Health And Safety Battery Leakage Leads To Fire Biology Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

In day to day activities involve by an individual huge amount of electricity used for home appliances as well as newly added controls like Online Detection Cameras(ODC), Automatic Door Opening(ADO) etc. which requires continuous electrical supply. Shortage of electricity leads to load shadings for some hours per day developing countries but in order maintain continuous power supply to every house hold they needs storage batteries with an inverter, no doubt standard batteries are not polluting static charges , but in case of leakage/used batteries there is a continuous pollution of static charges, which leads to electric shocks on metallic house hold parts like Door Handles, Hall drops, Hunches, Window handles, as well as any other small metallic parts or edges in case of bigger metallic parts. If the leakage batteries are placed in closed house/store & no exhaust fans are used, as well as windows remain closed then static charges are insidious source from leakage batteries & leads to an electrical shocks at higher concentration, it also generate spark or fire / explosion, whereas electrical shock is feeling like a sharp and quick tremor or vibration.

INRTODUCTION:-

Static Electricity- Static electricity results from an unequal (or positive and negative) charge between two objects. The major cause of static electricity is dry air. When air is humid, extra static electricity is dissipated by the moisture. where as in dry air, there is nothing to absorb the charge, so it builds up.

Automobile Robotics Engineering Dcember14thto15th,2012 Singapore ,

&Environmental Sciences (ICBEE'2012)

Paper ID-1212565, Singapore

The Sources of Static Electricity - Static charges were produced by1) Non- conductive conveyor belts or by drive belts 2)Filling Tanks ,Drums etc,3) Dry powered material passes through pneumatic conveyor's 4)Spray coating 5)Liquid flow through the pipe & 6)Leakage or damage batteries etc.

Explosion-When some sensitive electrical components or volatile materials (such as papers/powders/flammable liquids) spark and electrical discharge can cause catastrophic failure in sensitive electrical components and ignite volatile substances. Sometimes unexpected fire occurs due to such spark. Static electricity can also produce enough charge to damage electronic equipment,

Electrostatic Charge Detection- The presence of static electricity can be crudely detected by sensory perception or by the attraction or repulsion

Reduction of Static Charges - Apply an anti-static treatment. If increasing humidity isn't an option, Anti-static chemicals sprayed onto conducting surfaces will decrease static electricity. These chemicals are temporary, so high-traffic areas may require identification of leakages in batteries or return them to the seller

How to stop shocks from Static Electricity- Shocks makes hold a metal in your hand, or touch metal to metal, to discharge the electric build up and keep from getting shocked. Car key or house key can easily discharge such static fields.

Instructions - Install a home humidifier. A whole-house humidifier monitors the humidity level of the home and increases humidity levels as needed through water vapor. Whole-house humidifiers can be installed into the central air or heating unit. These units are expensive but are the most effective way to introduce additional moisture into the home.

Dangers Due to Leakage in Lead Acited Batteries:-Lead acid batteries are the battery used to power cars, trucks, tractors & for inverters; are time-tested and reliable, but handled with care due to the hazardous substances that are contained inside the batteries. Care must be taken when installing, removing, and working. Also lead-acid batteries pose environmental hazard. The electrolyte solution in lead-acid batteries is composed of 35-40 percent sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid is a highly corrosive and poisonous liquid that causes severe chemical burns to skin and eyes. In charging state hydrogen and oxygen gases are formed, which can cause to explode.

Injuries Caused by Lead-Acited Batteries- The injuries due to lead-acid batteries are eye and facial burns caused by release of acid during battery explosions. Acid burns are very difficult and painful to treat, eye injuries by sulfuric acid result in permanent blindness or loss of one or both eyes.

Environmental Damage Caused by Lead-Acid Batteries- Lead is extremely toxic to human beings, animals and especially to aquatic life. In addition, the harmful sulfuric acid that remains can leak from the battery so that it enters the water, soil and air.

Preventing Lead-Acid Battery Related Injuries-Sparks that set off explosions are a main cause of lead-acid battery-related injuries. Therefore, metal instruments should never touch battery terminals. Cables should be kept clean & free of corrosion and replaced when worn. The battery can be refilled with nonmetallic vessels and funnels. Wearing a mask and protective clothing can help prevent acid-related injuries.

Discharge of Static electricity-Once a static charge concentration has been built up, it will discharge. Sudden discharge is produced when a charged object touches a conductive object, and creates a static shock. Most of the times people have experienced a static shock when touching another person, a doorknob, or other metal objects large enough shock can be felt when the air is very dry. Static shock occurs most commonly in the winter as the dry air allows charge to be stored in an object longer without dissipating; static discharges are rarely observed in humid weather, water particles in humid air causes a static charge to dissipate much more quickly,

Leakage Battery Develops Fire/Explosion- Hydrogen &Oxygen gases are produced in the cell during charging & discharging whereas Hydrogen is highly flammable & Oxygen combustion supportive, these gases then spread in the local climate of room or industry develops risk of fire or explosion.

II) WOTKING OF LEAD-ACID BATTERY- A Lead-Acid battery cell consists of two lead plates say Positive & negative plates .The positive plates are coated with a paste of lead dioxide and a negative made of sponge lead separated with an insulating material between them. The plates are enclosed in a plastic battery case and then submerge in an electrolyte consisting of water and sulfuric acid each cell is capable of storing 2.1 volts.

Positive

Terminal

rom the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]

Negative

Terminal

document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]

Seprator

(Insulating Material)

12.1V

Positive Plate (Lead Dioxide)

Battery electrolyte

Battery Case

Negative Plate (Sponge Lead)

Fig-1

By charging process another source is connected to the battery & it is charged to its full level, the capacity of battery is 2.1x6=12.6V & 100 to 125 AH as all the cells are connected in series as shown in fig-1

BATTERY REACTIONS:-

Discharging State-Negative plate reaction:

P b(s) + HSO−4(aq) → PbSO4(s) + H+(aq) + 2-e

Positive plate reaction:

PbO2(s) + HSO−4(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2-e → PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

The total reaction can be written :

P b (s) + PbO2(s) + 2H2SO4(aq) → 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

Charging state reaction-

Negative plate reaction:

PbSO4(s) + H+(aq) + 2-e → Pb(s) + HSO−4(aq)

Positive plate reaction:

PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) → PbO2(s) + HSO−4(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 2-e

VI) Discharge of Accumulated of Charges from Door Handles-fig 2.

fig 2

V) OBSERVATION TABLE FOR CHARGING & DISCHARGING STATEUSING OPEN CIRCUITED VOLTAGE W.R.T.%BATERY CHARGING Table-1

Charge/Discharge State

Open Circuit Voltage

%Battery Charging State

Fully Charge State

12.65V

100%

Discharging State

12.40V

75%

Discharging State

12.10V

50%

Discharging State

11.95V

25%

Fully Discharge State

11.65V

0% Table-1

V) GRAPH OF OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE VS % BATTERY

CHARGING STATE -

VI)The GRAPH OF OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE VS % BATTERY DIASCHARGING STATE-

X) EFFECT OF LEAKAGE BATTERY -

Charge/Discharge State

Open Circuit Voltage

Approximate Charge

Approximate No of days required to discharge the battery( Accumulation of charges in a Closed House)

Fully Charge State

12.65V

100%

1 -2day's(Less Static charges accumulation lighter shock )

Discharging State

12.40V

75%

10- 12 day's(more static charge accumulation ,heavy shock)

Discharging State

12.10V

50%

15-17day's(more static charge accumulation ,heavy shock)

Discharging State

11.95V

25%

30days(Heavy Shock/Spark in Moisture)

17-20days( in dry air-at temp 40-42°C

Fully Discharge State

11.65V

0%

One & half month(Explosion/Fire)

25 days in dry air at temp. 40-42°C

IX)Conclusion:-

1) A house is being regularly used in which total windows are open & exhaust fan is in working condition, in such case less amt. of static charge concentration is developed on metallic surface. Feeling of lighter shock.

2) If the house is totally closed for more or more than one month for leakage battery, which is placed in closed house then there will be heavy shock / explosion /fire, which will feel unpleasant in the house .

3) In case of dry air at high temp charge pollution in the house is more as compared to moisture air

X)References:-

[1]NFPA Fire Investigation Report on the Los Angeles Grand Telephone Exchange Fire of March 15, 1994

[2] "Lead/Acid Battery" brochure published and distributed by the Texas Department of Health Hazard Communication Branch-i.e. Lead/acid batteries pose a substantial risk to the community at large and to emergency responders in a fire or other emergency. It is important to note that the sulfuric acid contained in these batteries has been listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an Extremely Hazardous Substance.

[3] Robert L. Taylor, President, Morning Star Industries, Incorporated, Power Systems Solutions Division Battery fires may be started due to a cell failure, ADVISORY - FIRE DEPARTMENT SAFETY OFFICERS ASSOCIATION LEAD-ACID BATTERIES IN BUILDINGS

[4] This article was published by the Fire Department Safety Officers Association (FDSOA in their October 1998 issue of "Health & Safety for Fire and Emergency Service Personnel" and is posted here with their permission.),

[5]Andersson, P.; Nilsson, D.; Svensson, P. O.; Chen, M. X.;Malmstrom, A.; Remonen, T.; Kugler, T.; Berggren, M.Active Matrix Displays Based on All-OrganicElectrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper. Adv. Mater.2002, 14, 1460-1464.

[6]. Eder, F.; Klauk, H.; Halik, M.; Zschieschang, U.; Schmid, G.;Dehm, C. Organic Electronics on Paper. Appl. Phys. Lett.2004, 84, 2673-2675.

[7]. Kim, D. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Wu, J.; Liu, Z. J.; Song, J. Z.; Kim, H. S.;Huang, Y. G. Y.; Hwang, K. C.; Rogers, J. A. Ultrathin Silicon

Circuits with Strain-Isolation Layers and Mesh Layouts forHigh-Performance Electronics on Fabric, Vinyl, Leather,and Paper. Adv. Mater. 2009, 21, 3703-3707.

[8]. Tarascon, J. M.; Armand, M. Issues and Challenges FacingRechargeable Lithium Batteries. Nature 2001, 414,359-367.

[9]. Hu, L.; Hecht, D. S.; Gruner, G. Percolation in Transparentand Conducting Carbon Nanotube Networks. Nano Lett.2004, 4, 2513-2517.

[10]. Kaempgen, M.; Chan, C. K.; Ma, J.; Cui, Y.; Gruner, G.Printable Thin Film Supercapacitors Using Single-WalledCarbon Nanotubes. Nano Lett. 2009, 9, 1872-1876.

[11]. Hu, L. C., J.; Yang, Y.; La Mantia, F.; Jeong, S.; Cui, Y. HighlyConductive Paper for Energy Storage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

U.S.A. 2009, 106, 21490-21494.

[12]. Islam, M. F.; Rojas, E.; Bergey, D. M.; Johnson, A. T.; Yodh,A. G. High Weight Fraction Surfactant Solubilization ofSingle-Wall Carbon Nanotubes in Water. Nano Lett. 2003,3, 269-273.

[13]. Tracton, A. A. Coating Handbook; Marcel Dekker, Inc: NewYork, 2001.[14]. Cao, Q.; Zhu, Z. T.; Lemaitre, M. G.; Xia, M. G.; him, M.;Rogers, J. A. Transparent Flexible Organic Thin-FilmTransistors That Use Printed Single-Walled CarbonNanotube Electrodes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2006, 88,113511-113513.

[14]. Hu, L.; Hecht, D.; Gru¨ ner, G. Carbon Nanotube Thin Films:Fabrications, Properties, and Applications. Chem. Rev.2010, doi: 10.1021/cr9002962.

[15]. Muriset, G. Influence of the Impurities in the Foil,Electrolyte and Paper in the Electrolytic Capacitor. J. PowerSources 1952, 99, 285-288.

[16]. Geng, H. Z.; Kim, K. K.; So, K. P.; Lee, Y. S.; Chang, Y.; Lee,Y. H. Effect of Acid Treatment on Carbon Nanotube-Based

Flexible Transparent Conducting Films. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2007, 129, 7758-7759.

[17]. Ng, S. H. W., J.; Guo, Z. P.; Chen, J.; Wang, G. X.; Liu, H. K.Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Paper as Anode for Lithium-Ion Battery. Electrochim. Acta 2005, 51, 23-28.

[18]. Kufian, M. Z.; Majid, S. R. Performance of Lithium-Ion CellsUsing 1 M LiPF6 in EC/DEC (v/v _ 1/2) Electrolyte withEthyl Propionate Additive. Ionics 2009, 16, 409-416.

[19]. L. Kavan, M. G. Facile Synthesis of NanocrystallineLi4ti5o12 (Spinel) Exhibiting Fast Li Insertion. ElectrochemSolid State Lett 2002, 5, 39-42.

[20]. Zaghib, K; Armand, M.; Gauthier, M. Electrochemical Studyof Li4Ti5O12 as Negative Electrode for Li-Ion PolymerRechargeable Batteries. J. Power Sources 1999, 81,300-305.

[21]18. Thackeray, M. M.; Johnson, P. J.; de Picciotto, L. A.; Bruce,P. G.; Goodenough, J. B. Electrochemical Extraction ofLithium from LiMn2O4. Mater. Res. Bull. 1984, 19, 179-187.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.