability to remain asymptomatic, may bring on acute diarrhea and may lead to intestinal disorders such as chronic diarrhea, steatorrhea, abdominal cramps, bloating, frequent loose and pale greasy stools, malabsorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins and weight loss. This disease in found more frequently in children than it is adults especially in areas where poor sanitation occurs. It is most often associated with drinking unfiltered surface waters or from shallow wells, swimming or wading in contaminated freshwater and contaminated recreational waters such as swimming pools and wading pools.

Cryptosporidiosis - Cryptosporidim parvum causes a parasitic infection that affects not only humans, but also, over 45 other different vertebrate animals including poultry, birds, fish, and small and large animals including dogs, cats, sheep and cattle. Asymptomatic infections are common and often contribute to the infection and spread of the organism to others. The major symptom in humans is diarrhea which is often profuse and watery, and also severe abdominal cramping. Other symptoms include malaise, fever, anorexia and vomiting. One of the more interesting characteristics of this waterborne disease is the appearance of oocysts which are highly resistant to chemical disinfectants commonly used to purify drinking water. The oocysts are highly infectious and are excreted in stools for several weeks after symptoms subside. In a moist environment, these oocysts may remain infective for periods of 2-6 weeks.

Hepatitis A - Also known as infectious hepatitis, epidemic hepatitis, epidemic jaundice, catarrhal jaundice, type-A hepatitis and HA, Hepatitis A is an illness that is commonly associated with raw sewage, and in the recreational swimming environment often becomes the most problematic when existing sewage systems become overburdened due to heavy rainfall or flooding. Since this disease is caused by a virus, it does not respond to antibiotics. Common source outbreaks have been related to contaminated water, infected food handlers and eating undercooked shellfish. While related to recreational swimming, hepatitis A can best be controlled by improving upon sanitary and hygienic practices to eliminate fecal contamination in food and water. Hepatitis A is a potential problem when large numbers of people congregate and where overcrowding, inadequate sanitation and drinking supplies exist.

Norwalk virus or Epidemic Viral Gastroenteropathy - (Norwalk agent disease, Norwalk-like disease, Viral gastroenteritis in adults, Epidemic viral gastroenteritis, Acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis, Viral diarrhea, Epidemic diarrhea and vomiting, Winter vomiting disease, Epidemic nausea and vomiting). As the name implies, this illness, similar to Hepatitis A, is caused by a virus and not a bacteria. In recent years, this disease has been linked to outbreaks on several cruise ship lines. This virus is probably transmitted via the fecal-oral route, although several studies indicate transmission via human to human contact or via airborne transmission, as such, transmission via hot tubs and spas has been implicated in several outbreaks of Norwalk virus.

Naegleriasis and Acanthamoebiasis - Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is caused by a free-living amoeboflagellate that invades the brain and meningeal linings of the spinal cord and brain via the nasal mucosa. The organism may also cause infections of the eyes and skin. The organism is distributed globally in the environment in both aquatic and soil habitats. Eye infections have occurred primarily in soft contact lens wearers from homemade saline solutions, and exposure to spas or hot tubs have been implicated as sources of corneal infection. Infections have most often been associated with swimming in lakes and ponds where infection is known, but no known infection has ever been traced to swimming pools. However, as a precaution, soft contact lens wearers should not wear lenses while swimming in hot tubs or pools.

Pseudomonas - Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes a variety of illnesses when associated with recreational swimming, but the the most common manifestation is "swimmer's ear and a variety of skin infections. The bacteria is commonly present in the environment, but grows well in warm water environments such as hot tubs and spas, since heat often breaks down the disinfection ability of pool chemicals. In the health care setting, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the second most common source of nosocomial infection in intensive care units. When associated with recreational swimming, it is the source of skin rash often called "hot tub folliculitus". The skin rash often takes on the appearance of chicken pox. Even healthy individuals who are exposed to the bacterium in contaminated water sources such as hot tubs, whirlpools, spas and water parks may develop symptoms.

Schistosomiasis - Also known as Bilarziasis or snail fever, this organism is a trematode infection. The most common manifestation in North America is a form of dermatitis often called "swimmer's itch" which is prevalent among bathers in lakes and ponds where snails abound. North American schistosomes do not mature in human beings, thus in this region the disease is typically mild and self-limiting. In other parts of the world, schistomiasis occurs when cercariae, released by the snail, in the water penetrate the human skin while a person is working, swimming or wading. The cercariae then enter the bloodstream, are carried to blood vessels of the lung, and migrate to the liver and veins of the abdominal cavity. Early symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain and enlarged liver, eventually leading to reduced liver functioning and possibly colorectal cancer.

Dracunculiasis - Also known as Guinea worm disease or Dracontiasis, this is an infection of the subcutaneous tissue with a large nematode. A blister normally appears in the foot region of the body when the adult female worm is ready to expel its larvae into the environment. Other symptoms include burning and itching skin in the area of the lesion, fever, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. When the infected body part is immersed in water, the blister erupts and larvae are discharged into the water. The larvae is transmitted by the ingestion of infected drinking water or while swimming in infected ponds. This disease remains endemic in only 13 sub-Saharan countries.

EHA Consulting Group provides tips on Healthy Recreational Swimming in Pools and Spas for publics, which are follows:

Don't swim, or allow your child to swim, if either of you has diarrhea. Remember that diapers-even those designed for swimming-do not prevent feces from leaking into the water. Swimming while you have diarrhea, may spread bacteria and viruses that could make others sick.

Don't drink the water, and try to avoid getting it in your mouth. Bathing water is not intended for drinking!

Wash your hands after using the toilet or after changing a baby's diapers and don't change your children's diapers by the poolside. Change your children's diapers in the bathroom or in a designated changing area, not by the side of the pool.

Shower before entering the pool.

Ensure that pool chlorination levels are maintained at adequate levels at all times. Some bacteria remain viable in pool water for only hours while some that are resistant to pool chemicals can remain for as long as seven days.

What if There is an Accident?

There should always be concern whenever there is an accidental exposure to faces or stool in a pool environment. However, CDC's recommendations vary slightly depending on if the event were from diarrhea or form stool. In both cases, the operator needs to remove as much of the material as possible and increase the level of disinfecting chlorine in the water. In the case of diarrhea, the free chlorine level is recommended to be raised to 20ppm and maintained at this level for a contact time of eight hours, while in the case of a formed stool, free chlorine levels should be raised to 2ppm for a contact time of thirty minutes before reopening the pool.

Design of swimming pool to minimise health and welfare problems:

Swimming pools are generally complicated buildings, making serious demands in terms of design, construction, operation and maintenance. The good design is critical to successful operation. Design comes first chronologically (though a brief and even a feasibility study may precede it), and needs to be considered by all the relevant professions. It is import to get advice and help from specialist design and contractors in design and construction stages.

A design brief is a broad description of what is to be provided within the design. The purpose of the brief is to establish the performance requirements of the design and hence a framework within which the detailed design work can progress. The starting point is a decision on the type of facility required - eg the type and amount of use envisaged; swimming or leisure; moveable floors/booms to convert competition/diving pools into learner and leisure; other joint-use arrangements; how to arrange the treatment plant for different pools. The design brief, preferably accompanied by a basic schematic diagram and system layout. It can also usefully cover essential operational and staffing factors.

Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007

These CDM regulations are a revision of the 1994 regulations made under the Health and Safety at Work, Etc Act 1974. They place specific requirements on the designer - whether an

architect, engineer, contractor or from some other professional discipline. They have a responsibility, when designing, to assess site hazards and deal with them where possible; and pass on information to keep workers safe and reduce accidents on construction sites. There is now a distinction between non-notifiable projects (eg domestic - with minimum obligations) and notifiable projects. The latter require the client to appoint a CDM co-ordinator, as well as the principal contractor, to cover the whole construction phase.

Designers' duties can be summarised:

• Design for safety for during construction, maintenance and users (eg: safety of swimmers)

• Advise clients on their responsibilities under the regulations

• Check that a CDM co-ordinator has been appointed

• Provide any information for the health and safety file.

The CDM co-ordinator on a project, who is responsible for co-ordination of design, should

ensure that those responsible for building and engineering design consider health and safety

(including that of swimmers). The CDM coordinator is also responsible for:

• advising the client about their duties

• liaising with HSE and the principal contractor

• co-ordinating the health and safety aspects

• preparing/updating the health and safety file.

BSI Code of Practice

In January 2004 the British Standards Institution published a PWTAG-sponsored code of practice. Its full title is Publicly Available Specification PAS 39:2003 Management of public swimming pools - Water treatment systems, water treatment plant and heating and ventilation systems - Code of practice. This is a useful checklist, in CoP form, of PWTAG principles and practices - and a standard to which pools can aspire and be accredited.

Overall, the design must conform to the appropriate guidelines for maintaining safety and the chemical and microbiological quality of the water. Water treatment systems are an integral part of the architectural, structural and mechanical design, and must be addressed from the very start of the project. Water treatment plant design must take into account:

• Bathing load, circulation rate, turnover period and hydraulics

• Filtration

• Choice of treatment system

• Disposal of effluent and backwash water

Figure 1: A typical pool water circulation and treatment system ()

The above figure shows a typical pool water circulation and treatment system. It is important to have good water circulation and treatment system in place for safe, comfortable and efficient running of a swimming pool.

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