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The main problems that freshwater habitat are facing include water quality, food supply, human interference and some other factors. The growth of fish depends upon the water quality that should be present in good condition.
Indian major carps have a great market valve due to its taste and flesh.The growth and survival rate of any fish depends upon its nutritious level of diet. The nature provides a diversified food to the fish and on the other hand supplements food also provided to fish with semi intensive culture which gives beneficial results to the fish but this method needs the maintenance of high density of feed than the natural fertility of the water can support (Jhingran, 1991).
The use of probiotics was an old method used since 1970s. In early periods it helped to increase the growth and disease resistance ability of animals (Fuller, 1992) but now a days it also helps to improve the growth and health of human (Sullivan and Nord, 2002 and Senok et al., 2005). There are different studies regarding the use of probiotics out of which some studies have been used in vitro models of specific bacteria that are antagonist of pathogens (Vine et al., 2004, 2006; Wang et al., 2008) while other studies were conducted to show the growth improvement (EL-Haroun et al., 2006; Eid and Mohamed, 2008; Marzouk et al., 2008b) as well as on physiological and immune responses of fish by probiotic supplements (Khattab et al., 2004; Marzouk et al., 2008a). It was reported that the use of probiotics in aquaculture provided many positive effects (Gatesoupe, 2002; Lara-Flores et al., 2003). Due to the use of probiotics the growth rate of fish increases along with the increase in survival rates by enhancing the disease resistance. Mostly Cyprinus carpio shows greater effect of probiotics in terms of increased growth and resistance.
Commercial probiotic "Biogen" consists of B. licheniformis and B. subtilis and due to the presence of these bacteria spores are formed that can tolerate the pelletization process. The use of Biogen enhances the metabolism, energy of fish cells, efficiency of feed utilization and the balance of gland secretion (Abdelhamid et al., 2000). Furthermore the oxygen supply is more due to which the cell becomes stronger, improves the immune responses, helps to excrete heavy metals, inhibits aflatoxin and maintains the normal endocrine system.
The bacterial effects in Biogen helps to increase the appetite, palatability of feed and the secretion of digestive juices also enhances (Mehrim, 2001). Another study showed that the use of probiotic is basic need for the formation of environment friendly aquaculture (Wang et al., 2008). Therefore, the present study will be conducted to determine the effect of different levels of probiotic on growth performance, and body composition of Labeo rohita and Cyprinus carpio.
Literature regarding to the proposed work is reviewed as follows:
Ghosh et al. (2004) studied the effect of lactic acid on the growth parameter of rohu. A supplemented feed of lactic acid was provided to the fingerlings of rohu which has effect on the growth, food conversion and body composition. 0.15 to 0.20% proved to be best level of lactic acid for better growth and feed conversion.
Mehrim (2009) conducted an experiment to determine the effect of Biogen on growth performance, body composition, blood hematological and biochemical parameters, histometric examination of dorsal muscle of fish and economic efficiency of mono sex O. niloticus under different stocking densities. The treatments were seven in numbers, the fish of equal body weight (12.71±0.71) were randomly distributed in such a manner that 10 fish/m3 in T1(controlled) without Biogen, 10 fish/m3 (T2), 20 fish /m3 (T3), 30 fish/m3 (T4), 40 fish/m3 (T5), 50 fish/m3(T6) and 60 fish/m3 (T7) which were fed the basal diet but supplemented with 3g Biogen Kg-1 diet for 14 weeks. At the end of the experiment T4 treatment shows positive effect of growth performance, body composition, biochemical parameters, blood hematological parameters, histometric examination of dorsal muscle and economic efficiency for O. niloticus. While water quality remains unaffected. As a result Biogen level of 3g/Kg diet at stocking density 30 fish/m3 is best for O. niloticus without affecting the natural environment.
Agouz and Anwer (2011) tested a commercial probiotic Biogen against a commercial Mycotoxin binder to check their effects on survival, growth, body composition and hematological pictures of common carp fed a naturally contaminated aquafeed with aflatoxin and ochratoxin. A triplicate 5 group of 150 healthy fingerlings common carp were received naturally ration contaminated with aflatoxin (22 ppb) and ochratoxin (15 ppb) in G-1 control group. The next two group C-2 and G-3 fed with Biogen in the concentration of 0.2 and 0.4% while the G-4 and G -5 contained mycotoxin binder at the concentration of 0.15 and 0.25%. G-2 and G-3 showed significant (Pâ‰¤0.05) reduction in aflatoxin recorded in aquafeeds, while ochratoxin level showed a significant reduction in G-3. There was an improvement in final weight, feed intake, FCR, survival rate, protein efficiency, body composition represented in crude protein and reduction of ether extract and also increase in erythrocyte count, hematocrite and hemoglobin in four groups treated with Biogen and Myco- Ad. It was concluded from the experiment that the concentration of commercial Biogen at the rate of 0.4 and 0.2% proved to be best to Cyprinus carpio fed with mycotoxin contaminated aquafeed, followed by commercial Myco-Ad at a level of 1.25 and 0.15%.
Kadhar et al., 2012 performed a 40 days experiment on two Indian major carps Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla fingerlings to determine the growth performance. The experimental groups were nine having commercial pellet feeding diet with three types of nutritional supplements (Gram positive Lactobacil probiotic, Parry's Spirulina and Vit. C) with the levels of 2, 4 and 8 % with one controlled diet group. The experiment showed that there is increase in length (28.66±0.70 mm), weight gain (353.25 mg), FCR (1.01) and SGR (0.88) of Catla catla with feeding level of 4% probiotic, 4% spirulina and 2% vitamin C. while C. mirigla showed increased in body weight, body length, FCR and SGR with 447.78 mg, 32.55±1.94 mm. 0.80 and 1.11 respectively with similar feeding level of Catla catla. The fingerling of Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigal showed high significance (P<0.01) correlation between lipid concentration with survival rate while FCR strong significant with SGR. Protein levels moderately significant (P<0.05) with FCR.
Noveirian and Nasrollahzadeh (2012) conducted a 60 days experiment to determine the effect of different level of Biogen on growth and body composition of Cyprinus carpio. Seventy two juvenile common carp were distributed in 12 fiberglass tanks having capacity of 500 L. common carp were treated with four level of Biogen 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%. Fish showed a significant increase in growth performance with probiotic than the controlled fed group (P<0.05). 0.3% level showed best results in growth performance and feed efficiency than other levels (P<0.05). While the examination of body composition showed that protein and lipid contents were higher than moisture and ash content with the basal control diet. There were no significant differences (P<0.05) in body composition between the treatments which received the probiotics. Feeding juvenile carp with diets containing Biogen probiotic improves growth performances and feeding efficiency in them; the optimum addition of probiotic is 0.3 g/100g of diet.
Abdulrahman and Muhammd (2012) conducted an experiment to evaluate the effect of different dry yeast level on the growth performance and water parameter in plastic aquaria. During the three months of experiment three levels (3, 5 and 7%) of probiotics are added in nine treatments each in three replicates containing 10 fingerlings of common carp with same size and weight (3.5 gram) in each aquarium. 7% concentration of probiotics showed the increase weight gain, growth rate and growth weight. Water parameter including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH, total dissolve solids (TDS), nitrite (NO2) (mg/l), nitrate (NO3) (mg/l) were determined on monthly basis.