Highest Double Bond In Monounsaturated Fat Biology Essay

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The project is basically about the investigation to determine which oil contains the highest double bond in monounsaturated fat and the effects towards the cake texture. Experiment was done to determine the amount of iodine value by calculating double bond in each oil. Then, a further experiment is done, which is named mustard seed displacement experiment. The cakes, which have been baked using the different types of oils as the main fats are pressed to its highest compression state, then, the reading is obtained. Based on the result obtained, red palm oil has the highest iodine value, 32.21, which means that it contain the highest amount of double bond. Olive oil has the second highest iodine value, 26.53, and palm oil has the lowest iodine value, 21.09. This clearly shows that red palm oil has the highest monounsaturated fat contain. The oils are used to make cakes. The cakes are brought to Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) to test the cakes on their ability to be compressed. The cake which can be compressed the highest is red palm oil cake, followed by olive oil cake and finally by palm oil cake. Red palm oil cake shows that is has the highest air contain thus it can be compressed the most. Red palm oil records the lowest specific density reading, which is 548.3 cc. it shows that red palm oil cake can be compressed the highest, whereas olive oil cake shows the second highest reading of 630.0 cc and palm oil cake shows the highest reading of all cakes, which is 656.6 cc. The blend oil cake shows a reading of 651.6 cc. This shows that palm oil cake is the hardest to be compressed.

Research Question : Does the number of double bond in monounsaturated fat in the Raoiella Indica Hirst (red palm oil ), Olea Europea (olive oil) and Elaeis Guineensis Jacq (palm oil) and its blend affect the weight and specific volume of cake?

Introduction :

Malaysia country is blessed with tropical, humid climate . This suitable temperature makes plants, such as palm oils, red palm oils to grow secara banyak in Malaysia. Besides, Malaysia is among the highest exporter of palm oil in the world. There are two types of palm oils, namely palm oil and red palm oil.

Oils exist as a liquid form at room temperature. Example of oils are red palm oil, palm oil and olive oil. Oils contain at least one carbon-carbon double bonds ( C=C) and most plant oils contain more than one carbon-carbon double bond which is called as polyunsaturated. Fats and oils are synthesized by body mechanism by enzyme lipase, which turns fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerol. Glycerol and fatty acids later in turn undergo a series of redox reaction, that turns it into carbon dioxide and energy. Fats and oils also basically contain double the amount of energy compared to carbohydrates. Hence, fats and oils are used mainly in food production such as cakes, ice creams and chocolates. These foods when consumed can provide instant energy due to its ability to produce high contain of energy when it is synthesized by body system.

The amount of unsaturation of oils can be determined by titrating with iodine solution. One mol of iodine molecule will react with 1 mol of carbon-to-carbon double bond in the oils. As throughout the process of iodine solution being added to the fat solution, the purple colour of the iodine will slowly fade and at the end point, the iodine colour will disappear, leaving the fats solution to be white in colour as to indicate that addition reaction has taken place. What addition reaction? Explain more? Iodine number can be used to calculate the number of grams of iodine that need to be added by 100 g of fats or oils.

Besides that, the degree of unsaturation can be determined in order to know the amount of double bonds that the oils has. The higher the degree of unsaturation, it means that it contain higher amount of carbon-to-carbon double bonds. Hence, it can be said that the degree of unsaturation of oils is directly proportional to the amount of carbon-to-carbon double bonds. This is another method to determine the amount of double bonds contained in an oil without performing an experiment.

Besides that, the higher the amount of double bond content, the longer the length of wavelength absorbed. Actually, the colour that is reflected or viewed is not the colour absorbed, but it is the complementary colour of the colour absorbed. For instance, in red palm oil, the colour reflected is red colour. The colour absorbed is green colour. It can be seen that red palm oil, which has a red colour of wavelength 625-740 absorb cyan region of the spectrum. Cyan has a wavelength of 500-520 nm. Palm oil, which is light yellow in colour has a wavelength of 565-590 nm. Olive oil, which is green in colour. It can be seen that red palm oil absorb the longest wavelength compared to olive oil and palm oil. It shows that the higher the degree of unsaturation of oil, the longer the wavelength of colour it absorb, hence the darker the colour of the oil.

Specific volume is blab la bla and explain about the cakes it will produced.

It is estimated that a higher specific volume cakes will be lower in weight. This is because their higher tendency to trap air particle as it has a lot of air sacs

Currently, in food industry, palm oil is the main source of fat in baking cakes. Palm oil undergone hydrogenation process, which is one form of addition reaction. In this process, hydrogen is added to the alkene (palm oil) in the presence of nickel catalyst of temperature about 180 ⁰C. Hydrogenation reaction will make the palm oil to be saturated as now, all the carbon atoms have four hydrogen atoms attached to it and is called as saturated, which is now called as palm oil fat or commercially is called as margarine. Margarine is solid in room temperature compared to palm oil which is liquid in room temperature.

Red palm oil are basically is produced from crude palm oil which the deacidification and deodorization are carried out using milder conditions, which is able to maintain the high amount of carotenoids, compared to conventional refining process that are being used in the production of processed palm oil. The conventional method has destroyed most of the carotenoids contained in the palm oil.

Red palm oil has the highest contain of carotenes compared to other oils such as palm oil and olive oil. Carotenoids, which is the precursor of vitamin A is vital for every processes that occur in human system. Vitamin A is crucial in preventing night blindness

Structure 1 and structure 2 below shows the structure of carotenoids. Carotenids consist of alpha carotene and beta carotene. Structure 1 shows the structure of alpha carotene and structure 2 shows the structure of beta carotene .Carotenes consist of only carbon and hydrogen. Alpha carotenes and Beta carotenes are different in terms the position of the double bonds. As we can see that the double bond in alpha carotene is situated at the second carbon whereas for beta carotene, the double bond is situated at the third carbon.

Structure 1 : Shows the structure of alpha carotene

Structure 2 : Shows the structure of beta carotene

B carotenes are more common compared to a carotenes in food. Alpha carotenes and beta carotenes are synthesized by plants. Normally, when fruits and vegetables appear orange reddish, it indicates that the food contains more Beta carotenes than Alpha carotenes. Beta carotenes contain twice the amount of retinol than Alpha carotenes. In addition to that, if palm oil were to be compared to other natural source carotenoids, palm oil contains 15 times more retinol and 300 times more than tomatoes. Thus, it can be said that palm oil contain higher amount of vitamin A compared to other natural food. However, in reality, most of carotenoids in palm oil are destroyed during refining process, the process to make the palm oil lighter.

Also, most of vegetables oils contain high density lipoproteins, (HDL) cholesterol. Olea Europea can increase the level of HDL and lowers the lower density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol. Olea Europea is a natural juice which preserves the taste, aroma, vitamins and properties of the olive fruit. Olea Europea is clearly one of the good oils, one of the healing fats. High-density lipoproteins can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease as HDL can remove the cholesterol from the arteries and transport it back to the liver. Most people do quite well with it since it does not upset the critical omega 6 to omega 3 ratio and most of the fatty acids in Olea Europea are actually an omega-9 oil which is monounsaturated-unsaturated fats are healthy fats. Omega 6 to omega 3 ratio should be in a smaller proportion. A higher ratio can lead to breast cancer disease and also thickening of blood that lead to blood clot. The beneficial health effects of Olea Europea are due to both its high content of monounsaturated fatty acids and its high content of antioxidative substances. Studies have shown that Olea Europea offers protection against heart disease by controlling LDL ("bad") cholesterol levels while raising HDL (the "good" cholesterol) levels. LDL cholesterol can circulates around the body and build plaques and clots around heart vessels which in turns can lead to heart attack. Therefore for health reason, more people are now using olive oil as their main oil in cooking.

Besides that, in terms of absorbtion of wavelength colours, the higher the amount of double bond content, the longer the length of wavelength absorbed. Actually, the colour that is reflected or viewed is not the colour absorbed, but it is the complementary colour of the colour absorbed. For instance, in red palm oil, the colour reflected is red colour. The colour absorbed is green colour. It can be seen that red palm oil, which has a red colour of wavelength 625-740 absorb cyan region of the spectrum. Cyan has a wavelength of 500-520 nm. Palm oil, which is light yellow in colour has a wavelength of 565-590 nm. Olive oil, which is green in colour. It can be seen that red palm oil absorb the longest wavelength compared to olive oil and palm oil. It shows that the higher the degree of unsaturation of oil, the longer the wavelength of colour it absorb, hence the darker the colour of the oil.

Therefore, I would like to study on the effect of double bond in monounsaturated fat in red palm oil, palm oil and olive oil and also the blend of red palm oil, palm oil and olive oil in producing softer, and moist cake. It is known that the higher the iodine value (no of double bond), the higher the degree of unsaturated. The higher the degree of unsaturated, the more moisture the cake. also, by combining all the three oils, a better texture cake and last longer cake can be produced.

Purpose of experiment

The purpose of the experiment is to discover whether different types of oils, which contain different level of unsaturated has effect towards the cakes baked with the oils. For these purposes, an experiment to determine the iodine value is and also the experiment to determine the specific density of the cakes are conducted. The iodine value can determine the amount of double bond content in the oils used. After the iodine value has been obtained, the oils that are used respectively then used as the main fat to make cakes. The cake then compressed to their highest limit to get their cakes specific density.

Hypothesis

1.1

The higher the iodine value, the higher the degree of unsaturated of fat. This is because higher iodine value indicates that it contains higher amount of double bond.

1.2

The higher the iodine value contain in oil can make the cake produced from the oil to have lower weight when being measured.

1.3

The higher the iodine value contain in an oil can make the cake produced from the oil to have higher specific volume.

Variables:

2.1

Table 1: shows the variables in determining iodine value in different type of oils

Variables

Possible Effect(s) on result

Ways to control

Independent

Types of oils used

Dependent

Volume of sodium thiosulphate used

Controlled Variables

Volume of oil used

The volume of each oils, namely red palm oil, palm oil and olive oil should be kept constant for each experiment. If the volume of oils used are not constant, the result, which is the iodine value will not be accurate.

Hence, for each experiment, the volume of oil used should be fixed, which is 6.0 cm³. the oils are measured using a 10.0cm³ syringe.

Volume of Wij's solution used

Volume of Wij's solution used should be accurate and fixed in each experiment. If the volume used is not fixed, the iodine value used cannot be accurately determined.

To ensure an accurate iodine value is obtained, the volume of Wij's solution used should be fixed, which is only 25 cm³. The Wij's solution is measured using a 25 cm³ pipette.

Volume of Potassium Iodide used

Volume of potassium iodide used should be fixed. If the volume of the potassium iodide used is not constant in every trial, hence iodine value that need to be calculated will not be accurate.

To ensure the same volume of potassium iodide in every experiment, potassium iodide is measured using measuring cylinder to get an accurate reading of 20 cm³ for every trial.

Volume of Carbon Tetrachloride used

Volume of carbon tetrachloride used must be consistent in every trial in the iodine value experiment.

To maintain the consistency of the volume of carbon tetrachloride used, which is only 15 cm³ in every trial, a 15 ml pipette is used for this purpose.

Volume of distilled water used

Distilled water, which acts as the solvent in the iodine value experiment should be maintained its usage volume in every trial so that the accuracy of the iodine value can be obtained.

To ensure an accurate iodine value, 150 cm³ of distilled water is used for each trial. The distilled water is measured using a 200 cm³ beaker.

Specific Volume Experiment

2.2

Variables:

Table 8: Shows the variables for specific density of the cakes

Variables

Units

Independent

Types of oil used

-

Dependent

Specific density of cakes

cm³g¯³

Materials and Apparatus :

Table 3 : Shows list of materials for iodine value test for Red palm oil, Palm oil, Olive oil

No.

Materials

Quantity

Volume/ Size

1

Red palm Oil

3

8 cm³

2

Olive Oil

3

8 cm³

Palm oil

3

8 cm³

3

Carbon Tetrachloride

9

15 cm³

4

Wij's solution

9

25 cm³

5

Potassium Iodide

9

One reagent bottle

6

Distilled Water

1

One reagent bottle

7

Sodium Thiosulphate

9

Two reagent bottle

8

Starch Indicator Solution

9

1-2 ml

Table 4 : Shows list of apparatus for iodine value test for Red palm oil, Palm oil, Olive oil and its blend

No

Apparatus

Quantity

Volume/Size

1

Conical flask

4

50 cm³

2

Burette

1

Standard size

3

Beaker

3

50 cm³

4

Beaker

1

200 cm³

4

Dropper

2

Standard size

5

Measuring cylinder

4

25 cm³

6

Weighing balance

1

Standard size

7

Volumetric flask

2

100 cm³

8

Conical Flask

3

Standard size

9

Pipette

1

Standard size

10

Retort stand and clamp

1

Standard size

Method

Methods to prepare wij's solution :

0.2 N wij's solution is prepared by iodine monochloride and glacial acetic acid by adding iodine monochloride and glacial acetic acid by 2:3 ratio.

Methods to prepare the blend of the oils

Mix 2 cm³ of red palm oil, 2 cm³ of palm oil and 2 cm³ of olive oil in a small beaker. The ratio of oils is 1: 1: 1.

Weigh 6.0 g of red palm oil was weighed using beam balance and was put in a 250 ml flask. Then, 15 ml of carbon tetrachloride was put in the flask. Next, 25 ml of Wij's solution were added. After all the three solution has been added, the solution were mixed well. The flask then was closed with stopper and later were kept in dark cupboard for 1 approximately 1 hour. After 1 hour, 20 ml of potassium iodide was added to the conical flask followed by the adding of 150 ml of distilled water into the flask. After the solution has been mixed well together, the mixture was the titrated with 50 ml sodium thiosulphate with constant and vigorous shaking until the yellow colour almost disappear. After that, 1-2 drops of starch indicator solution was added to the conical flask and the titration was continued until the blue colour disappears. Steps 1 to 7 were repeated using olive oil and palm oil and its blend. The iodine value were calculated by using the following formula,

1V= 12.69N (B-S)W

Where

IV is the iodine value

N is the exact concentration of sodium thiosulphate

B is the volume in ml, of sodium thiosulphate used for the blank test

S is the volume in ml, of sodium thiosulphate used for the oil sample

W is the sample weight in gram

The iodine value is then tabulated in table and compared.

Colour measurement experiment:

Apparatus and Material :

Apparatus

Table 5 : Shows the list of apparatus used in the experiment of determining the colour of different types of oils

No.

Apparatus

Quantity

Volume/ Size

1

Colormeter

1

Standard size

Materials :

Table 6 : Shows the list of materials used in the experiment of determining the colour of different types of oils

No.

Materials

Quantity

Volume/ Size

1

Red Palm oil sample

3

30 cm³

2

Palm oil sample

3

30 cm³

3

Olive oil sample

3

30 cm³

Method

Red palm oil was put in a small cylindrical cube to be measured using calorimeter to investigate its lightness and darkness. Then, the reading of the colorimeter is noted. Next, was steps 1 to 2 were repeated using palm oil and olive oil.

Preparation for doing the cake

All the ingredients that are needed to make the cake batter. The cake batter is then baked for about 45 minutes in oven at 180 ⁰C. After the cake has been baked, it is then cooled and stored in a container. The cakes are made with 100% red palm oil, 100% palm oil and 100% olive oil.

The ingredients are as follow :-

Table 7 Shows the ingredients in making the cakes for specific density experiment

Ingredients

Amount

Flour

100 g

Fat

75 g

Sugar

100 g

Egg

2

Baking powder

5 g

Baking soda

5 g

Cinnamon powder

2.5 g

Salt

2 g

Apparatus:

Table 9 : Shows the list of apparatus used in the experiment of determining the specific volume of cakes used

No.

Apparatus

Quantity

Volume/ Size

1

Volumeter

1

Standard size

Materials:

Table 10: Shows the list of materials used in the experiment of determining the specific volume of cakes

No.

Materials

Quantity

Volume/ Size

1

Red Palm Oil Cake

1

5 inch

2

Olive Oil Cake

1

5 inch

3

Palm Oil Cake

1

5 inch

4

The Blend Sample Cake

1

5 inch

Cake Specific Volume Test

Red palm oil was used as the main fat in baking a cake. The cake was baked one day using seed displacement technique. The volumeter was calibrated using a block of wood with standard volume of 500 cm³. Next, the cake was placed in a volumeter. A knobe was pulled to allow the mustard seed to slide down and fill the void space at the bottom portion of the volumeter. The cake was then compressed to its maximum limit by using mustard seed displacement technique. When the cake has been compressed to it maximum limit, the reading was recorded. After that, steps 1 to 4 were repeated using palm oil cake and olive oil cakes. The final height of the cakes were tabulated in a table.

Data collection:

Table 11 Shows the reading of sodium thiosulphate used to titrate the fat solution

Sample

Initial reading of sodium thiosulphate, 0.05 cm³

Final reading of sodium thiosulphate , 0.05 cm

Trial 1

Trial 2

Blank test

0.00

14.05

14.04

Red palm oil

0.00

37.31

37.75

Palm oil

0.00

41.69

41.60

Olive oil

0.00

38.76

38.50

The combination

0.00

39.42

39.64

Table 12 shows the weight in mass of cakes

Sample

Mass of cakes, 0.0001 g

Trial 1

Trial 2

Red palm oil

230.2

230.2

Palm oil

287.4

282.4

Olive oil

241.6

241.6

The combination

264.3

265.1

Table 13 Shows the value for specific volume of the cakes

Sample

Reading of volumeter,cc

Trial 1

Trial 2

Red palm oil

550

550

Palm oil

660

650

Olive oil

630

630

The blend

650

650

Data Processing

To calculate the average volume of sodium thiosulphate used to titrate the fat solution

Average reading = Trial 1 + Trial 2 + Trial 3

3

For example, to calculate the average volume of sodium thiosulphate used to titrate red palm oil,

= 37.31 + 37.75 + 36.98

3

= 37.35 cm³

To calculate the average mass for the cakes tested

The equation is applied,

Average mass (grams) = Trial 1 + Trial 2 + Trial 3

3

For example, to calculate the average mass for red palm oil cake,

= 230.2 + 230.2 + 225.9

3

= 228.77 grams

To calculate the average specific volume of cakes produced by the oils used

The equation is applied,

Average specific volume (cc) = Trial 1 + Trial 2 + Trial 3

3

For example, to calculate the average specific volume for red palm oil cake,

= 550.0 + 550.0 +545.0

3

= 548.3 cc

The iodine value experiment

The formula used to find the iodine value:

IV = (12.69 N (B-S)) / W

Where,

IV is the iodine value

N is the concentration of sodium thiosulphate, N2S2O7, in mol dm¯³

B is the volume of, in ml of sodium thiosulphate used for the blank test

S is the volume, in ml of sodium thiosulphate used for the fat/ oil sample

W is the sample weight in gram

To test iodine value for Red Palm Oil

B, initial volume of sodium thiosulphate used = 0 ml

S, volume of sodium thiosulphate used for blank test = 14.05

W, weight of red palm oil used = 0.6000 gram ,

To determine the iodine value in Blank Test

IV = 12.69 (B-S) /W

12.69 0.1 (50.00-14.05)

0.6

= 76.03

To determine the iodine value for red palm oil

12.69 0.1 (50.00-37.34)

0.6

= 26.78

The number of degrees of unsaturation can be determined from the molecular formula using the following equation,

Degree of unsaturation = [ (number of carbons ) + 2 ] ― number of hydrogens

2

By using the equation, the number of degrees of unsaturation can be determined for any hydrocarbon whose molecular formula known. For example, to determine the number of degrees of unsaturation in the formula of palm oil, C55H95O6 , the formula is then applied. The greater the degree of unsaturation, the lower is the melting point of the fat or oil. The double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids are in cis structure.

Palm oil = [(55 2) + 2] ― 95

2

= 5 degree

To find the degree of unsaturation of red palm oil, C40H5602

Red palm oil = [(40 2) + 2] 56

2

= 13 degree

To find the degree of unsaturation of olive oil, J10 C9 H12 Na2,

The degree of unsaturation,

[ (9 2) + 2] ―12

2

= 4 degree

Calculation for uncertainty

Uncertainty of conical flask = 5.00 cm³

Uncertainty of burette = 0.05 cm³

Uncertainty of measuring cylinder = 0.05 cm³

Uncertainty of weighing balance = 0.0001 g

Calculation of uncertainties

R = x iodine value

Where

V1 = volume of solution in conical flask

V2 = volume of sodium thiosulphate used for titration

V3 = volume of solution in measuring cylinder

V4 = mass of oils used

Total uncertainties for red palm oil for iodine value

= + + + 26.78

= 13.48

Table 14 shows the average volume of sodium thiosulphate

Sample

Volume of sodium thiosulphate , 0.05 cm

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Control

14.05

14.04

14.05

Red palm oil

37.31

37.75

36.98

Palm oil

41.69

41.60

41.70

Olive oil

38.76

38.50

38.43

The blend

39.42

39.64

39.71

Table 15 shows the average mass for the cakes produced

Sample

Mass of cakes, grams (g)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Red palm oil

230.2

230.2

225.9

Palm oil

287.4

282.4

287.4

Olive oil

241.6

241.6

241.6

The combination

264.3

265.1

264.4

Table 16 shows the average reading for the specific volume of the cakes produced

Sample

Reading of volumeter,cc

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Red palm oil

550

550

545

Palm oil

660

650

660

Olive oil

630

630

630

The blend

650

650

655

Table 17 shows the total uncertainties for iodine value experiement

Types of oils

Total uncertainties for iodine value ,

Blank test

22.45

Red palm oil

13.48

Palm oil

8.88

Olive oil

12.18

The combination

11.08

Table : Shows the percentage error for iodine value and its percentage error

Table 18 shows the iodine value and the total uncertainties

Sample

Iodine Value

Total uncertainties ,

Blank test

76.03

38.26

Red palm oil

26.78

13.48

Palm oil

17.64

8.88

Olive oil

24.20

12.18

The combination

22.02

11.08

Discussion

The degree of unsaturated of oil can be expressed by iodine value (IV), which is based on the amount of iodine absorbed by fat on 100 grams basis. The higher the iodine value, the higher the degree of unsaturated. Unsaturated is the condition when there are presence of carbon-carbon, C= C double bond. The iodine value for palm oil, red oil, olive oil and its blend is presented in table 1. Red palm oil has the highest iodine value, which is 32.31. Olive oil has the second highest iodine value, which is 26.53, whereas its blend records the third highest iodine value of 26.42 and palm oil has the least IV value of 21.09, which is the lowest of all oils. Higher amount of iodine value is due to addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturation fatty acid is when there are more than one carbon-carbon double bond is present in a fat. The blank test is used as a control experiment, which is to know the iodine value without the presence of oils.

Red palm oil has the highest iodine value. It is because it contain the highest number of unsaturation of fatty acid. "The higher the iodine number, the more unsaturated fatty acid bonds are present in a fat". Unsaturated fatty acid is when double bond is present and hydrogen atom is eliminated. Alkene are compounds that contain carbon-carbon double bonds. Alkenes are said to be saturated hydrocarbons because these molecules are saturated with hydrogen. It is crucial to know the number of degree of unsaturation to know how many double bonds are present in a compound. The greater the number of double bonds in a lipid, the greater the amount of iodine that adds to 100 grams of it. The degree of unsaturation in a molecule are additive. A molecule with one double bond has one degree of unsaturation, whereas a molecule with two double bonds has two degree of unsaturation. Just as the formation of a double bond causes two hydrogen to be lost, the formation of ring also results in the loss of two hydrogens, hence, every ring in the molecule also adds one additional degree of unsaturation. For every triple bond, two degrees of unsaturation are added to the molecule. The number of degrees of unsaturation can be determined from the molecular formula using the following equation,

The specific cake volumes of the three cakes, namely red palm oil cake, palm oil cake and olive cake were tested. All the data are presented in table 3 below. Red palm oil cake has the highest specific volume. This shows that red palm oil cake can be compressed more than palm oil cake and olive oil cake. the higher the specific volume reading, the more the cake can be compressed, hence the more softer the cake is.

Chemical properties of the oils shows that red palm oil has the highest iodine value. It shows that red palm oil has higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Olive oil and palm oil have lower iodine value than red palm oil. Red palm oil also has the highest 'R' value, which are 70. It shows that red palm oil has the most reddish colour as it contains a high level of carotenes. Higher values of carotenes give darker colour in red palm oil. Olive oil has the highest value of 'L' which is 60, indicates it has the lightest colour. Palm oil has the highest value of 'Y' which is, 50 indicates that it has the highest value of yellowness.

Red palm oil cakes records the lowest average mass, which is 228.8 grams. The olive oil cake has the second highest average mass of 241.6 grams. The blend oil cake records the third highest average mass reading of 264.6 grams while palm oil cake has the highest average mass, which is 285.7 grams. This clearly shows that, although the ingredients used to make the cakes are the same, but the capacity of the cakes to store air, hence making the cake lighter in mass is different. Red palm oil has the highest tendency to store air while palm oil has the lowest tendency to store air.

Based on the result obtained, it can be stated that the blend of the oils which contain red palm oil,palm oil and olive oil in a 1 : 1 : 1 ratio is the best in producing cake. This is because the blend has a high contain of carotenoids, source of vitamin A, which mostly obtained from red palm oil. Besides that, the cakes that is baked using the oil blend contain a high level of HDL cholesterol, which is good for health as its tendency to reduce the level of bad cholesterol by 35 % and increase the level of good fat by about 15 %. Also , the blend also has higher melting point compared to oils such as olive oils and red palm oil. This make the blend suitable for producing cakes for commercial valufromes. High contain of carotenoids also make the cakes can be stored longer in a refrigerator by maintaining its original colour.

In terms of the taste, of all 30 students from Kolej Mara Banting, which has age of 19 years, 25 students agree that the cake that is made by using the blend oil has the highest rated. According to them, the texture of the cake is not too oily like red palm oil cake does. In addition to that, palm oil cake has the worst rated cake among all the cakes that being surveyed. This is because due the cake is hard and dry. Olive oil cake has the third most preferable cake. The cake has the smell of olive and most of the students do not like that kind of taste.

For the sensory test,all the 30 candidates chosen were given 5 cm³ 5 cm³ size cake sample, which is red palm oil cake, plam oil cake, olive oil cake and oil blend cake. Among the components that being tested is the colour, appereance, softness, oiliness, flavor and overall. There are six categories, which is 1 for poor, 2 for fair, 3 for neutral, 4 for good, 5 for very good and 6 for excellence. For red palm oil cake, most of the candidates agree to rate the colour, appereance, while the softness is 6. Red palm oil cake is the most oiliest cakes of all, which is rated 2 by majority of the candidates. For the flavor, 4 is the majority of the candidates agree with. For palm oil cake, which is the least cake favoured by the students, is majority being rated 3 by the candidates except for oiliness ad softness is 4. Olive oil cakes records a majority of rating 3 also except for softness is 4 and flavor is 2. The oil blend cake has majority rating of 4 except for softness and flavor are 5. The overall rating for red palm oil cake is 5, palm oil cake is 3, olive oil cake is 3 and blend oil cake is 6. This shows that most of the candidates prefer blend oil cake compared to other cakes.

Texture often plays important role in determining cake qualities. One often judge food based on the texture. Texture is defined as the distinctive physical composition or structure of something, especially with respect to the size, shape, and arrangement of its parts. Human senses, namely sense of taste and sense of touch are the main factors in affecting human perception. Texture in food is also being defined by some researches. One of the researchers state that "texture is the sensory and functional manifestation of the structural, mechanical and surface properties of foods detected through the sense of vision, hearing, touch and kinesthetic" (Szczesniak 2002).

The texture of the cake is measured in term of the hardness value. The higher the force needed to compress the cake to half of its original value, the higher the hardness value. The relation between the force needed to compress the cake with the hardness value is directly proportional. Also, the higher the hardness value, the lower the specific density of the cake. this is because, as the lower the specific density of the cake, the lower the cake capacity to store air in the cake, hence the cake becomes harder to press. Therefore the relation of hardness of cake with the cake specific density is inversely proportional.

It can be seen that red palm oil cake has the highest specific volume , which means a less compact cake compared to palm oil cake and olive oil cake. Red palm oil cake has specific density of 548.3 cc, which is the lowest reading for specific density. Red palm oil cake has the highest tendency store air and it is easier to compress the cake, hence the hardness value of red palm oil cake is the lowest. Olive oil cake has the second highest specific density, which is 630 cc. Olive oil cake has the second highest hardness value. On the other hand, palm oil cake has the lowest specific density value of 550 cc and the highest hardness value. The blend of the oils records the third highest specific density reading, which is 651.6 cc.

The oil samples were poured into glass tubes and placed in the instrument holder. The colour of the samples was measured using colourmeter. Colour samples are expressed in terms of L*- lightness, R*- redness, G*- greenness and Y*-yellowness. Graph 1 shows the 'L', 'R' and 'Y' value of the oil samples and their blends. The 'L' value indicates lightness, the higher the value, the lighter the colour. As for 'R', it indicates redness, the higher the value of 'R', the more red the colour is. 'G' indicates greenness, the higher the value of 'G', the greener the colour.'Y' indicates yellowness, the higher the value of 'R', the more yellow the colour is. Red palm oil has the highest 'R' value, which is 70. Red palm oil has the highest R value because of high content of carotenes. Higher content of carotene will result in more reddish colour of oil. Olive oil has the highest value of 'L'. Olive oil has the lightest colour.

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