Genetic Mutations Are Caused By Smoke Biology Essay

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Cigarettes is derived from a french word which means small cigars. It is ina small cylindrical shape which contains finely chopped tabacco leaf which rolled in a thin paper for smoking purposes. The cigarettes is ignite at one end and allowed to burn slowly without flame so that its smoke could be inhaled directly or through a speciallly designed device called filter. Most os modern cigarette manufacturing companies manufacture cigarettes with filters and many more additives which is harmful chemicals.

The term cigarette is not only used for tabacco cigarettes but also similar device but containing herbs, colbes of canabis. A cigarette is diferrent from cigar by its size which is smaller compared to cigar. The use of procces leaf and paper wrapping and also the color shows the difference of cigar and cigarette. For cigarettes, the manufacture usually do not use the whole leaf of tabacco per cigarette whereby cigar are typically composed of a whole leaf of tabacco.

5.4 million deaths in 2004 and 100 million deaths over the course of the 20th century is estimated cause of death by tobacco shown by a study by The World Health Organization (WHO). Tabacco is "the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature death worldwide" described by United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Measures has been taken by several countries to control the consumption of tobacco with usage and sales restrictions as well as warning messages printed on packaging.

Genetic mutations are caused by smoke which contains several carcinogenic pyrolytic products that bind to DNA. There are 45 known or suspected chemical carcinogens in cigarette smoke. Nicotine, a highly addictive psychoactive drug is contained in tabacco. When tobacco is smoked, nicotine causes physical and psychological dependency. Miscarriages among pregnant smokers, threats to the health of the fetus, premature births and low birth weight and increases by 1.4 to 3 times the chance for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the significant effects of tabacco.The result of scientific studies shows that neonatal rats seems to indicate that exposure to cigarette smoke in the womb may reduce the fetal brain's ability to recognize hypoxic conditions, which increases the probability of accidental asphyxiation.

A key factor causing erectile dysfunction (ED) is smoking. Incidence of impotence is approximately 85 percent higher in male smokers compared to non-smokers.

Cigarette smoke contains toxic ingredients which travels throughout the body, causing damage in multiple ways.

After smoke is inhaled, it takes 10 seconds before the Nicotine reaches the brain. It is commonly found in every part of the body and in breast milk.

Hemoglobin binds with Carbon monoxide in red blood cells which prevents affected cells from carrying a full load of oxygen.

Important genes are damaged by Cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) which controls the growth of cells. This causes them to to grow abnormally or to reproduce too rapidly.

Cells in the airways and major organs of smokers are binded with carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene.

The function of the immune system is affected by smoking and has a risk of respiratory and other infections.

There are several likely ways that cigarette smoke does its damage. One is oxidative stress that mutates DNA, promotes atherosclerosis, and leads to chronic lung injury. Oxidative stress is thought to be the general mechanism behind the aging process, contributing to the development of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and COPD.

Damages cells are repaired by antioxidants which is produced by the body. The level of antioxidants in the blood of smokers is lower compared to non-smokers.Smokers have lower levels of antioxidants in their blood than do nonsmokers.

Higher levels of chronic inflammation, another damaging process that may result in oxidative stress is commonly ascociated with smoking.

Health effects

Smoking can damage every part of the body

The length of time that a person continues to smoke as well as the amount smoked is directly proportional to a person's increased risk of contracting a disease. However, damage to their body is repaired if someone stops smoking. The risk of damaging the body will decrease gradually. The risk of contracting a heart desease is half of that of a continuing smoker who quits for a year. The health risks of smoking are not uniform across all smokers. The amount of tabacco smoked is directly proportional with the risk to the body. Light cigarette smoking still poses a significant yet low health risk, as does pipe and cigar smoking. Smoking so-called "light" cigarettes does not reduce the risk.

Organ systems such as the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, reproduction system, the eyes and nervous system also will be damages due to the toxic contain smoke. Birthweight abd feotal development also could be affected by the cigarette smoke. It has been proven that concentrated chemical smoke produce has the 70% of risk of getting cancer.


The primary risks of tobacco usage include many forms of cancer, particularly lung cancer, kidney cancer, cancer of the larynx and head and neck, breast cancer, bladder cancer, cancer of the esophagus, cancer of the pancreas and stomach cancer. Evidence suggests a small increased risk of myeloid leukaemia, squamous cell sinonasal cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, cancers of the gallbladder, the adrenal gland, and the small intestine.Recent studies have shown a stronger relationship between tobacco smoke, including secondhand smoke, and cervical cancer in women.The risk of dying from lung cancer before age 85 is 22.1% for a male smoker and 11.9% for a female smoker, in the absence of competing causes of death. 1.1% probability of dying from lung cancer before age 85 for a man of European descent 0.8% probability for a woman is the probability of non-smokers.


The longer a person is exposed to the chemical contain smoke such as carbon monoxide and cyanide from the cigarette will lead to pulmonary damage and loss of elasticity in the alveoli. It also can contribute to emphysema an chronic abstractive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a permanent effect which causes shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing with sputum and also can damage the lungs.


Smoking also can cause chronic heart disease such as heart disease, stroke, atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular disease. The chemical compound that contains the tobacco leaf can lead to blood vessel which will form blockage and thus a heart attack or stroke. According to a research done by an International Researching Team, it is proven that people of mid 30s are exposed to more than 40% of risk of getting heart attack if they smoke. Cigarettes also have the ability to cause Buerger's disease, which leads to inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of arteries and veins of the hands and feet.

Passive Smoker

Research has shown that passive smokers are also having risk of getting disease that caused by cigarette. Although the impact of a passive smoker is low than the mainstream smoker, but it also have to be considered as dangerous hazard for humans. There is no general or accurate way to calculate the amount of chemical concentration inhaled by the passive smoke without taking in amount of few variables such as the amount of time spent with the mainstream smoker, specific room size and the air flow in and out of the room. By taking in consideration of those variables, we can assume that if a passive smoker have 200% to 300% risk of getting disease that caused by the cigarette smoke.

Chemical Compound

Cigarette smoke comprises a highly complex chemical mixture of non-specific products of organic material combustion, (such as acetaldehyde and formaldehyde) and chemicals that are specific to the combustion of tobacco and other components of the cigarette (e.g. tobacco- specific nitrosamines). For most of the compounds and substances added to tobacco, little is known of their combustion chemistry. This creates difficulties in determining the relationship between chemicals in tobacco and chemicals actually inhaled in the smoke

It is proven that there is approximately 4000 types of chemical are found in cigarettes but theoretically only 599 of them were approved by the goverment as ingredient of cigarettes making.In this case changes in chemical contain occur due to bruning.It is because heat that formed from the bruning causes the chemical substances to change its state and form a new chemical compound.

Cigarette Addictives

DDT -Is a banned insecticide.

Acetone - A chemical that used in making of nail polish remover.

Butane - Is used as ignition fluid in lightes.

Cyanide - A very harmfull and deadly poison.

Ammonia - A chemical used to clean house dirt and fertilizer. It create a very stronge pungent gas which causes the formation of powerfull smell

Benzene - Used in production of synthetic rubber and also dye.

Arsenic - A very dangerous poison used for killing rats.

Formaldehyde -Used by drug addicts to get high.

Naphthalene - Used as ingredients for mothball making.

Nicotine - A chemical used as a poison once a upon time and still used as insectides to kill roaches.


Cigarette smoke contains numerous known or suspected human carcinogens. The International

Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has listed 36 chemicals that are "known to cause

cancer" in humans. At least 10 of these 36 compounds, plus many more mutagenic chemicals that are in the "probably carcinogenic" are found in cigarette smoke. Accordingly, cigarette smoke is in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's.


"Tar" is defined as the nicotine-free, dry, particulate mass of tobacco smoke. The particulate fraction of cigarette smoke contains many harmful carcinogenic constituents, including metals, PAHs, dioxins, and some non-volatile nitrosamines. The nature of the chemical components in tar and their toxicity vary widely across tobacco from various sources.

Smoking machine is used to measure Tar levels of cigarette brands. Results of such testing are often published with the implication that the relative tar levels provide a measure of relative toxicity of the particular tobacco product. On the basis of these results cigarette brands have sometimes been classified as, for example, "high", "medium", and "low" yield cigarettes. The first tests on cigarettes sold in B.C. showed that under the "realistic smoking condition", there is very little difference between 'light' and 'regular' cigarettes. Light cigarettes can even produce higher amounts of nicotine and carbon monoxide than the regular cigarettes tested in some cases.


As a part of the tar there are many more chemical are found in gaseous phase in the cigarette smoke.The percentage of chemicals in cigarettes does not depends on the amout of the tar produced in the somke.Although there a various types of harmful gasses are found in cigarette smoke,it has proven that the Carbon Monoxide(CO) gas has the highest percentage. Experimently result shows that a very high concentration of Carbon Monoxide gas is produced in the cigarette smoke.This poisonous gas can produce carboxyhaemoglobin which is stable chemical that formed by combination of heamoglobin and Carbon Monoxide.If the concentration of this carboxyhaemoglobin is more or equal to 2% it can cause angin pain for people whom suffering from heart diesea and can lead to cardiac ischaema and reduce the blood flow to the heart. Some other important chemicals in tobacco smoke, such as benzene, are also found in the gaseous phase of the smoke, but are correlated with the amount of tar

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) compounds are formed through combustion of any

organic material. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is the most commonly studied and one of the most

commonly found compounds. The cancer risks associated with PAH exposures in chemical risk assessments are typically normalised to that of BaP. A detailed analysis of BaP levels in Canadian cigarettes showed average levels of 17 ng/cigarette mainstream smoke, but ultra and extra low tar yield brands had a mean value of about half this value under standard smoking conditions .