Harmful Effects Of Mobile Phone Biology Essay

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Penetration of electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phones into human skin and blood is studied. The transmitted waves from these mobile phones are exposed to the human body and are penetrated into the body where field reduces exponentially with depth. As the reduction in field is due to absorption of power, specific absorption rate (SAR) is calculated and compared with permissible limit given by International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and World Health Organization (WHO). It is found that the SAR values are above the limit at distances 1 to 15 cm from the body, frequencies 800, 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz and effective radiated power of 2 Watts.

Key Words: Electromagnetic waves, skin and blood tissues, specific absorption rate (SAR).

Introduction

The high frequency electromagnetic waves are emitted from the various types of transmission towers as radio, TV and mobile phone. The high frequency electromagnetic waves are also emitted from the mobile phone hand sets. These electromagnetic waves are induced the electric field in the atmosphere around us. These waves are incident on the human body. When these waves are penetrated inside the body, the induced electric field decreased gradually inside the body. This electric field decreases due to the absorption of energy by the different parts of the body.

The rapid growth rate of mobile phones and wireless communication systems, alongside various reports of possible adverse effects on health, has caused increased concern around the world over the potential effect of electromagnetic pollution on health and the environment. It is clear that a new level of debate needs to take place between scientists, government and the general public in order to develop appropriate precautionary guidance7.

Manufacturers are required to report the specific absorption rate (SAR) of their product to the FCC. The SAR is the amount of radio frequency (RF) energy absorbed from the phone into the local tissues. The upper limit of SAR allowed is 1.6 watts per kilogram of body weight8. Exposure to RF also depends on the duration and frequency of cellular phone use, with more use implying more exposure. Finally, older mobile phones involve higher exposure than newer, digital equipment5.

There has been concern about possible health consequences from exposure to the RF fields produced by wireless technologies. The fact sheet reviews the scientific evidence on the health effects from continuous low-level human exposure to base stations and other local wireless networks3.

2. Health Concerns

The absorption of electromagnetic waves by the different biological parts of the body may produce the harmful effect on the body. Scientific evidence on the distribution of cancer in the population can be obtained through carefully planned and executed epidemiological studies. Over the past 15 years, studies examining a potential relationship between RF transmitters and cancer have been published2.

Many studies have been shown the serious health effects associated with electromagnetic radiation and this device, including cancer and reproductive health effects. It is recommended that children and pregnant women keep this device away from their head and body1.

2.1 Protection Standards: International exposure guidelines have been developed to provide protection against established effects from RF fields by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP, 1998) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE, 2005). National authorities should adopt international standards to protect their citizens against adverse levels of RF fields. They should restrict access to areas where exposure limits may be exceeded4.

3. Material and Methods:

Electromagnetic waves are transmitted from the various types of transmission towers and also from cell phones. The radio, TV and mobile phone transmitters and cell phones transmit radio frequency radiation that is, electric and magnetic fields of radio frequency propagating in the atmosphere. The effects of electric field due to cell phones are studied. At source, the magnitude of this electric field is very high and reduces with increase of the distance. Higher is the environmental electric field, higher would be the potential difference induced across the tissues. This high potential difference disturb the chemical reaction rate and normal functioning of the body and results in many diseases.

If high or low frequency electromagnetic field which are transmitted from the cell phones, penetrate inside the human being, the field can be calculated by solving Maxwell's equations subject to given boundary condition. The intensity of the internal electric fields depends on the parameters of the external fields, the frequency, and polarization, size, and shape, dielectric properties of the exposed body and the presence of other objects in the vicinity. A biological body is an inhomogeneous, lossy dielectric, whose macroscopic electrical properties are described by the complex permittivity.

Because of inhomogeneous behavior of the dielectric properties and the complexity of the shape, the solution and some times even a full formulation of the problem become very difficult. Only much simplified models can be analyzed. The other approach is experimental one, which also has many limitations.

The purpose of this paper is to present a selective account of distribution of electromagnetic field in biological bodies. An electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere means the propagation of electric end magnetic fields oscillating in mutually perpendicular directions and direction of propagation being normal to both of them. This radiation induces an electric field inside the human body. The induced electric field goes on reducing when we go inside the body. The field inside the body can be calculated by some simplifications.

The electric field Eo in air at a distance r from the cell phone (if we consider cell phone as a point source of power 2 Watt) radiating at power P is given by the equation

…………… ……………(1)

where ï„…0 is the permittivity of free space and c the speed of radiation6.

If the electromagnetic waves are radiated from the mobile phone towers of power 2W, the electric field around the towers become

E0=10.946/r ------------------------------------- (2)

Now for the tissue of biological material well inside the boundary, field strength will further reduce due to dissipation during propagation inside the body. Electric field decreases exponentially with distance from the boundary and are given by

-----------------------------------------(3)

Where Ez is the field inside the depth z and E0 is the magnitude of field just inside the boundary. The skin depth δ is the distance over which the field reduces to (= 0.368) of its value just inside the boundary. The skin depth again depends upon frequency of radiation. For biological materials, it is given by

----------------------------------------------(4)

--------------------------- (5)

where -----------------------------------------------(6)

where ω is angular frequency of radiation,  is permittivity, µ is the permeability and  is conductivity of biological material.

3.1 Specific absorption Rate (SAR): The specific absorption rate is defined as the time derivative of the incremental energy (dW) absorbed by or dissipated in an incremental mass (dm) contained in a volume element (dV) of a given density (r). It can be defined as

-----------------------------------------(7)

By using Pointing vector theorem for sinusoidally varying electromagnetic fields. We get

---------------------------------------------(8)

where s is the conductivity of the material, Ei is the field inside that material.

This relation represents the rate at which the electromagnetic energy is converted into heat through well-established interaction mechanisms. It provides a valid quantitative measure of all interaction mechanisms that are dependent on the intensity of the internal electric field. At this point some additional information may be relevant. For instance, some effects of radio waves modulated in amplitude at extremely low frequency (ELF) are dependent on the electric field intensity, once specific interaction mechanisms are better understood, they would be expressed in terms of SAR and modulation characteristics, even though the interaction mechanisms may not necessarily be thermal. However, the direction of electric field with respect to the biological structures should be of more importance for a given interaction mechanism6.

4. Observation:

Table 1 Incident electric field on the human body due to the cell phone hand sets

Distance from cell phone in(cm)

Incident electric field (E0) in (V/m)

1

1094.6

2

547.3

3

364.86

4

273.65

5

218.92

6

182.43

7

156.37

8

136.82

9

121.62

10

109.46

11

99.50

12

91.21

13

84.2

14

78.18

15

72.97

Table 2 Penetrated electric field inside the skin due to the electromagnetic wave of frequency, f=800 MHz

Distance from mobile phone(cm)

Electric field (E0)

(V/m)

Penetrated electric field ( V/m ) in skin at depth, (mm)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1

1094.6

1072.33

1050.52

1029.14

1008.21

987.70

2

547.3

536.16

525.26

505.16

504.10

493.85

3

364.86

357.43

350.16

343.04

336.06

329.22

4

273.65

268.08

262.63

257.28

252.05

246.92

5

218.92

214.46

210.10

205.82

201.64

197.54

6

182.43

178.71

175.08

171.52

168.03

164.61

7

156.37

153.18

150.07

147.01

144.02

141.09

8

136.82

134.03

131.31

128.63

126.02

123.45

9

121.62

119.14

116.72

114.34

112.02

109.74

10

109.46

107.23

105.05

102.91

100.82

98.77

11

99.50

97.47

95.49

93.54

91.64

89.78

12

91.21

89.35

87.53

85.75

84.01

82.30

13

84.20

82.48

80.80

79.16

77.55

75.97

14

78.18

76.58

75.03

73.50

72.01

70.54

15

72.97

71.48

70.03

68.60

67.21

65.84

Table 3 Penetrated electric field inside the skin due to the electromagnetic wave of frequency, f=900 MHz

Distance from cell phone(cm)

Incident electric field (E0)

Penetrated electric field ( V/m ) in skin at depth, (mm)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1

1094.6

1068.25

1042.52

1017.43

992.94

969.03

2

547.3

534.12

521.26

508.71

496.47

484.51

3

364.86

356.07

347.50

339.13

330.97

323.00

4

273.65

267.06

260.63

254.35

248.23

242.25

5

218.92

213.65

208.50

203.48

197.92

193.80

3

182.43

178.03

173.75

169.56

165.48

161.50

7

156.37

152.60

148.93

145.34

141.84

138.43

8

136.82

133.52

130.31

127.17

124.11

121.12

9

121.62

118.69

115.83

113.04

110.32

107.66

10

109.46

106.82

104.25

101.74

99.29

96.90

11

99.50

97.105

94.76

92.48

90.25

88.08

12

91.21

89.01

86.87

84.77

82.73

80.74

13

84.20

82.17

80.19

78.26

76.38

74.54

14

78.18

76.29

74.46

72.66

70.91

69.21

15

72.97

71.21

69.49

67.82

66.19

64.59

Table 4 Penetrated electric field inside the skin due to the electromagnetic wave of frequency, f=1800 MHz

Distance from cell phone(cm)

Incident electric field (E0)

Penetrated electric field ( V/m ) in skin at depth, (mm)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1

1094.6

1027.69

964.88

905.92

850.55

798.57

2

547.3

513.84

482.44

452.96

425.27

399.28

3

364.86

342.55

321.62

301.96

283.51

266.18

4

273.65

256.92

241.22

226.48

212.63

199.64

5

218.92

205.53

192.97

181.18

170.11

159.71

6

182.43

171.27

160.81

150.98

141.75

133.09

7

156.37

146.81

137.84

129.41

121.50

114.08

8

136.82

128.45

120.60

113.23

106.31

99.81

9

121.62

114.18

107.20

100.65

94.50

88.72

10

109.46

102.76

96.48

90.59

85.05

79.85

11

99.50

93.41

87.70

82.34

77.31

72.59

12

91.21

85.63

80.40

75.48

70.87

66.54

13

84.20

79.05

74.22

69.68

65.42

61.42

14

78.18

73.40

68.91

64.70

60.74

57.03

15

72.97

68.51

64.32

60.39

56.70

53.23

Table 5 Penetrated electric field inside the skin due to the electromagnetic wave of frequency, f=2450 MHz

Distance from cell phone(cm)

Incident electric field (E0)

Penetrated electric field ( V/m ) in skin at depth, (mm)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1

1094.6

998.83

912.43

833.05

760.59

694.42

2

547.3

499.69

456.21

416.52

380.29

347.21

3

364.86

333.12

304.13

277.68

253.52

231.47

4

273.65

249.84

228.26

208.26

190.14

173.60

5

218.92

199.87

182.48

166.61

152.11

138.88

6

182.43

166.56

152.06

138.84

126.76

115.73

7

156.37

142.74

130.34

119.00

108.65

99.20

8

136.82

124.91

114.05

104.12

95.07

86.79

9

121.62

111.04

101.37

92.56

84.50

77.15

10

109.46

99.93

91.24

83.30

76.05

69.44

11

99.50

90.84

82.94

75.72

69.13

63.12

12

91.21

83.27

76.03

69.41

63.37

57.86

13

84.20

76.87

70.18

64.08

58.50

53.41

14

78.18

71.37

65.16

59.49

54.32

49.59

15

72.97

66.62

60.82

55.53

50.70

46.29

Table 6 Penetrated electric field inside the blood due to the electromagnetic wave of frequency, f=800 MHz

Distance from cell phone in (cm)

Penetrated electric field ( V/m ) in blood at depth, (mm)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1

1044.77

999.12

951.83

908.50

867.16

2

522.38

498.61

467.21

454.24

433.58

3

348.24

332.39

317.27

302.82

289.04

4

261.19

249.30

237.95

227.12

216.78

5

208.94

199.44

190.35

181.69

173.43

6

174.11

166.19

158.63

151.41

144.52

7

149.24

142.45

135.96

129.77

123.87

8

130.58

124.64

118.96

113.55

108.38

9

116.07

110.79

105.75

100.94

96.34

10

104.47

99.72

95.17

90.84

86.71

11

94.96

90.64

86.51

82.57

78.82

12

87.05

83.08

79.30

75.70

72.25

13

80.36

76.70

73.21

69.88

66.69

14

74.61

71.22

67.97

64.88

61.93

15

69.64

64.47

63.44

60.56

57.80

Table 7 Penetrated electric field inside the blood due to the electromagnetic wave of frequency, f=900 MHz

Distance from cell phone in (cm)

Penetrated electric field ( V/m ) in blood at depth, (mm)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1

1035.89

980.31

927.74

877.97

830.88

2

517.94

490.15

463.86

438.98

415.43

3

353.80

326.76

309.23

292.65

276.95

4

265.36

245.07

231.92

219.48

207.71

5

212.28

196.05

185.54

175.00

166.17

6

176.90

163.38

154.61

146.32

138.47

7

151.63

140.04

132.52

125.41

118.69

8

132.67

122.53

115.95

109.74

103.85

9

117.93

108.91

103.07

97.54

92.31

10

106.14

98.02

92.77

87.79

83.08

11

96.48

89.10

84.32

79.80

75.52

12

88.44

81.68

77.29

73.15

69.22

13

81.64

75.40

71.36

67.53

63.91

14

75.81

70.01

66.25

62.70

59.34

15

70.75

65.34

61.84

58.52

55.38

Table 8 Penetrated electric field inside the blood due to the electromagnetic wave of frequency, f=1800 MHz

Distance from cell phone in (cm)

Penetrated electric field ( V/m ) in blood at depth, (mm)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1

950.23

824.92

716.13

621.70

539.71

2

475.11

412.46

358.06

310.84

269.85

3

316.73

274.96

238.70

207.22

179.89

4

237.55

206.23

179.03

155.41

134.92

5

190.03

164.97

143.22

124.34

107.94

6

158.36

137.48

119.35

103.61

89.94

7

135.74

117.84

102.29

88.80

77.10

8

118.76

103.10

89.50

77.10

67.47

9

105.57

91.65

79.56

69.07

59.96

10

95.01

82.48

71.61

62.16

53.96

11

86.36

74.97

65.09

56.43

49.05

12

79.17

68.73

59.66

51.80

44.97

13

73.09

63.45

55.08

47.81

41.51

14

67.86

58.91

51.14

44.39

38.54

15

63.34

54.99

47.73

41.44

35.97

Table 9 Penetrated electric field inside the blood due to the electromagnetic wave of frequency, f=2450 MHz

Distance from cell phone in (cm)

Penetrated electric field ( V/m ) in blood at depth, (mm)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1

892.59

728.65

594.51

485.06

395.76

2

446.54

364.32

297.25

242.52

197.88

3

297.68

242.87

198.16

161.70

131.91

4

223.26

182.15

148.62

121.26

98.93

5

178.61

145.72

118.90

97.00

79.15

6

148.84

121.43

99.08

80.84

65.95

7

127.55

104.08

84.92

69.29

56.53

8

111.62

91.07

74.30

60.63

49.46

9

99.22

80.95

66.05

53.88

43.96

10

89.30

72.86

59.44

48.50

39.57

11

81.17

66.23

54.03

44.08

35.98

12

74.41

60.71

49.53

40.41

32.98

13

68.69

56.04

45.73

37.30

30.43

14

63.77

52.03

42.45

34.64

28.22

15

59.53

48.57

39.62

32.33

26.38

Table 10 Specific absorption rate (S.A.R.) by blood due to EMW of frequency f=800 MHz

Distance from cell phone (cm)

S.A.R. ( W/kg ) of blood at depth, (mm)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1

10164.89

9296.01

8436.86

7686.19

7002.61

2

2541.17

2315.17

2032.75

1921.46

1750.65

3

1129.32

1028.86

937.388

853.946

777.996

4

635.293

578.770

527.269

480.366

437.622

5

406.541

370.412

337.417

307.414

280.098

6

282.298

257.200

234.332

213.486

194.499

7

207.411

188.967

172.140

156.823

142.827

8

158.787

144.669

131.784

120.070

109.385

9

125.458

114.304

104.141

94.8829

86.4320

10

101.635

92.6032

84.3454

76.8450

70.0164

11

83.9736

76.5070

69.6938

63.4901

57.8541

12

70.5665

64.2768

58.5609

53.3646

48.6113

13

60.1369

54.7838

49.9117

45.4744

41.4174

14

51.8388

47.2351

43.0225

39.1997

35.7160

15

45.1626

38.7058

37.4789

34.1533

31.1112

Table 11 Specific absorption rate (S.A.R.) of blood due to EMW of frequency f=900 MHz

Distance from cell phone (cm)

S.A.R. (W/kg) of blood at depth, (mm)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1

11631.65

10416.96

9329.6795

8355.5206

7483.2589

2

2907.851

2604.187

2332.3193

2088.8325

1870.7246

3

1356.843

1157.369

1036.5193

928.3488

831.4131

4

763.2821

651.0202

583.0295

522.1605

467.6586

5

488.4637

416.6274

373.1550

331.9634

299.3087

6

339.2109

289.3423

259.1130

232.0713

207.8382

7

249.2208

212.5780

190.3605

170.4819

152.7011

8

190.7917

162.7417

145.7322

130.5520

116.9034

9

150.7518

128.5729

115.1539

103.1287

92.3658

10

122.1159

104.1462

93.2887

83.5418

74.8181

11

100.8944

86.0537

77.0682

69.0271

61.8212

12

84.7835

72.3178

64.7531

58.0019

51.9370

13

72.2470

61.6249

55.1980

49.4319

44.2743

14

62.2970

53.1293

47.5757

42.6137

38.1688

15

54.2584

46.2777

41.4527

37.1212

33.2445

Table 12 Specific absorption rate (S.A.R.) of blood due to EMW of frequency f=1800 MHz

Distance from cell phone (cm)

S.A.R. (W/kg) of blood at depth (mm)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1

21737.783

16382.54

12346.43

9305.068

7012.59

2

5434.3315

4103.5847

3086.52

2326.118

1753.08

3

2415.1059

1820.1066

1371.7110

10333.7633

779.0616

4

1358.5256

1023.9092

771.6305

581.4544

438.2384

5

869.3649

655.1907

493.8159

372.2026

280.4933

6

603.7383

455.0266

342.9277

258.4408

194.7437

7

443.5815

334.3052

251.8976

189.8382

143.1088

8

339.5456

255.9028

192.8429

145.3449

109.5920

9

268.3112

202.2193

152.3867

114.8515

86.5527

10

217.3183

163.7778

123.4539

93.0207

70.0973

11

179.5490

135.7235

101.9967

76.6616

57.9209

12

150.8964

113.7235

85.6888

64.5977

48.6859

13

128.6096

96.9217

73.0374

55.0294

41.4823

14

110.8627

83.5479

62.9621

47.4381

35.7586

15

96.5859

72.7989

54.8454

41.3425

31.1487

Table 13 Specific absorption rate (S.A.R.) of blood due to EMW of frequency f=2450 MHz

Distance from cell phone (cm)

S.A.R. ( W/ kg ) of blood at depth (mm)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1

24959.07

16632.68

11072.426

7370.813

4905.686

2

6246.62

4158.057

2768.013

1842.551

1226.671

3

2776.02

1847.873

1230.145

819.114

545.104

4

1561.51

1039.400

691.956

460.637

306.605

5

999.392

665.216

442.882

294.759

196.257

6

694.006

461.430

307.536

204.727

136.255

7

509.665

339.358

225.914

150.406

100.111

8

390.308

259.821

172.942

115.1594

76.635

9

308.406

205.285

136.669

90.9451

60.539

10

249.820

166.304

110.683

73.6898

49.051

11

206.402

137.414

91.452

60.8706

40.555

12

172.732

115.463

76.853

51.1566

34.074

13

147.812

98.3831

65.5129

43.5855

29.008

14

127.396

84.807

56.452

37.5906

24.948

15

111.018

73.902

49.176

32.7443

21.800

5. Results and Discussion:

People keep the mobile phone hand set near their body. If we consider the cell phone hand set as a point source of 2 Watt. It can be considered as the transmission towers which transmit the electric field. This electric field produces an electric blanket around the human body. The incident electric field, transmitted from the mobile phones is calculated by the equation 2 and represented in table 1. Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5 represent the electric field penetrate inside the skin of the body due to the frequency of electromagnetic waves 800, 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz respectively and calculated by the equation 3. After skin, the electromagnetic waves of mobile phones penetrate inside the blood and again calculated by equation 3. The penetrated electric field inside the blood are represented in tables 6, 7, 8 and 9 due to the electromagnetic waves of frequency of 800, 900, 1800 and 2450MHz respectively and calculated by the equation 3.

When the high frequency electromagnetic waves which transmit from the cell phone hand sets propagate from the skin to blood, the energy is absorbed by the tissues of the blood. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the blood tissues are calculated by the equation 8 and given in tables 10, 11, 12 and 13 due to the propagation of electromagnetic wave of frequencies 800, 900, 1800 and 2450MHz respectively.

Because mobile phone generally situated very near to the body of human beings, thus calculations are calculated only 1 to 15 cm from the body. Table 1 represents that the incident electric field transmitted from the cell phone is decreased 93.4% from 1cm to 15cm from the body. Table 2, 3, 4 and 5 reveal that the penetrated electric field is decreased 93.3% in skin due to 800, 900, 1800 and 2450MHz frequency of electromagnetic waves from 1cm to 15cm of cell phone from the body. Table 6 represents that the penetrated electric field decreases 93.54% due to 800MHz frequency of EMW of cell phone from 1cm to 15cm from the body. Table 7 represents that the penetrated electric field decreases 93.17% due to 900MHz frequency of EMW of cell phone from 1cm to 15cm from the body. Table 8 & 9 show that the penetrated electric field is decreased 93.34% due to 1800 and 2450MHz frequency of EMW from 1cm to 15cm from the body.

According to some International agencies as WHO, ICNIRP, the specific absorption rate (SAR) becomes harmful after 1.6 W per kg. of the body weigh. For a person of weigh 75 kg, the safe limit of SAR is 120 W/kg. It means that, if SAR becomes greater to 120 W/kg. it may be harmful for the tissue life of the human body.

6. Conclusion:

From the above analysis, it is concluded that when high frequency electromagnetic waves transmitted from the mobile phone hand sets penetrate inside the body, the electric field is induced inside the skin and blood of the body and the energy are absorbed by the tissues of the blood. When specific absorption rate (SAR) of the blood tissues becomes greater to the safe limit, it becomes harmful for the tissue life. Table 10 & 11 represent that 800 & 900MHz frequency of mobile phones are harmful for the life of the blood tissue till 7 cm from the body up to 0.5 mm depth inside the body and 8 cm distance from the body is harmful till 0.4 mm depth inside the body. Table 12 represents that 1800MHz frequency of mobile phones are harmful for the life of the blood tissue till 7 cm up to 0.5 mm depth inside the body, till 8 cm distance is harmful up to 0.4 mm depth inside the body, till 10 cm distance is harmful up to 0.3 mm depth inside the body, till 11 cm distance is harmful up to 0.2 mm depth inside the body, till 13 cm distance is harmful up to 0.1 mm depth inside the body. Table 13 represents that 2450MHz frequency of mobile phones are harmful for the life of the blood tissue till 6 cm distance is harmful up to 0.5 mm depth inside the body, till 7 cm distance is harmful up to 0.4 mm depth inside the body, till 9 cm distance is harmful up to 0.3 mm depth inside the body, till 11 cm distance is harmful up to 0.2 mm depth inside the body, till 14 cm distance is harmful up to 0.1 mm depth inside the body.

In India 800 & 900 MHz frequencies are used for mobile phones and in other countries 800, 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz frequencies of cell phones are used for the cell phones.

The above analysis represent that, mobile phone hand sets should keep away from our body and the time of the working mobile phone should as low as possible.

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