Hereditary Disease And Symptoms Biology Essay


Heredity can be defined as the study of what causes resemblances and differences between organisms. Another definition of is that the process by which mental and physical characteristics are passed by parents to their children; these characteristics in a particular person.

A number of severe diseases occur through out the world but generally few are affected by each one, as they arte primarily linked to certain families in specific areas. Some such diseases, however, are spread world wide and affect many. Symptoms can be present at birth or become manifest later in life and they may also vary considerably among people with the same diagnosis.

Under normal circumstances such as harmful allele would have been eliminated from a population as the affected individuals would die before reproducing. However, through the disease is rare in most parts of the world, it is quiet common in West Africa where malaria is prevalent. This is because of the peculiar advantage that individual who is heterozygous for the sickle-cell allele. Heterozygous individuals have one dominant (normal) allele one recessive (sickle-cell) allele in their genotype. They don't show the disease although a small percent of their red blood cell do show sickling. These heterozygous individual are more resistant to malaria than individuals who have two copies of the normal hemoglobin individuals have a better chance of surviving and reproducing than normal individuals in regions where malaria is prevalent.

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The incidence of asthma has risen dramatically in the past 20 years a period for too short to reflect any significant changes in the gene pool. This supports the important role that environmental influences (allergy, infection, lifestyle, and diet) have on the development of asthma.

Inheriting genes for asthma does not necessarily means that a person will definitely asthma. The gene makes for susceptibility. The susceptibility genes together with the asthma promoting factor in your environment, and your lifestyle can all conspire to put you at risk for developing asthma.

Signs and symptoms include shortness of breath, chest tightness, cough and wheezing. The diagnosis is based on these features (without wheezing) it is not asthma and is confirmed with breathing tests. Chest X-rays are usually normal in people with asthma.

Asthma patients has episodes when breathing is breathing is difficult. These episodes can resolve spontaneously or may require treatment.

Asthma patients and their physicians may select from a wide variety of prescription medication. Asthmatic patients should not use epinephrine or ephedrine because of their relatively weak effectiveness or side effects.

There are many risk factors for developing childhood asthma. These include:

Presence of allergies

Family history of asthma and/or allergy

Frequent respiratory infections

Low birth weight

4.3. Arthritis

Arthritis is a joint disorder featuring inflammation. A joint is an arear of the body where two different bones meet. Arthritis literary means inflammation of one or more joints.

Arthritis is frequently accompanied by joint pain. Joint pain is referred to as arthralgia. There are many types of arthritis. These types ranges from those related to wear and tear of cartilage (such as Osteoarthritis) to those associated with inflammation resulting from an over active immune system (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

The causes of arthritis depend on the form of arthritis. Causes include injury, metabolic abnormalities (gout and pseudogout), hereditary factor, infections, and unclear reasons (such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lopus erythematosus).

Arthritis is classified as one of the rheumatic disease. These are conditions that are different individual illnesses, with differing features, treatment, complications and prognoses. They are similar in that they have a tendency to affect the joints, muscles, ligaments, cartilage and tendons, and many have the potential to affect other internal body areas.

Some other symptoms in the patients with certain arthritis include fever, gland swelling (lymph node), weight loss, fatigue, feeling unwell, and even symptoms from abnormalities of organs such as the lungs, heart and kidneys.

The treatment of arthritis is very dependent on the precise type of arthritis present. An acute diagnosis increases the chances for successful treatment. Treatments available include physical therapy, splinting, cold pack application, Paraffin wax dips, anti-inflammation medications, immune alteration medication and surgical operations.

4.4. Hypoglycemia

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It is the clinical syndrome that results from low blood sugar. The symptoms of hypoglycemia can vary form person to person, as can the severity. It can be diagnosed by a low blood sugar with symptoms that resolve when the sugar level returns to the normal range.

While patients who don't have any metabolic problem can complain of symptoms suggestive of low blood sugar, true hypoglycemia usually occurs in patients being treated for diabetes.

Patients wit pre-diabetes who have insulin resistance can also have low blood sugar on occasion if their high circulating insulin levels are further challenged by prolonged period of fasting. There are other rare causes for hypoglycemia, such as insulin producing tumors and certain medication.

When the circulating level of blood glucose falls, the brain actually senses the drop. The brain then sends out message that triggers a series of events, including changes in hormones and nervous system responses that are aimed at increasing blood glucose levels. Insulin secretion decreases and hormones that promotes higher blood glucose level, cortisol, growth, hormones, and epinephrine all increases.

Symptoms of hypoglycemia first set called adrenergic (or sympathetic) because they relate to the nervous system's response to hypoglycemia.



Intense hunger




Often have trouble speaking

If the person doesn't or cannot respond by eating something to raise blood glucose the level of glucose continues to drop. Somewhere in the 50 mg/dl range, most patients progress to neuroglysopenic ranges. At this point, symptoms progress to confusion, drowsiness, changes in behavior, coma and seizure.

The treatment of hypoglycemia involves the rapid delivery of a source of easily absorbed sugar. Regular soda, juices, lifesavers, table sugar are good options. In general, 15 grams of glucose is the dose that is given, followed by an assessment of symptoms and a blood glucose check if possible. If after 10 minutes there is no improvement, another 10-15 grams should be given. This can be repeated up to three times.

The equivalencies of 10-15 gram of glucose are

Four life saver.

Four teaspoon of sugar.

½ can of regular soda or juice.

4.5. Leukemia

Leukemia is the cancer that starts in the tissue that forms blood. In a person with leukemia the bone marrow makes abnormal white blood cells. The abnormal cells are leukemia cells.

The type of leukemia can be grouped based on how quickly the disease develop and gets worse. Leukemia is either chronic (which usually gets worse slowly) and acute (which usually gets worse quickly).

4.5.1. Risk Factors

Risk Factors may be different for the different types of leukemia. Radiation

Exposed to very high level of radiation are much more likely than others to get acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia or acute lyxphocytic leukemia. Radiation Therapy

Increases the risk of leukemia. Smoking

Cigarettes increase the risk of acute myeloid leukemia. Chemotherapy

Cancer patient treated with certain types of cancer-fighting drugs sometimes later gets acute myeloid or acute lymphoelytic leukemia. Down Syndrome

It is also an inherited disease which increases the risk of developing acute leukemia. Family History

It's rare for more than one person in a family to have leukemia.

4.5.2. Symptoms

Common symptoms of chromic and acute leukemia may include

Swollen lymph nodes that usually don't hurt

Fever or night sweats

Frequent infections

Feeling weak or tired

Bleeding and bruising easily (bleeding gums, purplish patches or tiny red spots under the skins)

Swelling and discomfort in the abdomen (from swollen spleen or liver)

Weight loss for unknown reasons

Pain in the bines or joints.

4.5.3. Diagnosis

Leukemia can be diagnosed by

Physical examination

Blood Test

Bone marrow aspiration

Bone marrow biopsy


Spinal tap

Chest X-Ray

The choice of treatment for leukemia depends on.

The type of leukemia (acute or chromic)

Patient's Age.

Whether leukemia cells were found in your cerebrospinal fluid

Feature of the leukemia cell

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Leukemia and its treatment can lead to other health problems. Patients should have supportive care before, during or after cancer treatment.

Health problems may be infection, anemia and bleeding and dental problems.