Hodgkins Disease A Type Of Lymphoma Biology Essay


Hodgkins lymphoma, previously known as Hodgkins disease, is a type of lymphoma, which is a type of cancer originating from white blood cells called lymphocytes. It was named after Thomas Hodgkin, who first described abnormalities in the lymph system in 1832.

Roughly 8,000 Americans develop this illness each year. It is slightly more frequent in men than in women, and is more commonly seen in the third decade of life, after age 50. This disease is caused by overproduction of lymphoid cells. Hodgkin's disease is highly curable, even in advanced stages.

Hodgkin's lymphoma is characterized by the orderly spread of disease from one lymph node group to another and by the development of systemic symptoms with advanced disease.

When Hodgkin's cells are examined microscopically, multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells(RS cells) are the characteristic histopathology finding .Hodgkin's lymphoma may be treated with radiation therapy or chemotherapy, the choice of treatment depending on the age and sex of the patient and the stage, bulk and histological subtype of the disease.

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The disease occurrence shows two peaks: the first in young adulthood (age 15- 35) and the second in those over 55 years old.

The survival rate is generally 90% or higher when the disease is detected during early stages, making it one of the more curable forms of cancer.

Hodgkin's lymphoma is one of the handfuls of cancers that, even in its later stages, has a very high cure rate, in the 90s. Most patients who are able to be successfully treated and thus enter remission generally go on to live long lives.

Patients with a history of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus may have an increased risk of HL


The cause of this illness is unknown in the majority of patients. Certain viruses like EBV or HIV have been linked to causation of Hodgkin's disease.


Leukemia is the abnormal growth of white blood cells and These cells are young and immature and when the leukemia is happening cells remain immature and stop growth at the specific time of the stages of their growth and then getting an excessive increase in blood circulation and this bleaching of blood because white blood cells overwhelm the rest of the cells of other hematopoietic

Leukemia is a cancerous disorder of the blood cells. There are a variety of Leukemia, each with its own peculiar signs, symptoms, prognosis and behavior. Roughly 30,000 Americans develop some sort of leukemia every year.

There are two types of leukemia:

Chronic leukemia:

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia:

is a cancer of the white blood cells. It is a form of leukemia characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which proliferation of mature granulocytes  (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and their precursors is the main finding. It is a type of myeloproliferative diseaseassociated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome. It is now treated with imagine and other targeted, which have dramatically improved survival.

Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia:

(CLL), is the most common type of leukemia. Leukemia's are cancers of the white blood cells (leukocytes). CLL affects B cell lymphocytes. B cells originate in the bone marrow, develop in the lymph nodes, and normally fight infection by producing antibodies. In CLL, the DNA of a B cell is damaged, so that it can't produce antibodies. Additionally, B cells grow out of control and accumulate in the bone marrow and blood, where they crowd out healthy blood cells.

CLL is a disease of adults, but, in rare cases, it can occur in teenagers and occasionally in children (inherited). Most (>75%) people newly diagnosed with CLL are over the age of 50, and the majority are men.

acute leukemia:

Acute Myeloid Leukemia:

Known as acute myelogenous leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells. is the most common acute leukemia affecting adults, and its incidence increases with age. Although is a relatively rare disease, for approximately 1.2% of cancer deaths in the United States, its incidence is expected to in a few years.

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Acute Lymphoid Leukemia

Lymphoid leukemia or lymphocytic leukemia is a type of leukemia affecting circulating lymphocyte cells. This is in contrast to lymphoma, which is a solid tumor of the same type of cells.

Lymphocytes are a subtype of white blood cells. Most lymphoid leukemia's involve a particular subtype of lymphocytes, the B cell.

Multiple Myeloma

Figure 1: Micrograph of a plasmacytoma, the histologiccorrelate of multiple myeloma. H&E stain


Is a cancer of the white blood cells plasma cell, plasma cells are a crucial part of the immune system responsible for the production of antibodies in humans and other vertebrates.

Roughly 16,000 Americans develop this illness each year. It is more frequent in men than in women and is more commonly seen after age 60. This disease is due to an overproduction of plasma cells from the bone marrow. Under normal circumstances, these cells are in charge of producing immune globulins, the immune proteins that our body needs to fight infection. In the case of multiple Myeloma, the abnormal plasma cells produce abnormal and dysfunctional immune globulins.

One indicator of the disease is a blood test known as Beta 2 macroglobulin. This disease is basically diagnosed by detecting these abnormal immune globulins in the blood or, alternatively, by observing the abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow.

Causes: The cause of this illness is unknown.

Waldenström's Disease

Figure2: shows a Waldenström's disease


Figure3: Lymphocytic appearing plasma cell nucleus similar to a lymphocyte and cytoplasm similar to a plasma cell.


is cancer involving a subtype of white blood cells called lymphocytes. The main attributing antibody is IgM. It is a type of lymph proliferative, and shares clinical characteristics with the indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

It is named after the Swedish physician Jan G. Waldenström, who first identified the condition

This disease is due to overproduction of cells that are like Plasma cells from the bone marrow. Under normal circumstances, these cells are in charge of producing immune globulins, the immune proteins that our body needs to fight infections. In case of Waldenström's Disease, the abnormal plasma cells produce abnormal and dysfunctional immune globulins. The kind of immune globulin that is produced in this disease can cause thickening of the blood and lead to a hyper viscosity. This disease is basically diagnosed by detecting these abnormal immune globulins in the blood, or alternatively, by observing the abnormal cells in the bone marrow. This is a very rare and low grade cancer and is more commonly seen after age of 65.


The cause of this illness is unknown.

2- Breast Cancer

Figure4: Breast cancer starts in the lining of milk ducts when cells grow uncontrollably and may break out to invade breast tissue. Kornelia Polyak, MD, PhD, and colleagues show that noncancerous "stromal" cells outside the ducts can send signals that make the cancer more aggressive


Figure5: Mammograms showing a normal breast (left) and a breast cancer (right).


Is a form of cancer that affect the breast tissue, and usually appears in the channels (tubes that carry milk to the nipple) and milk glands. 

 Breast cancer means erratic growth and proliferation and the spread of cells that arise in the breast tissue. And a group infected cells, which divide and multiply quickly can be a piece or mass of extra tissue. And blocks tissue called tumors. Tumors can either be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). Malignant tumors proliferate and destroy the body's healthy tissues. And some of the cells within the tumor to be separated and spread out to other parts of the body .Proliferation of cells from the area in the body to another is called metastasis.

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Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, being responsible for almost 20 percent of all cancer deaths in women. It ranks second after lung cancer. Roughly 180,000 women are diagnosed with this disease each year, of which 44,000 will die. With increased awareness and increased use of routine mammograms, more women are diagnosed in the earlier stages of this disease, at which time a cure may be possible. For every 100 women, one man is diagnosed with this disease. The disease is more common in women after age 40. It is also more frequent in women of a higher social-economic class.

Causes and risk factors:

Many factors are known to increase the risk of development of breast cancer:

Genetic predisposition .A few genetic markers have been linked to development of breast cancer .History of breast cancer in a first-degree relative .History of breast cancer in the same patient, in the opposite breast. Onset of menstruation in early ages .Late onset of menopause .Radiation exposure .Heavy alcohol consumption .High fat diet .Obesity .First pregnancy after age of 30 .Very tall women.

3- Colon Cancer:


Figure6: it shows a colon cancer


Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine, which is also called colorectal cancer. Most cases of colon cancer start from polyps and adenomas pitch, but only a small percentage of all the different types of polyps that arise in the colon (about 1%) that become cancerous later. Change from Alboulib glandular tumor to colon cancers occur slowly over the range of 5 to 10 years by a series of genetic changes. But if Alboulib been eradicated before it becomes malignant, of course, it will not turn into cancer Colon

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and women. An estimated 131,000 Americans are diagnosed with this disease each year and some 55,000 die as a result of it. Certain genetic factors play a role in the development of this cancer. The specific cause of colorectal cancer is unknown; however, environmental, genetic, familial factors and preexisting Ulcerative Colitishave been linked to the development of this cancer. It is more common among African-Americans.

4-Lung Cancer

Figure7: it shows a lung cancer


Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, which is the invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. The vast majority of primary lung cancers are carcinomas of the lung, derived from epithelial cells .Lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and the second most common in women (after breast cancer). 

The most common symptoms are shortness of breath, coughing (including coughing up blood), and weight loss. The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. This distinction is important, because the treatment varies; non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is sometimes treated with surgery, while small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiation. The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. The occurrence of lung cancer in nonsmokers, who account for as many as 15% of cases, is often attributed to a combination of genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, and air pollution, including second hand smoke. 

Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT scan). The diagnosis is confirmed with a biopsy. This is usually performed via bronchoscope or CT-guided biopsy. Treatment and prognosis depend upon the histological type of cancer, the stage (degree of spread), and the patient's performance status. Possible treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. With treatment, the five-year survival rate is14%.

Lung cancer is the second most common malignancy affecting both sexes. Roughly 180,000 Americans are diagnosed with this illness ever year. It is considered the most rapidly increasing cause of death from cancer. Since 1987, lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer death in women, surpassing breast cancer. And while lung cancer incidence has leveled off among men, it continues to rise steadily among women. The average age of patients with lung cancer is 60 years. It is more common in African-Americans and Hawaiians.


Cigarette smoking is known to be the cause of most lung cancers

Probably the number one causes of this disease. The more you smoke, the greater your risk of developing lung cancer. Lung cancer is also more likely to develop in people who start smoking at a young age. People who don't smoke can also develop lung cancer, although this is much rarer. Filtered and low-tar cigarettes may slightly reduce a person's risk of developing cancer, but the risk is still far greater than that of a non-smoker. 

Radon exposure is another cause of lung cancer, killing 14,000 Americans every year. Asbestos exposure also increases Lung cancer risk. The risk becomes astronomical in exposed individuals who also smoke.

5-Prostate Cancer

Figure8: it shows a prostate cancer


Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men, with roughly 185,000 men diagnosed in 1998 and claiming 39,000 lives from it. Risk of developing this cancer increases with age and it is more common in men over ages 60-65. It is significantly more common in African-American men.  Lifetime risk of developing this cancer is about 16-20% (1in 5 to 6).

It is estimated that 40% of men over age of 50 have microscopic areas of cancer in their prostate gland.  However, only 8% of men will develop clinically significant disease and only 3% will die of this disease.   Prostate cancer grows very slowly in older men and does not contribute to the cause of death in majority of cases.


The cause of this cancer is unknown. However, certain factors increase the risk of developing prostate cancer:

Increasing age

African-American men

Family history of prostate cancer

High dietary fat


Genetic factors

Socioeconomic Status

Cigarette smoking

Occupational exposure to Cadmium Heavy metal

Sexual activity and sexually transmitted illnesses

6-Skin cancers:

Is a malignant growth on the skin and can happen for several reasons, skin cancer develops in the epidermis - the outer layer of the skin - and this is usually clear the tumor with the naked eye, and this makes it easier to diagnose in its early stages often. There are two known types of skin cancer known as the type of cells that grow, including the tumor.

Malignant Melanoma:

The incidence of melanoma has been on the rise for decades, maybe due to damage to the ozone layer in atmosphere. Presently, it is the seventh common cancer in the United States. The estimated lifetime risk of developing skin melanoma in Americans was 1 in 1,500 in 1935 and is expected to rise to 1 in 75 by year 2000. Melanoma can affect individuals in their 20's and 30's but the average age at the time of diagnosis is between 55 and 57. This cancer starts in the skin. The most frequent sites in women are the arms and legs, and in men it is the trunk. It is more common in fair-skinned individuals and significantly less common in African-Americans and individuals with dark color skin.


Heavy exposure to sun is the most important factor in development of melanoma. It is more common in individuals who develop sunburn or blister from excessive exposure. Certain skin moles can also transform into melanoma.

Skin Cancer:

This section covers all skin cancers except Melanoma. Most common forms of skin cancer are: Basal cell cancers in 60% of cases, and Squalors cell cancers in 30%

7-Cancers of Digestive Systems:

Head and Neck Cancers:

Head and Neck cancers refer to a diverse group of cancers that involve this region of the body with exclusion of cancers of  thyroid gland, skin, lymph glands and brain. Roughly 13,000 Americans develop these cancers every year. They are more common in men than in women. Smoking and Tobacco use, along with alcohol, impose a great risk on individuals to develop these cancers. Most of these cancers origin from the tissues that line the airways in nostrils, salivary glands and throat, as well as inside the mouth, gums, tongue and upper part of esophagus.


Following is a list of factors that increase the risk of these cancer

Tobacco, Alcohol

HPV Virus

Industrial exposure to metals, wood dust, textiles, etc.

Prior radiation therapy to head and neck area.

Vitamin A deficiency,

Iron deficiency

Stomach Cancer:

Roughly 23,000 new cases are diagnosed each year in the United states. It is 10 times more common in Japan, occurring more frequently in men than in women and in African-Americans. The average age at the time of diagnosis is 60 years. Unfortunately, most patients are diagnosed in advanced stages when cure is not possible.


The actual cause of stomach cancer is unknown. However, people with blood type A and a history of pernicious anemia are at a greater risk of developing this cancer.

Liver Cancer:

Hepatica is the one of the most common cancer in the world with 1 Million new cases diagnosed every year. Roughly 20,000 new cases are diagnosed every year in United States. It is more frequent in men and Oriental-Americans .The average age at the time of diagnosis if 60 years. Unfortunately, most patients are diagnosed in advanced stages when cure is not possible. The liver is a gland which is located in the upper part of the abdomen, laying almost on the spine. The liver is a common site for metastasis from other cancers. Hepatica has to be distinguished from other cancers that spread to liver.


Many viruses and chemical agents seem to be involved in causation of this cancer.

Hepatitis B and C viruses are the most important causes worldwide. Hopefully, vaccination with hepatitis vaccine will reduce the frequency of this illness in the next century.

Alcohol-induced liver damage

Aflatoxin is a toxin which is produced by fungus that grows in peanuts, corn, etc.

Threorotrast, which was used decades ago in radiology studies

PVC-exposure among factory workers. PVC is used in plastic pipes,etc.

Iron overload and Arsenic poisoning

Cancer Etiology:

General causes of cancer and in general , especially:

We know today causes certain cause tumors or no tumor miles only, but the first of these reasons do not explain all cases of tumors, II does not in any way explain why the person Doe got his tumor. Usually ask patients and their relatives to what were they, or loved one to have a tumor do not care why tumors affect people. Therefore, it is difficult for doctors to respond to the question patients and their relatives, the degree to which cures Glelhm. All we can say emphatically that the will of God wanted this person to be infected or that the tumor and leave aside the questions that were not useful in the treatment of that person because they do not include any benefit it may bring the damage in terms of raising feelings of guilt. Yes, there are certain conditions we can take advantage of the knowledge of the causes of the tumors for the other people around the patient or others, for example when a person becomes a smoker for many years, tumor in the lung, we can say that the tumor may have been caused by smoking and may benefit some smokers from relatives of the patient or others from lesson and stay away from smoking. There is also a disease of specific genetic know that they cause a tendency to the appearance of tumors have come to know quite a lot of genetic disorders that cause the tendency to the emergence of tumors in different degrees, and if knowing that we can examine the relatives of the patient to know the existence of gene genetic that whether or not then take the necessary action to do so. 

As well as we can yet know the reasons for the emergence of tumors by exposure to chemicals or other work to develop policies to protect workers exposed to these materials. As well as we can by the introduction of preventive vaccination of hepatitis type B to reduce the number of people with liver cancer. But all these measures seek to reduce the appearance of tumors in the general population does not benefit in particular patients with glioma, which usually wonder why I got this tumor? This question is difficult to answer it normally. 

Causes of the tendency to tumor:

Genetic Disorders:

It is known that there are genetic disorders that make human beings vulnerable to the emergence of tumors most notably Down syndrome or the so-called Mongolian children and these children have the possibility that infected acute leukemia. There is also a number of genetic diseases known to doctors that can lead to tumors of blood. 

Exposure to radiation:

Of the painful experience of the two nuclear bombs used by the Americans during World War II bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Russian recent reports of depleted uranium used by the Americans in the Balkans and Iraq. Yes, the exposure to radiation causes tumors of blood during the years following the exposure to radiation. As well as the doses to doctors and technicians in the first rays of the twentieth century to a much larger radiation doses to workers in the Departments of Radiology is, therefore, the probability of the risk of tumors of the blood of these workers more than others. There were also studies indicating that the dangers of the emergence of tumors of blood than in children whose mothers were exposed during their pregnancy to radiation or those born to fathers working in nuclear reactors or near them. 

Radiotherapy and chemotherapy:

After the use of radiation therapy in the tens of thousands of patients during the twentieth century has been scientifically proven studies and noted that radiotherapy and chemotherapy cause himself in some cases, tumors of blood that are unrelated to the tumor, which was the original use of radiation therapy or chemotherapy because of it. The doctors were in the past using radiotherapy for the treatment of certain diseases non-malignant diseases such as inflammation of the vertebrae are still some drugs chemical used in diseases of chronic non-malignant because it has an impact on organ spinal in the body and therefore stop doctors use radiation therapy in many diseases non-malignant . In any case, you should know that the risk of tumors of the blood of these is a small risk but it is present, but in any case that is used for chemotherapy or radiation on the benefits of the use of these types of treatment, the greatest possible damage on the long range. In spite of this it's always scientific studies to explore any chemical drugs for example, less dangerous than others in causing the emergence of tumors of blood and also carry out studies to explore any techniques and methods to reduce the risk of radiation therapy in this regard. 


One of the reasons there are some blood diseases, including some cases of blood diseases malignant repeated exposure to chemicals at work, such as benzene, which is material that is petrol used as fuel for cars and the motor fuel also contains this article, this article is used as a solvent in the manufacture of paints and tanning and medicine and dyeing ... .. etc. 

And exposure this should be repeated for a long time has developed industries in the second half of the twentieth century, so has exposure to this substance, even if you use small, as well as the chemical plants to monitor the manufacturing process and monitor the health of the workers to make sure there are no such risks. 

Diseases of the blood leading to leukemia:

There are disease non-malignant blood can years later be turned into diseases, blood malignancy such as aplastic anemia and disease break red blood cells Night sudden There is also a sick blood malignant chronic turn into leukemia sharply after the years, such as the proliferation of blood cells, the real and cirrhosis of the bone marrow and leukemia, chronicWhether or spinal lymphoma. 


There are viruses cause tumors, such as hepatitis type B, or EBV virus which causes tumors of the nasopharynx, has been found that this virus is closely related to NHL-type Burkitt that appears in parts of Africa, as well as NHL, which appear after the transplant, or when AIDS patients, and all such cases where the imbalance in the immune cells of type T lymphocytes, and sometimes these tumors disappear after reducing the dose of immunosuppressant drugs in post-transplant. There is also a virus abbreviated name HTLV-1 causes malignant blood disease abbreviated name ATLL The virus has spread its presence in parts of West Africa and the Caribbean and some parts of Japan. 

Although our knowledge of these factors that may cause malignant tumors of blood, the vast majority of cases of malignant diseases of the blood can not find an explanation in these factors or others. As I said earlier patients (or their parents) want to usually find out why they were sick and do not know why people get the disease, and this is what is difficult for doctors to answer it 

Source: encyclopedia of modern health

More causes cancer:

still causes cancer to some extent unknown, but there are some reasons and factors that help or create the cancer. 


Research has shown that there is a role for Inherit in some tumors such as tumors of the retina, but are not considered a major cause. 


One of the main causes of cancer because it prevents the skin from the towns of skin to skin sheet, respiratory accused of doing any work and therefore need one more step to get cancer. 

Geographical Distribution: 

It has been noticed that the decrease in casualties over the place and in another place by geographic region. 

Profession or occupation: 

In the field of radiology and nuclear accidents. 


Where that works in the field of rays may expose workers to the disease. 

Nature of food: 

Particularly fat and alcohol because it is one of the foods that preparedness for bowel cancer and stomach. 

Other causes in Yemen and some African countries: 


It is a plant stimulant, a source of activity during the address, followed by apathy and severe lack of desire to eat is sprayed with chemicals for the urgency of germination, which may affect the disposal of cancer. 

 Sniff (Albrdqan): 

One of the materials used in coastal areas and has begun to spread in different regions of our country.